Galatasaray S.K. (football)
|Full name||Galatasaray Spor Kulübü|
|Nickname(s)||Cimbom (Most common)
Aslan (The Lion)
Sarı Kırmızılılar (Yellow-Reds)
Avrupa Fatihi (Conqueror of Europe)
Gala (Mostly used outside of Turkey)
|Founded||30 October 1905 
as Galata-Serai Football Club
|Ground||Türk Telekom Arena|
|2012–13||Süper Lig, 1st|
|Website||Club home page|
|Active departments of Galatasaray|
|Football||Volleyball (Men's)||Volleyball (Women's)|
|Basketball (Men's)||Basketball (Women's)||Wheelchair Basketball|
|Swimming||Water Polo (Men's)||Water Polo (Women's)|
Galatasaray Spor Kulübü, commonly known as Galatasaray, is a Turkish professional football club based in Istanbul, Turkey. It is the association football branch of the larger Galatasaray Sports Club, itself a part of the Galatasaray Community which includes the Galatasaray University and Galatasaray High School.
Galatasaray has won 46 domestic trophies, including a record 19 Süper Lig titles, a record 14 Turkish Cups and a record 13 Turkish Super Cups. It is one of three teams to have participated in all seasons of the Turkish Süper Lig since 1959, following the dissolution of the Istanbul Football League, and are the only club to have won the Süper Lig in four successive seasons.
Internationally, Galatasaray has won the UEFA Cup and UEFA Super Cup in 2000, becoming the first Turkish team to win a European trophy, and one of the few teams in the history of UEFA competitions to become the undefeated winners of a major tournament, losing none of their games in the 1999–2000 UEFA Cup season. In the 1999-2000 season, the club achieved the rare feat of completing a quadruple by winning the Turkish Süper Lig, the Turkish Cup, the UEFA Cup and the UEFA Super Cup in a single season. Galatasaray is also the only Turkish club to have been ranked 1st on the IFFHS World Rankings.
Since 2011, the club's stadium is the 52,695 capacity Türk Telekom Arena in Seyrantepe, Istanbul. Previously, the club had played at the Ali Sami Yen Stadium, as well as a succession of other grounds in Istanbul, which included groundshares with Beşiktaş and Fenerbahçe at the Taksim Stadium and İnönü Stadium.
The club has a long-standing rivalry with other major Istanbul teams, namely with Beşiktaş and Fenerbahçe. The derby between Galatasaray and Fenerbahçe is dubbed the Kıtalar Arası Derbi (English: Intercontinental Derby) due to the location of their headquarters and stadiums on the European (Galatasaray) and Asian (Fenerbahçe) sides of the Bosphorus strait in Istanbul.
Galatasaray is the most-supported club in Turkey, with an estimated 25 million fans worldwide.
- 1 History
- 2 Crest
- 3 Team colours and kit
- 4 Grounds
- 5 Support
- 6 Honours
- 7 Players
- 8 Technical staff
- 9 Presidents
- 10 Club officials
- 11 Managerial history
- 12 Recent seasons
- 13 Youth facilities
- 14 Sponsorship
- 15 References
- 16 Further reading
- 17 External links
Galatasaray SK was founded in the fall of 1905, by Ali Sami yen and Galatasaray High School (a high school founded in 1481) students as a football club. Galatasaray's first president was Ali Sami Yen. Their first match was against Cadi-Keuy FC and they won this match by 2–0. There were discussions about the club's name, in which some suggested Gloria (victory) and others Audace (courage), but it was decided that its name would be Galatasaray.
|“||Our aim is to play together, to have a colour and a name, and to beat the teams of outside of Turkey.||”|
The name Galatasaray itself comes from that of Galatasaray High School, which in turn takes its name from Galata Sarayı Enderûn-u Hümâyûn (Galata Palace Imperial School), the name of the original school founded on the site in 1481, and which in turn took its name from the nearby medieval Genoese citadel of Galata (the modern quarter of Karaköy) in the Beyoğlu (Pera) district of Istanbul. Galatasaray literally means "Galata palace".
