GSI3D

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GSI3D software interface

GSI3D (Geological Surveying and Investigation in 3 dimensions) is a methodology and associated software tool for 3D geologic modeling developed by Hans-Georg Sobisch (INSIGHT Geologische Softwaresysteme, Germany) over the last 20 years initially in collaboration with the Geological Survey of Lower Saxony (LBEG) and the Oldenburg-Ostfriesland Waterboard (OOWV) in Germany and from 2006-2010 in collaboration with the British Geological Survey. GSI3D has been further developed and is now solely available as INSIGHT's SubsurfaceViewer MX. The software is written in Java and data is stored in extensible mark-up language XML.

A brief outline of the methodology[edit]

GSI3D utilises a digital elevation model, surface geological linework and downhole borehole and geophysical data to enable the geologist to construct cross sections by correlating boreholes and the outcrops to produce a geological fence diagram. Mathematical interpolation between the nodes along the drawn sections and the limits of the units produces a solid model comprising a stack of triangulated objects each corresponding to one of the geological units present. Scientists draw their sections based on facts such as borehole logs correlated by intuition - the shape 'looks right' to a geologist. This 'looks right' element pulls on the geologists' wealth of understanding of earth processes, examination of exposures and theoretical knowledge gathered over a career in geology. GSI3D enables the efficient capture of tacit and implicit knowledge which was until now trapped in geologist's heads. The British Geological Survey is continuing to use GSI3D to develop an increased understanding of the subsurface, please see our webpage http://www.bgs.ac.uk/services/3Dgeology/

References[edit]

