||This article possibly contains original research. (May 2012)|
Gagosian Gallery is a contemporary art gallery owned and directed by Larry Gagosian. There are currently eleven gallery spaces: three in New York; two in London; one in each of Beverly Hills, Rome, Athens, Paris, Geneva and Hong Kong.
The Gagosian Gallery program made exhibitions of contemporary art, as well as presenting works of Modern art.
In the 1980s, the Los Angeles gallery showed the work of young contemporary artists such as Eric Fischl, Jean-Michel Basquiat and David Salle, as the New York City space mounted exhibitions dedicated to the history of The New York School, Abstract Expressionism and Pop Art by showing the earlier work of Robert Rauschenberg, Roy Lichtenstein and Willem de Kooning.
In 1989, a new and more spacious gallery opened in New York City at 980 Madison Avenue with the inaugural exhibition: "The Maps of Jasper Johns." During its first two years, the Madison Avenue space, once used by Sotheby's, presented work by Yves Klein, Andy Warhol, Cy Twombly and Jackson Pollock. Shortly after, several artists such as Walter de Maria, Philip Taaffe, Francesco Clemente, Peter Halley and Andrew Lord joined the gallery.
Gagosian Gallery’s second New York City location opened in the neighborhood of SoHo, then the heart of the New York art scene, in 1991. Shortly before, the gallery had wooed David Salle and Philip Taaffe from long-term relationships with the Mary Boone Gallery. The new venue served to show large-scale works by artists such as Richard Serra, Mark di Suvero, Barnett Newman, and Chris Burden. The downtown location showed younger artists such as Ellen Gallagher, Jenny Saville, Douglas Gordon and Cecily Brown. The uptown gallery maintained its commitment to historical exhibitions by showing monumental sculptures by Miró, Calder and Moore.
Andy Warhol was exhibited at both New York galleries, in collaboration with the Andy Warhol Foundation, including exhibitions of his Rorschach Paintings, Camouflage Paintings, Late Hand-Painted Paintings, Oxidation Paintings and the Diamond Dust Shadow Paintings. In 1996, The Damien Hirst exhibition "No Sense of Absolute Corruption," was the first exhibition in America to show Hirst’s animals in formaldehyde tanks, a controversial series of the artist’s oeuvre.
Gagosian opened a location in Beverly Hills designed by architect Richard Meier in 1995. The Beverly Hills gallery mounted exhibitions by Edward Ruscha, Nan Goldin, Frank Gehry, Jeff Koons and Richard Prince. It also showed modern artists such as Pablo Picasso, Roy Lichtenstein and Abstract Expressionism group exhibitions. To finance Koons's giant "Celebration" sculptures, a consortium of dealers, including Gagosian, spent years helping the artist line up buyers willing to prepay for them. The buyers paid $2 million to $8 million apiece to own one of the artist' car-sized sculptures of balloon dogs and candy-colored hearts.
In 1999, Gagosian Gallery moved from SoHo to West 24th Street, in New York’s industrial Chelsea. Richard Gluckman designed the 25,000-square-foot (2,300 m2) gallery in which Richard Serra presented the monumental sculpture, “Switch,” in November 1999. The new space was fully completed in September. The uniquely large viewing space at West 24th Street allowed Gagosian artists, such as Richard Serra, Damien Hirst and Robert Therrien, to exhibit large scale works with great flexibility.
In spring of 2000, Gagosian became an international gallery with the opening of a Caruso St John-designed space on Heddon Street in Picadilly, London, then the largest commercial art gallery in the city. The U.K. gallery inaugurated its exhibitions program with a performance by the Italian artist Vanessa Beecroft, followed by an exhibition of works by Chris Burden. In September 2000, in New York, Gagosian held the Hirst show, Damien Hirst: Models, Methods, Approaches, Assumptions, Results and Findings. 100,000 people visited the show in 12 weeks, and all the work was sold. The exhibition was the subject of a Channel 4 TV documentary in the UK.
A second London Gallery, also designed by Caruso St John, on Britannia Street, opened in May 2004 with a paintings and sculpture show by Cy Twombly. Comparable to the Chelsea exhibition space in size, this addition was then the largest commercial art gallery in London. It accommodated large sculpture, video pieces and installations such as Martin Kippenberger's show, The Magical Misery Tour, Brazil. The Heddon Street location closed in July 2005, and a new storefront space on Davies Street opened simultaneously with an historic exhibition of Pablo Picasso prints.
To complement the West 24th Street gallery, a Richard Gluckman designed space on West 21st Street opened in October 2006. A joint exhibition with the 24th Street gallery, Cast a Cold Eye: The Late Works of Andy Warhol, launched Gagosian Gallery’s second location in Chelsea and third location in New York. In 2009, the 21st Street gallery held an exhibition of Pablo Picasso’s late works entitled Mosqueteros, curated by Picasso historian, John Richardson.
