Gac

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This is an article about the gac fruit. For other uses, see Gac (disambiguation), or Global Assembly Cache.
Gac
Exterior and cross-sectional interior of gac.jpg
Exterior and cross-sectional interior of gac
Conservation status
Rare (NCA)
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Rosids
Order: Cucurbitales
Family: Cucurbitaceae
Genus: Momordica
Species: M. cochinchinensis
Binomial name
Momordica cochinchinensis
(Lour.) Spreng.

Momordica cochinchinensis is a Southeast Asian fruit found throughout the region from Southern China to Northeastern Australia, including Thailand, Laos, Myanmar, Cambodia and Vietnam.

Etymology[edit]

It is commonly known as gac, from the Vietnamese gấc (pronounced [ɣək˦˥]) or quả gấc (quả being a classifier for spherical objects such as fruit). It is known as mùbiēguǒ () in Chinese, and variously as Red Melon, Baby Jackfruit, Spiny Bitter Gourd, Sweet Gourd, or Cochinchin Gourd in English. In Thai it is ฟักข้าว pronounced fahk khao.

Characteristics[edit]

Because it has a relatively short harvest season (which peaks in December and January), making it less abundant than other foods, gac is typically served at ceremonial or festive occasions in Vietnam, such as Tết (the Vietnamese new year) and weddings. It is most commonly prepared as a dish called xôi gấc, in which the aril and seeds of the fruit are cooked in glutinous rice, imparting both their color and flavor. More recently, the fruit has begun to be marketed outside of Asia in the form of juice dietary supplements because of its allegedly high phytonutrient content.

Growth[edit]

Gac or Red Melon, grows on dioecious vines and is usually collected from fence climbers or from wild plants. The vines can be commonly seen growing on lattices at the entrances to rural homes or in gardens. It only fruits once a year, and is found seasonally in local markets. The fruit itself becomes a dark orange color upon ripening, and is typically round or oblong, maturing to a size of about 13 cm in length and 10 cm in diameter. Its exterior skin is covered in small spines while its dark red interior consists of clusters of fleshy pulp and seeds.

Traditional uses[edit]

Traditionally, gac has been used as both food and medicine in the regions in which it grows. Other than the use of its fruit and leaves for special Vietnamese culinary dishes, gac is also used for its medicinal and nutritional properties. In Vietnam, the seed membranes are said to aid in the relief of dry eyes, as well as to promote healthy vision.[citation needed] Similarly, in traditional Chinese medicine the seeds of gac, known in Mandarin Chinese as biē (Chinese: ), are employed for a variety of internal and external purposes.[citation needed]

Nutrients and phytochemicals[edit]

Typical of orange-colored plant foods, gac fruit contains carotenoids such as beta-carotene (provitamin A).[1] Vietnamese children fed a rice dish containing beta-carotene from gac had higher blood levels of beta-carotene than those in the control group.[2] Gac aril oil contains high levels of vitamin E.[3] Fatty acids in the aril oil may facilitate absorption of fat-soluble nutrients, including carotenoids.[4]

Due to its high content of beta-carotene and lycopene,[1][4] gac extracts may be sold as a food supplement in soft capsules or included in a juice blend. Gac contains substantial lycopene, beta-carotene[1] and a protein that may inhibit the proliferation of cancer cells.[5] Two cyclotides isolated, MCoT-I and MCoT-II, may have properties to inhibit trypsin.[6]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Ishida BK, Turner C, Chapman MH, McKeon TA (2004). "Fatty Acid and Carotenoid Composition of Gac (Momordica cochinchinensis Spreng) Fruit". J. Agric. Food Chem. 52 (2): 274–9. doi:10.1021/jf030616i. PMID 14733508. 
  2. ^ Vuong LT, Dueker SR, Murphy SP (2002). "Plasma β-Carotene and Retinol Concentrations of Children Increase After a 30-d Supplementation with the Fruit Momordica cochinchinensis (Gac)". Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 75 (5): 872–9. PMID 11976161. Retrieved 5 January 2013. 
  3. ^ Kuhnlein HV (2004). "Karat, Pulque, and Gac: Three Shining Stars in the Traditional Food Galaxy". Nutr. Rev. 62 (11): 439–42. doi:10.1111/j.1753-4887.2004.tb00015.x. PMID 15622716. 
  4. ^ a b Burke DS, Smidt CR, Vuong LT (2005). "Momordica cochinchinensis, Rosa roxburghii, Wolfberry, and Sea Buckthorn - Highly Nutritional Fruits Supported by Tradition and Science". Current Topics in Nutraceutical Research 3 (4): 259–66. 
  5. ^ Tien PG, Kayama F, Konishi F, et al. (2005). "Inhibition of Tumor Growth and Angiogenesis by Water Extract of Gac Fruit (Momordica cochinchinensis Spreng)". Int. J. Oncol. 26 (4): 881–9. doi:10.3892/ijo.26.4.881. PMID 15753981. 
  6. ^ Gerlach SL, Mondal D (2012). "The Bountiful Biological Activities of Cyclotides". Chronicles of Young Scientists 3 (3): 169–77. doi:10.4103/2229-5186.99559. 

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