According to researcher Cem Atabeyoğlu, Galatasaray took its name from one of its first matches. In that match, Galatasaray won 2–0 over a local Greek club and the spectators called them "Galata Sarayı efendileri" (in English: Gentlemen of Galata Palace), and, after this incident, they adopted that name and started to call their club "Galata Sarayı". In 1905, during the era of the Ottoman Empire, there were no laws for associations so the club could not be registered officially, but, after the 1912 Law of Association, the club registered legally.
Among with the founder Ali Sami Yen, the co-founders were the ones who were keen to do this sport, such as Asım Tevfik Sonumut, Reşat Şirvani, Cevdet Kalpakçıoğlu, Abidin Daver and Kamil.
Since there weren't any other Turkish teams, Galatasaray joined the Istanbul League that was consisting of English and Greek teams in the season of 1905–1906. With their first championship title they won in 1907–1908, they heralded the beginning of Turkish football history.
While football in Turkey began to fully develop, Galatasaray won ten more Istanbul League titles, six Sunday League titles and three Friday League titles until 1952. Upon the initiation of professional football in 1952, the first professional but non-national league of Turkey, Istanbul Professional League, was played between 1952 and 1959. Galatasaray won three of these seven titles.
Türkiye Profesyonel 1. Ligi (Turkish Super League today) formed in 1959. This is the top-flight professional league in Turkish nationwide football, and the most popular sporting competition in the country. Galatasaray joined all seasons and won 19 league titles since then.
The Turkish Football Federation starts to organize "Turkish Cup" (today it is organized with the name Fortis Turkey Cup) in the 1962–63 season for Turkish clubs to qualify for the UEFA competitions. This is the only national cup competition in Turkey. Galatasaray joined all seasons and won 14 trophies since then.
Probably the greatest record that club holds is winning national championships in 15 different sport branches in 1986–87 season.
Galatasaray's most successful era came in late 1990s, when the club become the first Turkish football club ever to win a European trophy. They were aided in this by one of Turkey's best generation of home grown footballers who went on to finish third in the 2002 FIFA World Cup and played quarter finals of UEFA Euro 2000. Besides the talented players, visiting teams also disliked traveling into Ali Sami Yen Stadium which is literally called "Hell" by the supporters of Galatasaray due to the intimidating atmosphere provided by the fans including chants and riots in the crowds.
There are many successful footballers who have played for Galatasaray and made their mark on Turkish football history. The team's legendary players include the 1930s national hero Eşfak Aykaç; Boduri who died aged 21; Mehmet Leblebi who scored a domestic record of 14 goals in a single match; Gündüz Kılıç nicknamed Baba (Father) who was the coach but also the player of his team in the 1950s, with great success in both duties; Bülent-Reha Eken brothers; Suat Mamat who made a hat-trick in the 1954 FIFA World Cup; Coşkun Özarı who devoted his life to Galatasaray; Turgay Şeren the heroic goalkeeper who was called "the Panther of Berlin"; Fatih Terim, the team captain of Galatasaray and Turkish national football team for many years, who won the UEFA Cup in 2000 as the team's coach; Metin Oktay the legendary six-time top-scorer of the Turkish Super League; Zoran Simović, another skilled goalkeeper known for his penalty saves; Cüneyt Tanman who played a record of 342 games for Galatasaray; Tanju Çolak, an extraordinary goalscorer and the 1988 European Golden Boot winner with Galatasaray; Cevad Prekazi, an Albanian teammate of Tanju Çolak specializing in free kicks; Taffarel the World Cup winner goalkeeper of Brazil; Gheorghe Hagi, the Romanian football hero who is still described as the best foreign player ever to play in Turkey; Brazilian striker Mário Jardel, who was called Super Mário by the fans and scored both of Galatasaray's two goals in the European Super Cup Final in 2000 against Real Madrid; and last but not least, Hakan Şükür, the player who scored most goals in the Turkish Super League history, with 249 goals.
