GWR 1000 Class
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|GWR 1000 “County” class|
1026 'County of Salop' at Shrewsbury railway station 1957
|Type and origin|
|Builder||GWR Swindon Works|
|Order number||Lots 354, 358|
|Build date||August 1945 – April 1947|
|UIC classification||2'C h2|
|Gauge||4 ft 8 1⁄2 in (1,435 mm)|
|3 ft 0 in (914 mm)|
|Driver diameter||6 ft 3 in (1,905 mm)|
|Minimum curve||8 chains (530 ft; 160 m) normal, 7 chains (460 ft; 140 m) slow|
|Length||63 ft 0 1⁄4 in (19.21 m)|
|Width||8 ft 11 1⁄8 in (2.72 m)|
|Height||13 ft 5 in (4.09 m)|
|Axle load||19 long tons 14 cwt (44,100 lb or 20 t) full|
|Weight on drivers||59 long tons 2 cwt (132,400 lb or 60 t) full|
|Locomotive weight||76 long tons 17 cwt (172,100 lb or 78.1 t) full|
|Tender weight||49 long tons 0 cwt (109,800 lb or 49.8 t) full|
|Fuel capacity||7 long tons 0 cwt (15,700 lb or 7.1 t)|
|Water capacity||4,000 imp gal (18,000 l; 4,800 US gal)|
|Boiler||GWR type 15|
|Boiler pressure||280 psi (1.93 MPa) later reduced to 250 psi (1.72 MPa)|
|Firegrate area||28.84 sq ft (2.679 m2)|
– Tubes and flues
|1,545.0 sq ft (143.54 m2)|
|– Firebox||169.0 sq ft (15.70 m2)|
|Superheater area||254.0 sq ft (23.60 m2)|
|Cylinder size||18.5 in × 30 in (470 mm × 762 mm)|
|Valve type||Piston valves|
|Tractive effort||32,580 lbf (144.92 kN)|
|Operator(s)||Great Western Railway
|Power class||GWR: D
|Axle load class||GWR: Red|
|Retired||September 1962 – November 1964|
The Great Western Railway 1000 Class or County Class was a class of 4-6-0 steam locomotive. Thirty were built between 1945 and 1947, but all were withdrawn and scrapped in the early 1960s. A replica locomotive is under construction.
These locomotives were the result of a development project by the Chief Mechanical Engineer Frederick W. Hawksworth. He was working on a design for a new 4-6-2 (Pacific) express locomotive for the Great Western, and the County Class was a testbed for a number of the ideas he wanted to incorporate into the Pacific. There was talk of them at one point having outside Walschaerts valve gear which would have been a major break from traditional GWR designs. In the event the favoured inside Stephenson link motion of the GWR was used, but the GWR 1500 Class, also designed by Hawksworth, used outside Walschaerts – the only locomotive designed by the GWR to do so.
Innovations included double chimneys on certain members (the only GWR class ever to have double chimneys fitted by the GWR) and a high boiler pressure of 280psi (though this was later lowered in an attempt to reduce maintenance costs). Modified double chimneys were fitted to all the class from 1956. They also pulled Hawksworth slab-sided tenders, as fitted to some of his modified Halls and retro-fitted to many earlier designs; however the County tenders had a water tank six inches wider than the tenders built for the Halls and earlier designs.
The running gear of the County was almost exactly the same as Hawksworth's earlier Modified Hall Class. The boiler however was a development that used the tooling for the LMS Stanier Class 8F boiler, Hawksworth being able to study this design closely when 8Fs were being built at Swindon as part of the war effort.
The Counties were a successful, free steaming design, well suited to express or freight work and a fitting finale to GW two-cylinder 4-6-0 development. Unfortunately in the immediate post-war period when the Government-run Railway Executive controlled Britain's railways Hawksworth was not allowed to build his Pacific, as there was no need for further express passenger locomotives. Hawksworth was forever bitter about this, as in the darkest days of World War II the Executive had given the Southern Railway permission to build its Merchant Navy Class Pacific as Oliver Bulleid, the designer, had claimed that they were to be for mixed traffic work.
After the nationalisation of Britain's railways in 1948 all 30 Counties continued to do useful work throughout the Western Region of British Railways, working with Castles on expresses to and from Paddington as well as more menial freight and parcels tasks. BR gave the Counties the power classification 6MT.
