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The Gaekwad or Gaikwad (once rendered as Guicowar, also given (incorrectly) as Gaekwar) (Marathi: गायकवाड Gāyǎkǎvāḍǎ) are a Maratha clan  that formed a part of the Maratha Confederacy and later ruled the princely state of Baroda in western India from the early 18th century until 1947. The ruling prince was known as the Maharaja Gaekwad of Baroda. With the city of Baroda (Vadodara) as its capital, during the British Raj its relations with the British were managed by the Baroda Residency. It was one of the largest and wealthiest princely states existing alongside British India, with wealth coming from lucrative cotton business as well as rice, wheat and sugar.
Info of Clan
Gaikwad / Gayakwad / Gaekwad
- Current kingdom: Badoda/Baroda/Vadodara (in Gujarat)
- Throne: Twin colours (Red and White)
- canopy and sign: Twin colours (Red and White)
- Horse: White
- Heraldic sign (Nishan): Moon on flagpole
- Clan goddess: Bhavani, Chamundeshwari (Chamunda)
- Clangod : Khandoba
- Clan object (Devak): Surya-Ful (SunFlower)
- Guru: Vashishta
- Gotra: Kashyapa
- Veda: Yajurveda - Madhyandin
- Mantra: Gayatri mantra
- Guhyasutra : Paraska
- Prawar : Gautam, Angiras and Aoutathya.
- Surnames: Achal, Achah, Aher, Awadhani, Asure, Adsure, Karmat, Kanle, Kawde, Karjaree, Kanjan, Kapalfhode, Kasare, Karkar, Kahar, Kajale, Kanade, Kanta, Katle, Kanhe, Kirkire, Kithe, Kode, Khare, Khapde, Garade, Gadoor, Ghadhawe, Ghenand, Gayke, Gaykee, Chandre, Gawal, Harpale, Chkrawartee, Chakrapanee, Chkrawak, Jajwaly, Jadoogeer, Jachak, Jire, Joon, Zile, Tiwte, Dige, Dukre, Dhiwar, Dhore, Talwale, Takte, Tagnaledatar, Datare, Duranga, Dewle, Dhagad, Dhagdhamale, Dhare, Dhundupal, Nakhare, Nawate, Nanwar, Nagte, Patait, Padkar, Padsare, Pawade, Pawed, Padpar, Patre, Palkar, Pure, Pendhare, phatak, Fhade, Badwe, Fhakadpale, Bama, Banasur, Bender, Belwade, Ghodke, Bhadkambe, Bhamare, Bhate, Madkar, Marathe, Mahale, Madke, Margath, Mahalunge, Mhasik, Wairkar, Maral, Mabhale, Morkar, Mase, Manse, Mare, Mhatare, Murkar, Muluskar, Mulke,Muluk, Mene, Mengune, Mode, Rage, Rangole, Rande, Rodke, Lagad, Langde, Lokre, Waidya, Shankh, Shiwne, Shewde, Sansale, Sawale, Sarad, Sarte, Satag, Saple, Surkhe Sonawde, Hajare, Hame, Hamale, Hadke, Hoke, Dhage, Dhadak, Dhananjay, Kokane, Nadhe, Ozarkar, Taras,Dake, Thakar(Total 137)
The Gaikwads rule of Baroda began when the Maratha general Pilaji Rao Gaekwad conquered the city from the Mughal Empire in 1721. The Gaikwads were granted the city as a fief by the Peshwa, the de facto leader of the Maratha empire.
The leader Damaji rao Gaikwad fought along with Sadashiv Bhau, Vishwas Rao, Malhar Rao Holker, Jayappa & Mahadji Shinde in the Third War of Panipat.
After the central rule of the Peshwas was weakened following the defeat at the hands of the Afghans at the Third Battle of Panipat in 1761, the Gaikwads, along with several powerful Maratha clans, established themselves as virtually independent rulers of the further regions of the empire, while recognizing the nominal authority of the Peshwas and suzerainty of the Bhonsle Maharaja of Satara.
In 15 March 1802, the British intervened to defend a Gaekwad Maharaja Anand Rao Gaekwad who had recently inherited the throne against rival claimants, and the Gaekwads concluded a Treaty of Cambey with the British that recognized their independence from the Maratha empire and guaranteed the Maharajas of Baroda local autonomy in return for recognizing British suzerainty.
Maharaja Sayyaji Rao III, who took the throne in 1875, did much to modernize Baroda, establishing compulsory primary education, a library system and the Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda. He also encouraged the setting up of textile factories, which helped create Baroda's textile industry. He is well known for offering B. R. Ambedkar a scholarship to study at Columbia University.
Upon India attaining its independence in 1947, the last ruling Maharaja of Baroda acceded to India. Baroda was eventually merged with Bombay State, which was later divided, based on linguistic principle, into the states of Gujarat and Maharastra in 1960.
Gaekwad Maharajas of Baroda
- Nandaji Rao Gaekwad (? - 1721) Born ?, died May 1721
- Pilaji Rao Gaekwad (1721 - 1732) Born ?, died 14 May 1732
- Damaji Rao Gaekwad (1732 - 1768) Born ?, died 18 August 1768
- Sayaji Rao Gaekwad I (1768 - 1778) Born ?, died 1792
- Fateh Singh Rao Gaekwad(1778 - 1789) Born before April 1751, died 26 December 1789
- Manaji Rao Gaekwad (1789 - 1793) Born before April 1751, died 27 July 1793
- Govind Rao Gaekwad (1793 - 1800) Born ?, died 19 September 1800
- Anand Rao Gaekwad (1800 - 1818) Born ?, died 2 October 1819
- Sayaji Rao Gaekwad II (1818 - 1847) Born 3 May 1800, died 28 December 1847
- Ganpati Rao, died 14 June 1870
- Malhar Rao Gaekwad(1870 - 19 April 1875) Born 1831, died obscurity in 1882
- Sayaji Rao Gaekwad III (1875 - 1939) Born 10 March 1863, died 6 February 1939
- Pratap Singh Gaekwad (1939 - 1951) Born 29 June 1908, died 19 July 1968
- Fateh Singh Rao Gaekwad II (1951 - 1988) Born 2 April 1930, died 1st September1988
- Ranjit Singh Gaekwad (1988 - 2012) Born 8 May 1938, died 9 May 2012
- Samarjit Singh Gaekwad (2012 - Present) Born 25 April 1967
- Indian Encyclopaedia, Volume 1 edited by Subodh Kapoor
- Streefkerk, Hein (1985). Industrial Transition in Rural India: Artisans, Traders, and Tribals in South Gujarat. Popular Prakashan. p. 111. ISBN 9780861320677.
- "India Has Rich State In Baroda". Hartford Courant. 16 August 1927.
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