GWR 378 Class

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GWR 378 Class 2-2-2
Specifications
Power type Steam
Designer Joseph Armstrong
Builder GWR, Swindon Works
Order number 1st Lot Pass; Lot 19
Serial number 69–78; 175–194
Build date 1866; 1869
Total produced 30
Configuration 2-2-2
Gauge 4 ft 8 12 in (1,435 mm)
Leading wheel
diameter
4 ft 0 in (1,220 mm)
Driver diameter 7 ft 0 in (2,130 mm)
Trailing wheel
diameter
4 ft 0 in (1,220 mm)
Wheelbase 16 ft 0 in (4,880 mm)
Weight on drivers 13 tons 1 cwt (29,200 lb or 13.2 t)
Locomotive weight 29 tons 13 cwt (66,400 lb or 30.1 t)
Fuel type Coal
Boiler pressure 140 psi (970 kPa)
Firegrate area 16.6 sq ft (1.54 m2)
Heating surface:
– Total
1,203 sq ft (111.8 m2)
Cylinders Two, inside
Cylinder size 17 in × 24 in (430 mm × 610 mm)
Tractive effort 9,624 lbf (42.81 kN)
Career
Railroad(s) Great Western Railway
Number in class 30
Number 378–387; 471–480; 577–586
Official name 378 Class
Nicknames Sir Daniel
Withdrawn 1898–1904
Disposition 7 scrapped;
23 rebuilt as 0-6-0

The GWR 378 Class (also known as the Sir Daniel Class) was a class of 30 standard-gauge 2-2-2 steam locomotives on the Great Western Railway in Britain. They were introduced in 1866, and the class remained intact until 1898. Several were altered to the 0-6-0 wheel arrangement, and the last was withdrawn from service in 1920.

History[edit]

Joseph Armstrong designed a class of 2-2-2 standard-gauge passenger locomotives, ten of which were built in 1866 at the Swindon Works of the Great Western Railway (GWR).[1] They were the first standard-gauge passenger tender locomotives to be built at Swindon.[2] In 1869, a further 20 were built, also at Swindon,[1] which differed little from the first 10, although the safety-valve covers were of different shape.[2]

The locomotives were built as follows:[3]

Dates built Swindon order[note 1] Works nos. Quantity GWR numbers
September–October 1866 1st Lot Passenger 69–78 10 378–387
June 1869 19th Lot 175–177 3 471–3
June–August 1869 19th Lot 178–187 10 1112–21 (later 577–586)
August–September 1869 19th Lot 188–190 7 474–480

Ten locomotives were numbered 1112–21 when new,[1] in a separate series designated for engines paid for out of receipts as opposed to capital.[5] They were renumbered into the capital list as 577–586 in July or August 1870,[6][1] when a similar quantity of old broad-gauge engines were taken out of service.[6]

Two of the 378 class were named when new. No. 378 (built 1866) was named Sir Daniel in honour of Sir Daniel Gooch, who had resigned from the GWR in 1864;[7][8] as a result, the class was sometimes known as the Sir Daniel class.[1] No. 471 (built 1869) was named Sir Watkin,[7] after Sir Watkin Williams-Wynn;[9] the name was taken from a broad-gauge locomotive of the Sir Watkin class,[7][10] and the latter locomotive may have received the name Wynn in replacement.[10] The name was removed from no. 471 when it was rebuilt as an 0-6-0 in 1901, but no. 378 retained its name until it was withdrawn in 1898.[7]

Two more were named later on. Nos. 380 and 381 received the names North Star and Morning Star respectively,[7] these being the names of the two oldest members of the broad-gauge Star class, which were withdrawn in 1871 and 1869 respectively.[11] Both 380 and 381 lost their names c. 1897.[7]

The Sir Daniels worked expresses from London to Wolverhampton, to Worcester, and northwards, later also working into Somerset, south Wales and elsewhere as the standard gauge spread. As late as 1893 Charles Rous-Marten noted a fine run with one of the class on a principal Cornish express between Exeter and Bristol.[12]

Three of the locomotives – nos. 378, 383 & 479 – were scrapped between 1898 and 1900, but William Dean then began rebuilding the remainder as 0-6-0 goods engines. In 1902, after 23 had been so treated, G.J. Churchward (Dean's successor) decided that no more rebuilding would be carried out, and so nos. 382/6, 478 & 579 were scrapped unaltered in 1903 and 1904.[7]

0-6-0 rebuilds[edit]

GWR 378 Class 0-6-0[note 2]
Specifications
Designer William Dean
Rebuilder GWR, Swindon Works
Rebuild date 1900–02
Number rebuilt 23
Configuration 0-6-0
Driver diameter 5 ft 2 in (1,570 mm)
Axle load 15 tons 2 cwt (33,800 lb or 15.3 t)
Locomotive weight 34 tons 5 cwt (76,700 lb or 34.8 t)
Water capacity 3,000 imp gal (14,000 l)
Tractive effort 14,263 lbf (63.44 kN)
Career
Power class Ungrouped
Axle load class Uncoloured
Withdrawn 1903–20
Disposition All scrapped

Between 1900 and 1902,[13] 23 of the Sir Daniel 2-2-2s were rebuilt as 0-6-0s to a design by William Dean. Apart from the provision of new wheels of 5 ft 2 in (1.57 m) diameter, the only alterations necessary were to the frames.[14]

The 0-6-0 locomotives were withdrawn between 1903 and 1920,[13] the last two (nos. 381 & 474) lasting long enough to be placed in the "ungrouped" power classification and "uncoloured" weight classification in 1919.[14]

Notes[edit]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ Originally, Swindon ran separate series of lot numbers for different categories of engines. From 1868, a single series was used for standard gauge locos, beginning at "14th Lot"[4]
  2. ^ Only changed dimensions shown

Page notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e Tabor 1956, p. D9.
  2. ^ a b Tabor 1956, p. D10.
  3. ^ Tabor 1956, pp. D9,D11.
  4. ^ Allcock et al. 1951, p. 23.
  5. ^ Allcock et al. 1951, pp. 7,8.
  6. ^ a b Allcock et al. 1951, p. 9.
  7. ^ a b c d e f g Tabor 1956, p. D11.
  8. ^ Davies 1993, p. P146.
  9. ^ Davies 1993, p. P147.
  10. ^ a b Reed 1953, p. B29.
  11. ^ Reed 1953, p. B11.
  12. ^ Tabor 1956, pp. D11-D12.
  13. ^ a b Tabor 1956, p. D81.
  14. ^ a b Tabor 1956, p. D80.

References[edit]

  • Allcock, N.J.; Davies, F.K.; le Fleming, H.M.; Maskelyne, J.N.; Reed, P.J.T.; Tabor, F.J. (June 1951). White, D.E., ed. The Locomotives of the Great Western Railway, part one: Preliminary Survey. Kenilworth: RCTS. ISBN 0-901115-17-7. 
  • Davies, Ken (April 1993). The Locomotives of the Great Western Railway, part fourteen: Names and their Origins - Railmotor Services - War Service - The Complete Preservation Story. Lincoln: RCTS. ISBN 0-901115-75-4. 
  • Reed, P.J.T. (February 1953). White, D.E., ed. The Locomotives of the Great Western Railway, part two: Broad Gauge. Kenilworth: RCTS. ISBN 0-901115-32-0. 
  • Tabor, F.J. (February 1956). White, D.E., ed. The Locomotives of the Great Western Railway, part four: Six-wheeled Tender Engines. Kenilworth: RCTS.