Holy Spirit (Islam)
The Holy Spirit (Arabic: الروح القدس, al-Rūḥ al-Quddus) described in the Islamic faith is mentioned several times in the Qur'an, and is generally interpreted by Muslims as being the same Holy Spirit that is referred to in both the Old and the New Testaments of the Bible. The Arabic phrase "al-Quddus" (القدس) translates to English as "the Holy One" or "the Exalted One". Jerusalem, considered a holy site in Islam, is referred to in Arabic as "Bayt al-Muqaddas" (بيت المقدس), a term which has the same phonetic root as the Arabic phrases "al-Quddus" and "al-Quds". "Al-Quddus" is also one of the 99 Names of God in Islam.
The Holy Spirit, al-Ruh al-Quddus, in the Qur'an
The Holy Spirit, as referred to by the phrase al-Ruh al-Quddus, is expressly mentioned four times in the Qur'an:
"And verily we gave unto Moses the Scripture and We caused a train of messengers to follow after him, and We gave unto Jesus, son of Mary, clear proofs (of Allah's sovereignty), and we supported him with the Holy Spirit."
"Of those messengers, some of them We have caused to excel others, and there are some unto whom Allah spake, while some of them He has exalted in degree; and We gave Jesus, son of Mary, clear proofs (of Allah's sovereignty) and We supported him with the Holy Spirit."
"(The day) when God saith: 'O Jesus the son of Mary! Recount My favour to thee and to thy mother. Behold! I strengthened thee with the Holy Spirit, so that thou didst speak to the people in childhood and in maturity."
"Say: the Holy Spirit has brought the Revelation from thy Lord in Truth, in order to strengthen those who believe, and as guidance and glad tidings to Muslims."
The Spirit, al-Ruh, in the Qur'an
The phrase al-Ruh in the Qur'an is used ambiguously. It may be interpreted alternatively as either referring to God himself or to the divine Holy Spirit, as with the phrase al-Ruh al-Quddus, possibly as a shorthand for that phrase. It appears in several verses throughout the Qur'an:
"When I have fashioned him (in due proportion) and breathed into him of My Spirit, fall ye down in obeisance unto him."
"And (remember) her who guarded her chastity: We breathed into her of Our Spirit, and We made her and her son a sign for all peoples."
"But He fashioned him in due proportion, and breathed into him something of His Spirit. And He gave you (the faculties of) hearing and sight and feeling (and understanding): little thanks do ye give!"
"Raised high above ranks (or degrees), (He is) the Lord of the Throne (of Authority): by His Command doth He send the Spirit (of inspiration) to any of His servants he pleases, that it may warn (men) of the Day of Mutual Meeting."
"Thou wilt not find any people who believe in God and the Last Day, loving those who resist God and His Apostle, even though they were their fathers or their sons, or their brothers, or their kindred. For such He has written Faith in their hearts, and strengthened them with a Spirit from Himself."
"And Mary the daughter of 'Imran, who guarded her chastity; and We gave to her of Our Spirit; and she testified to the truth of the words of her Lord and of His Revelations, and was one of the devout (servants)."
The Qur'an against the Trinity
The Qur'an emphatically states that neither God nor the Holy Spirit are part of a trinity, condemning the view held in some denominations of Christianity that God consists of a Holy Trinity composed of a Father, a Son, and the Holy Spirit:
"They do blaspheme who say: God is one of three in a Trinity: for there is no god except One God. If they desist not from their word (of blasphemy), verily a grievous penalty will befall the blasphemers among them.
"Say: He is God, the One and Only; God, the Eternal, Absolute; He begetteth not, nor is He begotten; And there is none like unto Him.
"Say: "O People of the Book (i.e., Jews and Christians)! Come to common terms as between us and you: That we worship none but Allah; that we associate no partners with Him; that we erect not, from among ourselves, Lords and patrons other than Allah." If then they turn back, say ye: "Bear witness that we (at least) are Muslims (bowing to Allah's Will)."
As interpreted to refer to the Archangel Gabriel
In the view of a minority of Muslims the term al-Ruh al-Quddus refers to the Archangel Gabriel (referred to as Jibral, Jibrīl, Jibrael, 'Džibril, Jabrilæ or Jibrail (جبريل, جبرائيل, [dʒibræːʔiːl], [dʒibrɛ̈ʔiːl], or [dʒibriːl]) in Islam), the archangel who, according to the Qur'an, was assigned by God to reveal the Qur'an to the prophet Muhammad. He is also the angel who delivered the Annunciation to Mary.
In the two suras in which the Qur'an refers to the angel Gabriel, it invariably does so by name. However, some hadith and parts of the Qur'an may arguably lend support to the alternative view. Gabriel's physical appearance is narrated in a hadith (Sahih al-Bukhari, 4:54:4:55):
Narrated by Abu Ishaq-Ash-Shaibani: I asked Zir bin Hubaish regarding the statement of God: "And was at a distance of but two bow-lengths or (even) nearer; So did (God) convey the inspiration to his servant (Gabriel) and then he (Gabriel) conveyed (that to Muhammad). [Quran 53:9] From ‘Abdullah ibn Mas‘ood, who said: the Messenger of God saw Gabriel in his true form. He had six hundred wings, each of which covered the horizon. There fell from his wings jewels, pearls and rubies; only God knows about them."
She placed a screen (to screen herself) from them; then we sent to her our Ruh [angel Jibrael (Gabriel)], and he appeared before her in the form of a man in all respects. She said: "Verily! I seek refuge with the Most Beneficent (God) from you, if you do fear God." (The angel) said: "I am only a messenger from your Lord, (to announce) to you the gift of a righteous son." She said: "How can I have a son, when no man has touched me, nor am I unchaste?" He said: "So (it will be), your Lord said: 'That is easy for me (God): And (we wish) to appoint him as a sign to mankind and a mercy from us (God), and it is a matter (already) decreed (by God).' " [Quran 19:17]
It is narrated in hadith and held by some Muslims that the angel Gabriel accompanied Muhammad during the Mi'raj, an ascension to the heavens in which Muhammad is said to have met other messengers of God and was instructed about the manner of Islamic prayer (sujud). (Bukhari Sahih al-Bukhari, 1:8:345). It is also held by some Muslims that the angel Gabriel descends to Earth on the night of Laylat al-Qadr ("The Night of Power"), a night in the last ten days of the holy month of Ramadan (Islamic calendar) which is said to be the night on which the Qur'an was first revealed.
- Quran 59:23, Quran 62:1
- Quran 2:87
- Quran 2:253
- Quran 5:110
- Quran 16:102
- Quran 15:29
- Quran 21:91
- Quran 32:9
- Quran 40:15
- Quran 58:22
- Quran 66:12
- Quran 5:73
- Quran 112:1–4
- Quran 3:64
- What is meant by the Holy Spirit in the Qur'an? Islam Awareness
- Quran 2:97-98,Quran 66:4
- "Islam Question and Answer - Al-Malaa’ikah (Angels)". Islamqa.com. Retrieved 16 August 2010.
- "English Translations of Al-Quran - 3 English Translations of Al-Quran & 1 Commentary of each Surah (97. Al Qadr)". alquran-english.com. Retrieved 27 October 2011.