Name and pronunciation
The name Galatasaray itself comes from that of Galatasaray High School, which in turn takes its name from Galata Sarayı Enderûn-u Hümâyûn (Galata Palace Imperial School), the name of the original school founded on the site in 1481, and which in turn took its name from the nearby medieval Genoese citadel of Galata (the modern quarter of Karaköy) in the Beyoğlu (Pera) district of Istanbul. Galatasaray literally means "Galata Palace".
There is no diminutive form of Galatasaray. Fans refer to the club either by its full name or by its nickname "Cim Bom Bom" (pronounced 'Jim Bom Bom') or the shortened 'Cim Bom'. The shortened form 'Gala' is sometimes used in Europe/Americas.
It is important to keep in mind Galatasaray is a compound word and it is pronounced as such. The most common mistake that is done by non-Turkish speakers is to intonate as Gala-tasaray, while the correct enunciation should be Galata-Saray with a very brief pause between the two words.
Galatasaray's first emblem was drawn by 333 [School Number] Şevki Ege. This was the figure of a spread-winged eagle with a football in its beak. The eagle was a model emblem that Galatasaray dwelled on in the beginning. But when the name did not attract too much interest, Şevki Ege’s composition was pushed aside. It was replaced by the current design in the 1920s. This replaced in 1925 by the current “Ghayn-Sin” crest, designed by Ayetullah Emin
Team colours and kit
Galatasaray wore red and white colours when founded, then played in dark yellow and dark blue during the 1907–1908 season. For a match against the football team of the Royal Navy cruiser HMS Barham's crewmen, played on 8 December 1908, Galatasaray finally settled on playing in red and yellow, inspired by the roses which Gül Baba offered to Sultan Bayezid II.
Since 1908 the club's home kit has typically been an 8-piece halved design. The shirt’s front, back and sleeves are made up of two alternating colours. This changed in the mid-1980s, when sportswear manufacturer Adidas began to provide the shirts. The club reverted to the "classic" kit in 2012. The official colours are Pantone shades 1235 (yellow) and 201 (red).
|Period||Kit manufacturer||Shirt sponsor|
|1977–1978||None||Volvo / PeReJa|
|1978–1979||Çamlıca / Adidas||None|
|1979–1980||Umbro / Adidas||Halı Fleks|
|1980–1981||Puma / Umbro / Adidas||Telefunken / Alo / THY|
|1981–1982||gola / Adidas||Borsaş / Meban|
|1984–1985||Fatih / Adidas||Modells / Denizcilik Bankası|
|1991–1992||Umbro||ADEC Saat / Show TV|
|1992–1995||Show TV / Emek Sigorta|
Ali Sami Yen Stadium
When Galatasaray were formed no Turkish teams had their own home ground, and all games in the Istanbul Football League took place at Papazın Çayırı – now the site of Fenerbahçe's Şükrü Saracoğlu Stadium. In 1921 the city's first proper football stadium was constructed, Taksim Stadium, which was used as the home ground for all of Istanbul's teams. When historic Taksim Stadium was demolished in 1940, Galatasaray decided to build a large, modern stadium. Due to difficulties stemming from World War II, construction was delayed for over two decades. In this period, they played in Şeref Stadi and Dolmabahçe Stadi On 20 December 1964, Ali Sami Yen Stadium opened. Named after the founder of Galatasaray, Ali Sami Yen, it is in the Mecidiyeköy quarter of the Şişli district at the center of the city. In 1964, the stadium had capacity over 35,000. Due to improvements in security and prohibition of non-seater spectators, the all-seater capacity reduced to 22,000 in 1993. A few years later, the rebuilt of main stand, which was damaged by an earthquake, slightly increased the capacity. After 2002, when Atatürk Olympic Stadium was built for Istanbul's Olympic Games bid, Galatasaray started to play European Cup matches there. The attendance record among Turkish stadiums was broken there, in Galatasaray–Olympiacos match played in front of 79,414 spectators. Yet, Ali Sami Yen Stadium has historic importance for Galatasaray fans although it is smaller and older. In 2011, the stadium demolished after Galatsaray moved to newly built Türk Telekom Arena.