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  • Michael, S.; Baumberger, R. & Oesterling, N. 2011. Geological 3D modelling of Quaternary sequences using GSI3D – an example of the surroundings of Berne. Presentation at 9th Swiss Geoscience Meeting, Zurich 2011. http://geoscience-meeting.scnatweb.ch/sgm2011/PPT_Session_15_SGM2011/10_Michael_etal.pdf
  • de Beer, J.; Price, S. J. &Ford, J.R. 2011. 3D modelling of geological and anthropogenic deposits at the World Heritage Site of Bryggen in Bergen, Norway. Quaternary International. Volume 251, 15 February 2012, Pages 107-116. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S104061821100334X
  • Berg, R.C.; Mathers, S.J.; Kessler, H. & D. A. Keeefer (eds.). 2011. Synopsis of Current Three-dimensional Geological Mapping and Modeling in Geological Survey Organizations. Illinois State Geological Survey Circular 578. http://library.isgs.uiuc.edu/Pubs/pdfs/circulars/c578.pdf
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  • Nelson, C. E., Jerram, D. A., & R.W. Hobbs, Terrington, R. & H. Kessler. 2011. Reconstructing flood basalt lava flows in three dimensions using terrestrial laser scanning. Geosphere, February 2011, v. 7, p. 87-96. http://geosphere.gsapubs.org/content/7/1/87; http://dx.doi.org/10.1130/GES00582.1
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  • Ford, J. R., Mathers, S. J., Royse, K. R., Aldiss, D. T. & D. J. R. Morgan. 2010. Geological 3D modelling: scientific discovery and enhanced understanding of the subsurface, with examples from the UK. Zeitschrift der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Geowissenschaften, Volume 161, Number 2, June 2010, pp. 205–218 (14), Stuttgart. http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/schweiz/zdgg/2010/00000161/00000002/art00009
  • Price, S. J., Burke, H. F., Terrington, R. L., Reeves, H., Boon, D & A. Scheib. 2010. The 3D characterisation of the zone of human interaction and the sustainable use of underground space in urban and peri-urban environments: case studies from the UK. Zeitschrift der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Geowissenschaften, Volume 161, Number 2, June 2010, pp. 219–235 (17), Stuttgart. http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/schweiz/zdgg/2010/00000161/00000002/art00010;jsessionid=56225t47lmptr.alexandra
  • Royse, K.R., Kessler, H., Robins, N.S., Hughes, A.G., & S. J. Mathers. 2010. The use of 3D geological models in the development of the conceptual groundwater model. Zeitschrift der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Geowissenschaften, Volume 161, Number 2, June 2010, pp. 237–249 (13), Stuttgart. http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/schweiz/zdgg/2010/00000161/00000002/art00011
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  • Kessler, H. Terrington R., Sobisch, H-G., Gunnink, J., Ludwig, R., Harms, E., Turner, K., & R. Moore. 2010. The need for improved management of the subsurface. [Extended Abstract] First International Conference on Frontiers in Shallow Subsurface Technology, Delft January 2010. http://nora.nerc.ac.uk/9258/
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  • Farrell, R., Whiteman, M. & H. Kessler. 2009. Geological and Hydrogeological Models in the Environment Agency [Poster]. Portland GSA Annual Meeting October 2009. https://gsa.confex.com/gsa/2009AM/finalprogram/abstract_163777.htm
  • Kessler, H., Campbell, D., Ford, J.R., Giles, J.R.A., Hughes, A.G., Jackson, I., Peach, D.W., Price, S.J., Sobisch, H-G., Terrington, R.L., and B. Wood. 2009. Building on geological models: the vision of an environmental modelling platform: In: Three-dimensional geological mapping : workshop extended abstracts : 2009 Annual Meeting : Geological Society of America: Portland, Oregon, Illinois State Geological Survey, p. 24-30. http://nora.nerc.ac.uk/8423/1/BUILDING_ON_GEOLOGICAL_MODELS_final.pdf
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  • Ford, J.R., Price, S.J., Cooper, A.H. & H. Kessler. 2009. The enhanced classification of artificial ground as a tool to investigate and represent anthropogenic processes in the recent geological record. [Poster] In: UK Archaeological Sciences Biennial Conference (UKAS), Nottingham, UK, 8-10 Sept 2009. Nottingham, UK, British Geological Survey. http://nora.nerc.ac.uk/8629/
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  • Boon, D., Kessler, H., Raines, M., Kuras, O., Auton, C., Williams, J., Nice, S., Pearson, S., Weller, A. & S. Arkley. 2008. Modelling Scottish peat stratigraphy using integrated electrical geophysics. [Lecture] In: Reinforced Water : Engineering And Environmental Considerations In Construction Over Peat, Edinburgh, Scotland, 11 March 2008. http://nora.nerc.ac.uk/4830/1/ModellingScottishPeatAbstact_Final.pdf
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  • Turner, A. K., Price, S., Kessler, H., & M. Culshaw. 2008. Creating 3D Geological Subsurface Models for Urban Areas. GSA Houston Annual Meeting. http://gsa.confex.com/gsa/2008AM/finalprogram/abstract_146137.htm
