Gʻafur Gʻulom

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Gʻafur Gʻulom
Stamps of Uzbekistan, 2003-24.jpg
Commemorative stamp made in 2003 in honor of Gʻafur Gʻulom's 100th birthday.
Born Gʻafur Gʻulomovich Gʻulomov
(1903-05-10)May 10, 1903
Died July 10, 1966(1966-07-10) (aged 63)
Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic
Occupation Poet, teacher, literary translator, and writer
Literary movement realism

Gʻafur Gʻulom or Gafur Gulom (Russified form Gafur Gulyam) (Uzbek: Gʻafur Gʻulom, Ғафур Ғулом) (May 10, 1903 – July 10, 1966) was an Uzbek poet, writer, and translator. Gʻafur Gʻulom was awarded a State Stalin Prize in 1946 and became a National Poet of the Uzbek SSR in 1963. Gʻafur Gʻulom is considered to be one of the most influential Uzbek writers of the 20th century.[1] He is also regarded as one of the founders of modern Uzbek poetry along with Hamza Hakimzoda Niyoziy.[2]

Gʻafur Gʻulom is best remembered for his stories Shum Bola (The Mischievous Boy) and Yodgor. Shum Bola (The Mischievous Boy) was adapted for film in 1977. The film received considerable critical acclaim.

Gʻafur Gʻulom translated the works of many influential foreign authors, such as Alexander Pushkin, Vladimir Mayakovsky, and William Shakespeare. He translated Le Mariage de Figaro of Pierre Beaumarchais, Othello of William Shakespeare, and Gulistan of Saadi Shirazi into Uzbek.


Gʻafur Gʻulomovich Gʻulomov was born to a poor family on May 10, 1903, in Tashkent. His father knew Russian and was fond of reading poems and could himself write poetry. Gʻafur Gʻulom's father died when Gʻulom was only nine years old. Gʻulom first went to a so-called old school, a quasi-Muslim school, and later enrolled in a Russian tuzem school (Russian: Ру́сско-тузе́мная шко́ла), an elementary school for non-Russians in Turkestan.

After the October Revolution Gʻulom completed a teacher preparation program. Afterwards he taught at a contemporary school. In 1923, Gʻulom was appointed the head of the curriculum department at an orphanage. He also started working on the editorial board of different publications, such Kambag'al dehqon (Poor Farmer), Qizil Oʻzbekiston (Red Uzbeksitan), and Sharq haqiqati (The Truth of the East). Working on editorial boards enabled Gʻulom to learn about the life of ordinary citizens.

Gʻafur Gʻulom died of illness at the age of sixty three on July 10, 1966, in Tashkent.


The building of the Uzbek Gymnasium in Isfana in 2008 with lines from a Gʻafur Gʻulom poem written at the front. The lines read: "Dear excellent child of an excellent state, know that your motherland awaits you."

Gʻafur Gʻulom's first poetry collections, Dinamo (Dynamo) and Tirik qo'shiqlar (Alive Songs), were published in 1931 and 1932, respectively. In these books Gʻulom criticized the unsophisticated traditions of the peoples of Turkestan and praised the diligent work of ordinary citizens. In the 1930s, along with numerous short stories, essays, and satirical articles, Gʻulom wrote many longer narratives, such as Netay (What Should I Do?), Yodgor, and Tirilgan murda (A Body that Came Alive).

During the Soviet-German war against Nazi Germany and its allies Gʻafur Gʻulom devoted his time and effort to write about the war. His poems Sen yetim emassan (You're not an Orphan), Oltin medal (A Golden Medal), Kuzatish (Seeing off), Vaqt (Time), and Sogʻinish (Missing) became highly popular among Uzbeks.

In 1943, Gʻafur Gʻulom became a member of the Academy of Sciences of Uzbekistan. During the last 20 years of his life, Gʻulom published almost twenty poetry books. Gʻulom received many awards and honors throughout his life. He was awarded an Order of the Badge of Honour in 1944. For his compilation of poems about the Soviet-German war Sharqdan kelayotirman (I'm Coming from the East), Gʻulom was awarded a State Stalin Prize in 1946. He received an Order of the Red Banner of Labour three times, in 1937, 1957, and 1961. In 1973, he was posthumously awarded a Lenin Prize. Gʻafur Gʻulom's works have been translated into many foreign languages.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "Gʻafur Gʻulom". Ziyouz (in Uzbek). Retrieved February 4, 2012. 
  2. ^ Mirbadaleva, A. S. "Gafur Gulyam". In A. M. Prokhorov. Great Soviet Encyclopedia (in Russian). Moscow: Soviet Encyclopedia. 

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