Türk Telekom Arena
The new home ground of Galatasaray is the newly built Türk Telekom Arena in the Aslantepe quarter near Maslak financial district in Şişli. The new stadium, which was opened 15 January 2011, has a capacity of 52,695 seats, making it the largest private stadium owned by a club in Turkey.
Since 1998, after every goal scored by Galatasaray, the last part of the song "I Will Survive" by the Hermes House Band is played. Although the song is in English, the part used has no lyrics except "la la la la". In addition, before every game the Florida State University war chant (Galatasaray War Chant), a chant developed by the Marching Chiefs (FSU's marching band), is played accompanied by what the fans call a "scarf show" where fans display and wave their Galatasaray scarves, banners and flags. Many people call the Turk Telekom Arena 'Cehennem' (hell) because of stadium anthems and the continuous roar of the fans.
|5||Ali Sami Yen Stadı||1966–1972|
|7||Ali Sami Yen Stadı||1980–1984|
|9||Ali Sami Yen Stadı||1986–2003|
|10||Atatürk Olimpiyat Stadı||2003–2004|
|11||Ali Sami Yen Stadı||2004–2011|
|12||Türk Telekom Arena||2011–|
|1||Ali Sami Yen Stadı||34|
|6||Türk Telekom Arena||2|
|7||Atatürk Olimpiyat Stadı||1|
For more details on this topic, see Popularity of Turkish teams
Galatasaray fans attach high importance to European competitions, and Galatasaray is known as the Conqueror of Europe by their fans. This nickname underlines the importance of the UEFA Cup and Super Cup Galatasaray managed to win during the 1999–2000 season. Galatasaray fans also have a reputation in Europe as being one of the most fanatic in the world, along with ultrAslan. Ryan Giggs once said I've never experienced anything like Galatasaray. Two hours before kick-off, we went out to have a look at the pitch and the stadium was packed! The chanting was brilliant: one side starts, then the other, then quiet, then all of them chanting! The players really enjoyed it. Before it was good, after it wasn't.'
Popularity of Galatasaray in Turkey
According to media polls since 2000, Galatasaray is the most popular team among football fans in Turkey. The latest poll by June 2012 places Galatasaray in the first place with a 41.8% level of popularity while Fenerbahçe S.K. comes second with a 35.9% level, Beşiktaş J.K. third with 16.3% and Trabzonspor fourth with 4.7% .
"The big three" clubs of Istanbul, Beşiktaş J.K., Fenerbahçe S.K. and Galatasaray S.K. have a century-long history of rivalry. The Galatasaray-Fenerbahçe rivalry is the primary Istanbul derby and the most important rivalry in Turkish football. The rivalry poses a symbolic importance to supporters as much as the result. Supporters are often quoted as stating that winning the league without winning the derby is hollow. There is always huge interest in the derby due to its fierce nature on and off the pitch. Many documentaries have been made about the derby including an The Real Football Factories International episode. The rivalry has led to violence among supporters on numerous occasions, though this has been on the decline in recent years. The typical features of derby days include sell out stadiums, loud support throughout the match and taunting choreography displays by supporters before kick off. Other top level İstanbul derbies include the teams; İstanbul BB and Kasımpaşa although these teams pose a minor rivalry as the history and the nation-wide attention to the derbies among the big three is unmatched.
Torches, smoke, drums, flags and giant posters used to create visual grandeur and apply psychological pressure on visiting teams, which fans call "welcoming them to hell".