Having established itself with historical exhibitions, the Madison Avenue location introduced a fifth-floor gallery space, set up to focus more on young and upcoming artists. Featuring works by Hayley Tompkins and Anselm Reyle, Old Space New Space inaugurated the space in January 2007. The fifth-floor gallery has since showcased the works of Steven Parrino, Mark Grotjahn and Isa Genzken, Dan Colen and Dash Snow, among others. From 2007 on, Gagosian Gallery has also shown at the art gallery of the Eden Rock St Barths, Saint Barthélemy, including exhibitions of Richard Prince (2007) and Piotr Uklański (2011).
With the continued success of the Los Angeles, New York, and London galleries, Gagosian opened a gallery in Rome in 2007, exhibiting new works by Cy Twombly. The Italian space is a refurbished former bank on Via Francesco Crispi, built in 1921 and redesigned by Rome-based architect Firouz Galdo in collaboration with Caruso St John. The renovation transformed the classical space into a state-of-the-art contemporary gallery while retaining its distinctively Roman character. The main banking hall of the building had a huge bay window, and the architects have remodelled the opposite, formerly perpendicular, wall to create an oval space, with plenty of daylight coming through the windows.
In November 2008, Gagosian Gallery expanded its Madison Avenue gallery to the fourth floor, with an inaugural exhibition of works by Francis Bacon and Alberto Giacometti in Isabel and Other Intimate Strangers, in collaboration with the Giacometti Foundation and the Bacon Foundation.
Between 2003 and 2008, many artists who had previously been represented by other renowned galleries joined Gagosian, such as Piotr Uklanski and Anselm Reyle from Gavin Brown's Enterprise; John Currin from Andrea Rosen; Mike Kelley from Metro Pictures; Tom Friedman from Feature; Takashi Murakami from Marianne Boesky; and Richard Phillips from Friedrich Petzel. On the other hand, several artists have left the stable for smaller galleries, including Tom Friedman, Mark di Suvero, and Ghada Amer. The estate of Willem de Kooning went to rival Pace Gallery in 2010.
In 2010, Gagosian opened its Paris gallery on 350-square-meter (3,757 square feet) at 4, rue de Ponthieu, where it debuted with an exhibition of five new acrylic abstracts and five bronze sculptures by Cy Twombly. Priced between $4 million and $5 million each, all the paintings sold before the gallery officially opened. Located off Rue du Rhône in Geneva's business district, a 140-square-metre Art Deco space was opened as the gallery's Swiss outpost later that year.
In early 2011, the gallery, which has had a representative in Hong Kong since 2008, opened a 5,200-square-foot facility at the Pedder Building there. The outpost was inaugurated with an exhibition by Damien Hirst. That year, a survey of dealers in The Wall Street Journal estimated that Gagosian Gallery's annual sales approached $1 billion. In May 2011 alone, roughly half the works for sale by the major auction houses in New York (evening sales only) were by artists on the gallery's roster.
In October, 2012, Gagosian Gallery opened a new gallery outside of Paris in Le Bourget. Designed by architect Jean Nouvel, the 17,760 square foot space is the 12th Gagosian location worldwide.
As of 2008, buyers from Russia and other republics of the former Soviet Union account for almost 50 percent of total global sales at Gagosian Gallery. Strong relationships with Russian collectors and an expanding Russian art scene, encouraged Gagosian to host temporary exhibitions in Moscow. In 2007, Insight? featured works by Jeff Koons, Damien Hirst, Willem de Kooning and Pablo Picasso, in the Barvikha Luxury Village. In 2008, the gallery hosted a group show at the former Red October Chocolate Factory on the Moscow River, For What You are About to Receive, which included over 100 works of art by Gagosian artists, including six never-before-seen Cy Twombly paintings from 2004.
In late 2011, following “Brazil: Reinvention of the Modern,” a 2011 exhibition Gagosian Gallery held in its Paris outpost featuring the 1960s and ’70s Neo-Concrete artists Sérgio de Camargo, Lygia Clark, Amilcar de Castro, Hélio Oiticica, Lygia Pape, and Mira Schendel, the gallery will stage a major sculpture exhibition in a warehouse in Rio de Janeiro as part of the ArtRio fair.
Gagosian Gallery aims to maintain the price level of its artists by actively playing a role at art auctions. When Christie's established an auction record for Henri Matisse by selling a bronze relief for $48.8 million in 2010, it was Gagosian that bought the work. Also, Gagosian Gallery purchased Ed Ruscha's Angry Because It’s Plaster, Not Milk (1965) for $3.2 million at Phillips de Pury in 2010, again establishing an auction record for that artist. Not long after joining Gagosian Gallery in 2003, the painter John Currin made his auction record of $847,500; his highest price before was a little over half that.