Although not as popular as Castles or Kings amongst GW enthusiasts, they were very easy to identify because of their unique full-length splasher over the wheels (rather than having a separate splasher for each wheel). These were a feature unique to the Counties. Hawksworth no doubt got the idea from the streamlining experiments on a Castle and a King in the 1930s which carried similar splashers.
The locomotives were given names from an extinct class of 4-4-0 tender locomotive that were part of George Jackson Churchward's locomotive standardisation programme in the early days of the 20th century:
|1000||County of Middlesex||August 1945||July 1964||Cashmore, Newport|
|1001||County of Buckingham||September 1945||May 1963||Cashmore, Newport|
|1002||County of Berks||September 1945||September 1963||Ward, Sheffield|
|1003||County of Wilts||October 1945||October 1962||Cashmore, Newport|
|1004||County of Somerset||October 1945||September 1962||Cashmore, Newport|
|1005||County of Devon||November 1945||June 1963||Cashmore, Newport|
|1006||County of Cornwall||November 1945||September 1963||Cooper, Sharpness||Chimney donated to replica 1014 County of Glamorgan project|
|1007||County of Brecknock||December 1945||October 1962||King, Norwich|
|1008||County of Cardigan||December 1945||October 1963||Cashmore, Newport|
|1009||County of Carmarthen||December 1945||February 1963||Swindon Works|
|1010||County of Caernarvon||January 1946||July 1964||Cashmore, Newport||Name originally spelled
County of Carnarvon
|1011||County of Chester||January 1946||November 1964||Cashmore, Newport|
|1012||County of Denbigh||February 1946||April 1964||Cashmore, Newport|
|1013||County of Dorset||February 1946||July 1964||Cashmore, Newport|
|1014||County of Glamorgan||February 1946||April 1964||Cashmore, Newport||Replica under construction|
|1015||County of Gloucester||March 1946||December 1962||Cashmore, Newport|
|1016||County of Hants||March 1946||September 1963||Ward, Sheffield|
|1017||County of Hereford||March 1946||December 1962||Ward, Sheffield|
|1018||County of Leicester||March 1946||September 1962||King, Norwich|
|1019||County of Merioneth||April 1946||February 1963||Cashmore, Great Bridge|
|1020||County of Monmouth||December 1946||February 1964||Hayes, Bridgend|
|1021||County of Montgomery||December 1946||November 1963||Hayes, Bridgend|
|1022||County of Northampton||December 1946||October 1962||Ward, Sheffield|
|1023||County of Oxford||January 1947||March 1963||Swindon Works|
|1024||County of Pembroke||January 1947||April 1964||Swindon Works|
|1025||County of Radnor||January 1947||February 1963||Cashmore, Great Bridge|
|1026||County of Salop||January 1947||September 1962||Ward, Sheffield|
|1027||County of Stafford||March 1947||October 1963||Cooper, Sharpness|
|1028||County of Warwick||March 1947||December 1963||Birds, Risca|
|1029||County of Worcester||April 1947||December 1962||Cashmore, Newport|
All the counties in this list were served, though in some cases indirectly, by the GWR.
None of the original locomotives survived. However a replica is being built at the Didcot Railway Centre, home of the Great Western Society. When completed it will take the name and number of No. 1014 County of Glamorgan in recognition of the late Dai Woodham's Barry Scrapyard in Glamorganshire from which many withdrawn steam locomotives were saved for preservation. Also Glamorganshire County Council donated the frames and boiler for the project.
The replica is based around the frames from Modified Hall Class 7927 Willington Hall and the boiler from LMS Stanier 8F 48518. The boiler from the Hall will be used in the replica Grange project at the Llangollen Railway. It will also have a number of smaller original parts off scrapped County locomotives including the chimney from 1006 County of Cornwall.
- le Fleming, H.M. (November 1960) . White, D.E., ed. Part 8: Modern Passenger Classes. The Locomotives of the Great Western Railway (2nd ed.). Kenilworth: RCTS. ISBN 0-901115-19-3.
- Whitehurst, Brian (1973). Great Western engines, names, numbers, types, classes: 1940 to preservation. Oxford: Oxford Publishing Company. pp. 16, 103, 124. ISBN 0-902888-21-8. OCLC 815661.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to GWR 1000 Class.|
- 1000 'County' class
- GWR Class 1000 4-6-0 County
- Details of County to be built at Didcot Railway Centre