- Winners (1): 2000
- Winners (1): 1999–2000
- Semi-Finals (1): 1988–1989
- Quarter-Finals (5): 1962–1963, 1969–1970, 1993–1994, 2000–2001, 2012–2013
- Quarter-Finals (1): 1991–1992
- Winners (1): 2013
- Winners (19): (record) 1961–62, 1962–63, 1968–69, 1970–71, 1971–72, 1972–73, 1986–87, 1987–88, 1992–93, 1993–94, 1996–97, 1997–98, 1998–99, 1999–2000, 2001–02, 2005–06, 2007–08, 2011–12, 2012–13
- Runners-up (9): 1959, 1960–61, 1965–66, 1974–75, 1978–79, 1985–86, 1990–91, 2000–01, 2002–03
- Winners (14): (record) 1963, 1964, 1965, 1966, 1973, 1976, 1982, 1985, 1991, 1993, 1996, 1999, 2000, 2005
- Runners-up (5): 1969, 1980, 1994, 1995, 1998
- Winners (13): (record) 1966, 1969, 1972, 1982, 1987, 1988, 1991, 1993, 1996, 1997, 2008, 2012, 2013
- Runners-up (7): 1971, 1973, 1976, 1985, 1994, 1998, 2006
- Amatör Futbol Şampiyonası:
- Winners (1): 1953
- Chancellor Cup:
- Winners (5): 1975, 1979, 1986, 1990, 1995
- TSYD Cup:
- Winners (12): 1963, 1966, 1967, 1970, 1977, 1981, 1987, 1991, 1992, 1997, 1998, 1999
- Atatürk Gazi Cup:
- Winners (1): 1928
- 50. Yıl Cup:
- Winners (1):1973
- Istanbul Football League:
- Istanbul Shield:
- Winners (1): 1932–33
- Union Club Cup:
- Winners (1): 1909
- As of 6 Sep 2013.
Note: Flags indicate national team as has been defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality.
Out on loan
Note: Flags indicate national team as has been defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality.
Reserves and Academy squad
|Assistant Manager||Attilio Lombardo|
|Assistant Manager||Tugay Kerimoğlu|
|Goalkeeping Coach||Claudio Taffarel|
|Performance Coach||Ivan Carminati|
|Fitness Coach||Yasin Küçük|
|Chief Scout||Emre Utkucan|
- Football Management Trade I.C.
|General Director||Lutfi Arıboğan|
|Sportive Coordinator||Bülent Tulun|
|Financial and Administrative Affairs Director||Sedef Hacısalihoğlu|
|Competition and External Relations Director||Yeşim Toroslu|
|Florya Metin Oktay Sports Complex and Training Center Director||Fahri Yılmaz|
|Manager of Team||Cenk Ergün|
|Executive Assistant||Ezgi Ekiz|
|2003–04|| Fatih Terim
|2007–08|| Karl-Heinz Feldkamp
|2008–09|| Michael Skibbe
|2010–11|| Frank Rijkaard
|2013–14|| Fatih Terim
|2005/06||TS||1||34||26||5||3||82||34||83||Quarter-Final||UC||1st Round||Eric Gerets|
|2006/07||TS||3||34||15||11||8||58||37||56||Quarter-Final||UCL||Group Stage||Eric Gerets|
|2007/08||TS||1||34||24||7||3||64||23||79||Semi-Final||UC||3rd Round||Karl-Heinz Feldkamp/Cevat Güler|
|2008/09||TS||5||34||17||8||9||57||39||61||Quarter-Final||UC||Last 16||Michael Skibbe/Bülent Korkmaz|
|2009/10||TS||3||34||19||7||8||61||35||64||Quarter-Final||UC||Last 32||Frank Rijkaard|
|2010/11||TS||8||34||14||4||16||41||46||46||Quarter-Final||UC||Play-off Round||Frank Rijkaard/Gheorghe Hagi/Bülent Ünder|
|2011/12||TS||1||34||23||8||3||69||24||77||Last 16||-||-||Fatih Terim|
|2012/13||TS||1||34||21||8||5||66||35||71||Last 16||UCL||Quarter-Final||Fatih Terim|
Last updated: 19 May 2013
1 Galatasaray SK started season in UCL but joined UC after group stage.
Div. = Division;TS = Turkcell Super League; Pos. = Position; Pl = Match played; W = Win; D = Draw; L = Lost; GS = Goal Scored; GA = Goal Against; P = Points
UCL = UEFA Champions League; UCWC = UEFA Cup Winners' Cup; UC = UEFA Cup; Cup = Fortis Turkey Cup. Colors: Gold = winner; Silver = runner-up.