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  • Ford, J., Burke, H., Royse, K. & S.J. Mathers. 2008. The 3D geology of London and the Thames Gateway : a modern approach to geological surveying and its relevance in the urban environment. In: Cities and their underground environment : 2nd European conference of International Association of engineering geology: Euroengeo 2008, Madrid, Spain, 15-20 Sept 2008. http://nora.nerc.ac.uk/3717/1/FORT3D.pdf
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  • Kessler, H., Mathers, S., Napier, B., Terrington, R. & Sobisch, H.-G. 2007. The present and future construction and delivery of 3D geological models at the British Geological Survey. GSA Denver Annual Meeting. [Poster]. http://nora.nerc.ac.uk/3756/1/Present_future_3Dmodels_(3).pdf
  • Cooper, A., Ford, J., Price, S., Hall, M., Burke, H., & Kessler, H. 2007. The digital approach to understanding the Quaternary evolution of the Vale of York, UK. [Poster] Nottingham, UK, British Geological Survey. http://nora.nerc.ac.uk/4077/1/Vale_of_York_(5).pdf
  • Wycisk, P., Gossel, W., Schlesier, D. & Neumann, C. 2007. Integrated 3D modelling of subsurface geology and hydrogeology for urban groundwater management. International Symposium on New Directions in Urban Water Management. http://www2.gtz.de/Dokumente/oe44/ecosan/en-modelling-urban-groundwater-managment-2007.pdf
  • Scheib A. J., Ambrose K., Boon D. P., Kessler H., Kuras O., Lelliott M., Nice S. E., Palmer R. C., Raines M. G., Smith B. 2007. 3D Digital Soil-Geology Models of the Near Surface Environment; Abstract for Pedometrics Biannual Conference of Commission 1.5 Pedometrics, International Union of Soil Sciences, Germany. p85. https://biblio.ugent.be/input?func=downloadFile&fileOId=460189. Poster: http://nora.nerc.ac.uk/4128/1/Soils.pdf
  • Kessler, H., Mathers, S., Lelliott, M., Hughes, A. & MacDonald, D. 2007. Rigorous 3D geological models as the basis for groundwater modelling. In: Three-dimensional geologic mapping for groundwater applications, Workshop extended abstracts, Denver, Colorado. http://nora.nerc.ac.uk/4129/1/kessler.pdf http://www.isgs.uiuc.edu/research/3DWorkshop/2007/powerp/kessler.ppt
  • Smith, B., Campbell, S., Fordyce, F., Kessler, H., Price, S., Entwisle, D. & K. Royse. 2007. Understanding heterogeneity and structure in urban environments: a tool for the assessment of risk and interpretation of geochemical data. British Geological Survey [Poster]http://nora.nerc.ac.uk/849/1/heterogeneity.pdf
  • Merritt, J.E., Monaghan, A., Entwisle, D., Hughes, A., Campbell, D. & Browne, M. 2007. 3D attributed models for addressing environmental and engineering geoscience problems in areas of urban regeneration – a case study in Glasgow, UK. In: First Break, Special Topic Environmental and Engineering Geoscience, Volume 25, August 2007. pp 79–84. http://www.firstbreak.org/files/special_3d_aug2007.pdf?HPSESSID=110b2385a454ad1ee6dbdf13a2c6ed5b на русском языке: http://www.firstbreak.nl/files/special_3D_rusaug2007.pdf?HPSESSID=f17310cfceb26d294ecc2392bda7123c
  • Kessler, H. & S. Mathers. 2007 Digital 3D geological models : the geological maps of the future. Suffolk Natural History, 43. 2-6. http://nora.nerc.ac.uk/7118/, http://www.suffolkbrc.org.uk/public_html/sites/default/files/43/TSNS43B.pdf
  • Merritt, J.E. & Whitbread, K. 2007. Combining ARC GIS maps and attributed 3D geological models to provide geoscience solutions in the urban environment: Examples from the City of Glasgow and North-east England. In: Coors, V, Rumor, M, Fendle, E.M, & Zlatanova S (eds). 2007. Urban and Regional Data Management. UDMS Annual (Taylor & Francis Group, London). pp 185–192. http://books.google.com/books?id=BB9JnLCBzecC&pg=PA190&lpg=PA190&dq=gsi3d&source=bl&ots=KUhcSM8-Bm&sig=EI5vcn57aT3fcxRlWYKIWCBR0qg&hl=en&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=4&ct=result#PPR6,M1
  • Giles, J. 2006. Geological Map Database – A Practitioner’s Guide to Delivering the Information. In: David R. Soller (ed.) Digital Mapping Techniques ‘06 - Workshop Proceedings. USGS Open-File Report 2007-1285. pp 77–84. http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2007/1285/pdf/Giles.pdf http://ngmdb.usgs.gov/Info/dmt/docs/giles06.pdf (presentation)
  • Kessler H. 2006. Tools for building and delivering 3D models - Perspectives by the BGS. Presentation at the GGIPAC Workshop, Geoscience Australia, Canberra. http://www.geoscience.gov.au/pdf/G_Holger_Kessler.pdf
  • Kessler H. & S.J. Mathers. 2006. The past, present and future of 3D Geology in BGS In: Open University Geological Society Journal, Volume 27(2), 13-15. http://nora.nerc.ac.uk/5193/1/OU_paper_3D-Geology.pdf
  • Merritt, J., Entwisle, D. & A. Monaghan. 2006. Integrated geoscience data, maps and 3D models for the City of Glasgow, UK. IAEG 2006 Conference Paper No. 394. http://www.iaeg.info/iaeg2006/PAPERS/IAEG_394.PDF
  • Royse, K., Entwisle, D., Price, S., Terrington, R. & J. Venus. 2006. Gateway to Olympic success. Geoscientist, 16 (5). 4-10. http://nora.nerc.ac.uk/219/