In 2003, the Internal Revenue Service sued Larry Gagosian and three of his associates, accusing them of evading $26.5 million in taxes, interest and penalties on a 1990 sale of contemporary art. The IRS charged Gagosian and his partners deliberately shifted assets out of a company they created, Contemporary Art Holding Corp., to avoid paying taxes. When French photographer Patrick Cariou launched a copyright lawsuit against Richard Prince in 2009, the suit also named as defendant Larry Gagosian, who had displayed the disputed series of painting in a show titled “Canal Zone”. Also in 2009, a deal that Gagosian Gallery had struck to buy $3 million in gold bricks for the work One Ton, One Kilo by the artist Chris Burden was frozen when it turned out that the bricks had been acquired from a Houston-based company owned by financier Allen Stanford, who was later charged by the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission and sentenced to 110 years in prison for cheating investors out of more than $7 billion over 20 years in one of the largest Ponzi schemes in U.S. history.
In March 2011, British collector Robert Wylde also sued the Gagosian Gallery for selling him a $2.5 million Mark Tansey painting, The Innocent Eye Test (1981), which, it turned out, had been promised to the Metropolitan Museum of Art by its owner, Jan Cowles. The case was later settled for $4.4 million in January 2012. Shortly after, Gagosian Gallery was sued before the United States District Court for the Southern District of New York by Cowles herself, who claimed that the gallery sold another painting, Girl in Mirror (1964) by Roy Lichtenstein, from her collection in 2008-2009 without her consent.
Exhibited artists include:
Larry Gagosian is consistently listed in the top 10 of ArtReview's "Power 100" for the top 100 important people in the contemporary art world. (#1 in 2004 and 2010 and #2 in 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008).
- Scott Reyburn (October 25, 2010), Gagosian Sells $20 Million Art in Paris, Plans Global Growth Bloomberg.com.
- Jeffrey Hogrefe, "Gagosian Pays $5.75 Million for Largest Gallery in Chelsea," The New York Observer, August 22, 1999
- Grace Glueck (June 24, 1991), One Art Dealer Who's Still a High Roller New York Times.
- Kelly Crow (April 1, 2011), The Gagosian Effect Wall Street Journal.
- Charlotte Higgins (10 May 2004), King's Cross a Go-Go as top US art dealer unveils new gallery The Guardian.
- Peter Pophamin (December 17, 2007), Gagosian turns to Rome for next stage of his art empire The Independent.
- David Segal (March 8, 2009). "Pulling Art Sales Out of Thinning Air". The New York Times.
- Roberta Smith (April 18, 2008), Dear Gallery: It Was Fun, but I’m Moving Up New York Times.
- Scott Reyburn (October 25, 2010), Gagosian Sells $20 Million Art in Paris, Plans Global Growth Bloomberg'.
- Alexandra A. Seno (December 10, 2010), At Last, a Gagosian Space in Hong Kong Wall Street Journal Blog.
- Eric Konigsberg (January 28, 2013), The Trials of Art Superdealer Larry Gagosian New York Magazine'.
- Nayeri, Farah (October 15, 2012). "Gagosian Opens New Space Outside Paris With Kiefer Show". Bloomberg Businessweek.
- John Varoli (September 23, 2008), Gagosian Makes Half of Global Sales to Russia, Director Says Bloomberg.
- Carol Vogel (July 19, 2012), Gagosian in Brazil New York Times.
- Katya Kazakina and Scott Reyburn (December 29, 2010), Picasso Nude Beats Giacometti, Chinese Vase in 2010’s Top Sales Bloomberg.
- Katya Kazakina and Lindsay Pollock (May 14, 2010), Cnet Founder Minor Sells $21.1 Million of Art to Pay Creditors Bloomberg.
- Sarah Douglas (2009), Larry Gagosian: The Art of the Deal The Economist Intelligent Life Magazine.
- Thomas S. Mulligan (March 20, 2003), Noted Art Dealer Cited in Tax Fraud Los Angeles Times.
- Phoebe Hoban (May 26, 2003), The Artful Dealer New York Magazine.
- Greg B. Smith (March 20, 2003), Probed in ImClone scandal, he's now sued for 26M Daily News.
- Andrew Goldstein (April 8, 2009), Richard Prince and Gagosian fight back over copyright The Art Newspaper.
- Adrienne Gaffney (March 5, 2009), Gagosian Gold Held Hostage in Ponzi-Scheme Investigation Vanity Fair.
- Dana Goodyear (March 23, 2009), Goldless The New Yorker.
- "Former Chief Investment Officer of Stanford Financial Group Pleads Guilty to Obstruction of Justice". US Department of Justice - June 21, 2012. Retrieved 2012-06-26.
- "Allen Stanford jailed for 110 years for $7bn Ponzi". 14 June 2012.
- Rob Sharp (March 15, 2011), Whose painting is it anyway? Collector sues the Gagosian The Independent.
- Randy Kennedy (March 26, 2012), Frank E-Mails Reveal Negotiations at Art Gallery New York Times.
- $14M suit hits Gagosian New York Post, January 19, 2012.
- Gagosian Gallery official website
- Larry Gagosian and Thomas Ammann to buy Hughes Warhols together
- Channel 4 site on Damien Hirst's show at Gagosian in 2000