A gag order (also known as a gagging order or suppression order) is an order, typically a legal order by a court or government, restricting information or comment from being made public, or in some cases, passed onto any unauthorized third party. The phrase may sometimes be used of a private order by an employer or other institution.
Gag orders may be used, for example, to keep legitimate trade secrets of a company, to protect the integrity of ongoing police or military operations, or to protect the privacy of victims or minors. Conversely, as their downside, they may be abused as a useful tool for those of financial means to intimidate witnesses and prevent release of information, using the legal system rather than other methods of intimidation. Strategic Lawsuit Against Public Participation (SLAPP) orders may potentially be abused in this way.
Examples of gag orders
After the 2008 Mumbai attacks in which live streaming of the event was broadcast, the Indian government proposed a draft law that would gag media outlets broadcasting live pictures during a terrorist event or war, to ensure the safety of any hostages and to protect security operations from hindrance. This has been opposed by Indian media who argue that they have adopted 'self-regulation' during such events and refrain from doing so anyway. It is uncertain if the draft law will be passed or not.
In late 2009 Israel issued a gag order against the Israeli media reporting on facts surrounding the Anat Kamm – Uri Blau affair. The gag order was ultimately subject to widespread criticism and publicity as the details of the case were reported overseas. The scandal centered around leaked documents from the Israeli Defense Force which suggested the military had engaged in extrajudicial killings.
A gag order concerning the Prisoner X affair prevented Israeli coverage of the topic for more than two years. After numerous foreign media outlets revealed the prisoner's identity and other key facts in February 2013, a court partially lifted the gag order, allowing Israeli media to quote foreign press reports but offer no original reporting.
There was speculation that a gag order may be imposed by the MCA on their press statements before they are released to the public to "ensure maximum effectiveness". Such releases would have to be approved by the president. These claims in the media were later denied.
In 1948, and while Puerto Rico was a colony of the United States of America, a Bill was brought before the Puerto Rican Senate to restrain the rights of the Puerto Rican Independence Party and the [[Puerto Rican Nationalist Party]] movements in the Island. The Senate at the time was controlled by the Partido Popular Democratico and presided by Luis Muñoz Marín. The Bill, also known as the "Ley de la Mordaza" (Gag Law) was approved by the Puerto Rican legislature on 21 May 1948. The law made it illegal to display a Puerto Rican flag, to sing a patriotic tune, to talk of independence, and to fight for the liberation of the island. The Bill, which resembled the anti-communist Smith Law approved in the United States in 1940, was signed and made into law on 10 June 1948, by the U.S.-appointed governor of Puerto Rico Jesús T. Piñero and became known as "Ley 53" (Law 53). Law 53 stated that it would be a crime to print, publish, sale, to exhibit or organize or to help anyone organize any society, group or assembly of people whose intentions were to paralyze or destroy the insular government. Anyone accused and found guilty of violating Law 53 could be sentenced to 10 years of prison, fined $10,000 dollars USD, or both. According to Leopoldo Figueroa, a member of the Puerto Rico House of Representatives, Law 53 was repressive and was in violation of the First Amendment of the US Constitution which guarantees Freedom of Speech. He pointed out that the law as such was a violation of the civil rights of the people of Puerto Rico.
A national security letter, an administrative subpoena used by the FBI, has an attached gag order which restricts the recipient from ever saying anything about being served with one. The government has issued hundreds of thousands of such NSLs accompanied with gag orders. The gag orders have been upheld in court.
In the United States, a court can order parties to a case not to comment on it but has no authority to stop unrelated reporters from reporting on a case. Most statutes which restrict what may be reported have generally been found unconstitutional and void. However, the gag provisions of the WIPO Copyright and Performances and Phonograms Treaties Implementation Act have been upheld.
The trials of Guantanamo Bay suspects have also been subjected to a gag order, which has hindered public scrutiny. Likewise, as part of a plea bargain John Walker Lindh consented to a gag order to not talk to the press or others.
A gag order, or anonymity order, is sometimes issued by courts in the United Kingdom to protect privacy, prevent harm to suspects, prisoners, witnesses, or to protect 'national security'. In the Allan Chappelow murder case, the trial was held mostly in camera and media were prevented from speculating on the case. The order was imposed after a "compelling case" made by prosecutors, despite overwhelming media opposition brought by a legal challenge to the ruling. This criminal case has been thought to be the first in which a gagging order was imposed.
According to WikiLeaks, "the Guardian [has] been served with 10 secret gag orders —so-called "super-injunctions"— [between January and September 2009]. In 2008, the paper was served with six. In 2007, five."
In Spring 2011, gagging orders, or "super-injunctions" as they were called, were being referred to almost daily in the United Kingdom after a number of high-profile public figures, including celebrities and politicians, censored the British media from revealing information about their personal lives, such as affairs and dealings with prostitutes.
- Compromise agreement
- Editorial independence
- Franchise fraud
- Freedom of speech
- Gag rule
- Media blackout
- Media transparency
- Never say anything
- Prior restraint
- Publication ban
- Public Interest Immunity
- Temporary restraining order
- Puerto Rico's Gag Law
- Mitta, Manoj (7 January 2009). "Law readied to gag TV in crises". The Times of India. Retrieved 8 September 2011.
- "Debate in Israel on Gag Order in Security Leak Case". The New York Times. 6 April 2010. Retrieved 8 September 2011.
- Ravid, Barak (14 February 2013). "Ben Zygier affair: Israel partially lifts gag order on case of dual citizen's prison suicide". Haaretz. Retrieved 14 February 2013.
- Order To Endorse Press Statements To Maximise Effectiveness, Says Tee Keat, Bernama, 8 January 2009.
- Tee Keat: No gag order on MCA bureau chiefs, The Sun Daily, 8 January 2009.
- "La obra jurídica del Profesor David M. Helfeld (1948–2008)'; by: Dr. Carmelo Delgado Cintrón
- "Puerto Rican History". Topuertorico.org. 13 January 1941. Retrieved 20 November 2011.
- La Gobernación de Jesús T. Piñero y la Guerra Fría
- "ACLU Roadmap of Justice Department Inspector General’s Review of the FBI’s Use of National Security Letters". American Civil Liberties Union. 19 March 2007. Retrieved 10 September 2011.
- Kravets, David (20 October 2009). "Judge Refuses to Lift 5-Year-Old Patriot Act Gag Order". Wired News. Retrieved 10 September 2011.
- Finn, Peter (7 January 2009). "Judge's Order Could Keep Public From Hearing Details of 9/11 Trials". The Washington Post. Retrieved 10 September 2011.
- Alan Travis (May 22, 2013). "Triple child killer David McGreavy can be named, high court judges rule: Judges revoke 'mistaken' gagging order about coverage of long-serving UK prisoner's parole application". The Guardian. Retrieved May 22, 2013. "An anonymity order preventing the naming of one of Britain's most notorious child killers as David McGreavy has been lifted by the high court."
- Casciani, Dominic (15 January 2008). "Secrecy ruling over murder trial". BBC News. Retrieved 10 September 2011.
- Norton-Taylor, Richard (11 January 2008). "Secrets and lies". The Guardian. Retrieved 10 September 2011.
- "News in Brief". The Times. 14 January 2008. Retrieved 10 September 2011.
- Gibb, Frances (13 December 2007). "Why is Home Office trying to stage murder trial in secret?". The Times. Retrieved 10 September 2011.
- "Guardian still under secret toxic waste gag". WikiLeaks. 14 October 2009. Retrieved 8 September 2011.
- Swinford, Steven (23 May 2011). "Ryan Giggs: from golden boy to tarnished idol". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 28 May 2011.