|Jmol-3D images||Image 1|
|Molar mass||362.50 g/mol|
|Appearance||white odorless powder|
|Density||7.407 g/cm3 (15 °C)
7.07 g/cm3 (25 °C) 
|Solubility in water||insoluble|
|Solubility product, Ksp||1.8×10−23|
|Solubility||soluble in acid|
|Crystal structure||Monoclinic, cubic|
|EU classification||not listed|
| (what is: / ?)
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C, 100 kPa)
Gadolinium(III) oxide (archaically gadolinia) is an inorganic compound with the formula Gd2O3. It is one of the most commonly available forms of the rare earth element gadolinium, derivatives of which are potential contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging.
Gadolinium oxide has two most common structures: monoclinic (Pearson symbol mS30, space group C2/m, No. 12) and cubic (cI80, Ia3, No. 206). The cubic structure is similar to that of manganese(III) oxide, which, as a mineral, is also called bixbyite (then with a minor iron(III) content). There are two types of gadolinium sites in the cubic structure, both with a coordination number of 6 but with different geometry of the surrounding oxygen atoms. At room temperature, the cubic structure is the most stable and a phase change to the monoclinic structure takes place at 1200 °C. From 2100 °C and up to the melting point at 2420 °C, a hexagonal phase dominates.
Preparation and chemistry 
Gadolinium oxide can be formed by thermal decomposition of the hydroxide, nitrate, carbonate, or oxalates. Gadolinium oxide forms on the surface of gadolinium metal.
Gadolinium oxide is a rather basic oxide, indicated by its ready reaction with carbon dioxide to give carbonates. It dissolves readily in the common mineral acids with the complication that the oxalate, fluoride, sulfate and phosphate are very insoluble in water and may coat the grains of oxide, thereby preventing the complete dissolution.
Nanoparticles of Gd2O3 
Several methods are known for the synthesis of gadolinium oxide nanoparticles, mostly based on precipitation of the hydroxide by the reaction of gadolinium ions with hydroxide, followed by thermal dehydration to the oxide. The nanoparticles are always coated with a protective material to avoid the formation of larger polycrystalline aggregates.
Nanoparticles of gadolinium oxide is a potential contrast agent for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). A dextran-coated preparation of 20–40 nm sized gadolinium oxide particles had a relaxivity of 4.8 s−1mM−1 per gadolinium ion at 7.05 T (an unusually high field compared to the clinically used MRI scanners which mostly range from 0.5 to 3 T). Smaller particles, between 2 and 7 nm, were tested as a MRI agent in.
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