  • Bridge, D.M., Seymour, K., Kessler, H., Shepley, M., Price, S. J., Lelliott, M., Banks, V.J. & G. Wildman. 2006. 3-D geoscience models and their application to hydrogeological domains mapping. In: The pursuit of science : building on a foundation of discovery, Philadelphia, USA, 22-25 Oct 2006.
  • Neighbor, A., Aubel, J., Classon, F., Hoefer, S., Kunz, A. & Sobisch H.-G. 2006. From the Devonian to the present: Landscape and technogenic relief evolution in an urban environment. IAEG 2006 Conference Paper No. 517. http://www.iaeg.info/iaeg2006/PAPERS/IAEG_517.PDF
  • Perk, M. 2006. Feld-Kalibrierung geophysikalischer Daten auf kontaminierten Flächen mit Hilfe des GIS-gestützten Visualisierungswerkzeugs GSI3D. Dissertation http://kups.ub.uni-koeln.de/frontdoor.php?source_opus=2124
  • Lelliott, M.R., Bridge D.McC, Kessler, H., Price S.J., Seymour, K.J. 2006. The application of 3D geological modelling to aquifer recharge assessments in an urban environment. Quarterly Journal of Engineering Geology and Hydrogeology, 39, 293–302. http://qjegh.lyellcollection.org/cgi/content/abstract/39/3/293
  • Neighbor, A., Classon, F. & Howahr, M. 2006. Construction and usage of geological near-surface models with GSI3D - applied (hydro-)geological information for land sites and urban areas. Austrian Journal of Earth Sciences, 99, 62-69. http://www.univie.ac.at/ajes/download/volume_99/
  • Neighbor, A. & Howahr, M. 2006. Construction and Usage of geological near-surface models with GSI3D - applied (hydro-)geological information for land sites and urban areas. COG 2006, Salzburg, Austria. http://www.geol-ges.at/cog-2006/kurzfassung-neber-howahr.pdf
  • Classon, F., Brunotte, E., Sobisch, H.-G. & Neighbor, A. 2005. Zur dreidimensionalen Modellierung von anthropogenen Ablagerungen in urbanen Räumen am Beispiel des rechtsrheinischen Köln. Geotechnik 2005/2, 93-100.
  • Culshaw, M.G. 2005. From concept towards reality: developing the attributed 3D geological model of the shallow subsurface. Quarterly Journal of Engineering Geology and Hydrogeology, 38, 231-284.
  • Kessler, H. et al. 2005. 3D geoscience models and their delivery to customers. In: Three dimensional geologic mapping for groundwater applications, Workshop extended abstracts, Salt Lake City, Utah, 15 October 2005. Geological Survey of Canada, 2005. p. 39-42. http://crystal.isgs.uiuc.edu/research/3DWorkshop/2005/pdf-files/kessler2005.pdf, http://www.isgs.uiuc.edu/research/3DWorkshop/2005/pdf-files/kessler_15_10_2005-ppt.pdf
  • Riddick, A., Laxton, J., Cave, M., Wood, B., Duffy, T., Bell, P., Evans, C.J., Howard, A., Armstrong, B., Kirby, G., Monaghan, A., Ritchie, C., Jones, D., Napier, B., Jones, N., Millward, D., Clarke, S., Leslie, G., Mathers, S., Royse, K., Kessler, H., Newell, A., Dumpleton, S., Loudon, V. & J. Aspden. 2005. Digital geoscience spatial model project final report. Keyworth, British Geological Survey, 56pp. (BGS Occasional Publication No. 9) http://nora.nerc.ac.uk/2366/1/DGSM_Final.pdf
  • Weber, B. & K.G. Hinzen. 2004. Influence of the local geology on amplitude, duration and frequency of the earthquake ground motion in the Lower Rhine Ambayment. Poster presented at the annual meeting of the Arbeitsgruppe Seismologie, Bochum, 27.- 29.9.2004. http://www.geosum3d.de/cms/Poster_AGSeismo_2004.pdf
  • Kessler, H. & S.J. Mathers. 2004. From geological maps to models – finally capturing the geologists’ vision. Geoscientist, 14/10, pp. 4–6. http://nora.nerc.ac.uk/983/1/Map_to_model_article.pdf
  • Kessler, H., Mathers, S.J & H.-G. Sobisch. 2004. GSI3D - The software and methodology to build near-surface 3-D geological models. British Geological Survey (IR/04/029), 96pp.
  • Hough, E., Kessler, H., Lelliott, M., Price, S., Reeves, H. & D. Bridge. 2003. Look before you leap. In: Moore, H. M., Fox, H. R. & S. Elliott (editors). Land reclamation: Extending the boundaries. pp. 369–375.
  • Bridge, D., Hough, E., Kessler, H., Price, S. & H. Reeves. 2003. Urban Geology: Integrating Surface and Sub-Surface Geoscientific Information for Development Needs. In: NATO Science Series IV: Earth and Environmental Sciences. Stanisław R. Ostaficzuk: The Current Role of Geological Mapping in Geosciences. Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Innovative Applications of GIS in Geological Cartography Kazimierz Dolny, Poland 24–26 November 2003. http://www.springerlink.com/content/l186w2713238206r
  • Ellison, R.A., McMillan, A.A., Lott, G.K., Kessler, H. & R.S. Lawley. 2002. Ground characterisation of the urban environment: a guide to best practice. Urban Geoscience and Geological Hazards Programme. Keyworth, British Geological Survey Research Report (RR/02/2005), 37pp. http://nora.nerc.ac.uk/2365/1/groundchar.pdf
  • Sobisch, H.-G. 2000. Ein digitales raeumliches Modell des Quartaers der GK25 Blatt 3508 Nordhorn auf der Basis vernetzter Profilschnitte. Shaker Verlag, Aachen.
  • Hinze, C., Sobisch, H.-G. & Voss, H-H. 1999. Spatial modelling in Geology and its practical Use. Mathematische Geologie, 4, pp. 51–60. http://www.cp-v.de/mg/mgvn4.htm

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