Galatasaray has one of the most successful youth facilities in Turkey. Gündüz Kılıç Youth Facilities in Florya is the center of the department. Galatasaray S.K. PAF have won the Turkish Youth League three times.
Galatasaray football academy trains children between seven and fifteen. They are located in 75 sites, in Turkey, Australia, Germany, The Netherlands and the UK.
Companies that Galatasaray S.K. currently has sponsorship deals with include:
|Türk Telekom||Main Sponsor|
|General Motors||Official Sponsor|
|HCL Me||Co Sponsor|
|Turkish Airlines||Official Sponsor|
|Medical Park||Official Sponsor|
|Hedef Filo Hizmetleri||Official Sponsor|
|MNG Kargo||Official Sponsor|
|W Collection||Official Sponsor|
|Power plate||Official Supplier|
- Galatasaray researcher Melih Şabanoğlu
- Galatasaray researcher Melih Şabanoğlu
- Galatasaray researcher Melih Şabanoğlu
- NTV-MSNBC: "Galatasaray, Ağustos ayının en iyisi" (3 January 2001)
- "How Galatasaray became the world’s No1 sports team on Facebook « Sporting Intelligence". Sportingintelligence.com. 14 September 2010. Retrieved 10 April 2013.
- "First match and foundation". Galatasaray.org. 17 November 2007.[dead link]
- "How Galatasaray Founded". Galatasaray.org. 23 November 2007.[dead link]
- "History of founding from official site". Galatasaray.org. 22 November 2007.[dead link]
- "History of Turkish football". Tff.org. 21 November 2007.
- "Information about Turkish Cup". Tff.org. 20 November 2007.
- "News about Galatasaray Match". BBC.co.uk. 18 October 2007.
- "Eşfak Aykaç Profile". Galatasaray Official. 24 November 2007.[dead link]
- "Boduri Profile". Galatasaray Official. 24 November 2007.[dead link]
- "Mehmet Leblebi Profile". Galatasaray Official. 24 November 2007.[dead link]
- "Gündüz Kılıç Profile". Galatasaray Official. 24 November 2007.[dead link]
- "Suat Mamat Profile". Galatasaray Official. 24 November 2007.
- "Coşkun Özarı Profile". Galatasaray Official. 24 November 2007.[dead link]
- "Turgay Şeren Profile". Galatasaray Official. 24 November 2007.[dead link]
- "Fatih Terim Profile". Galatasaray Official. 24 November 2007.[dead link]
- "Metin Oktay Profile". Galatasaray Official. 24 November 2007.[dead link]
- "Zoran Simovic Profile". Galatasaray Official. 24 November 2007.[dead link]
- "Cüneyt Tanman Profile". Galatasaray Official. 24 November 2007.[dead link]
- "Tanju Çolak Profile". Galatasaray Official. 24 November 2007.[dead link]
- "Prekazi Profile". Galatasaray Official. 24 November 2007.[dead link]
- "Taffarel Profile". Galatasaray Official. 24 November 2007.[dead link]
- "Hagi Profile". Galatasaray Official. 24 November 2007.[dead link]
- Tekil, Süleyman (1983). Galatasaray, Dünden Bugüne 1905–1982. İstanbul: Arset Matbaacılık Kollektif Şti. pp. 1–13.
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- "Yellow Red since 100 Years". GALATASARAY.ORG.
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- GALATASARAY_MEDIAKIT[dead link]
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- "Ali Sami Yen Stadium". Archived from the original on 9 June 2007. Retrieved 26 November 2007.
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- "Zulümpiyat! Stadı". Fotomaç. 20 October 2006. Retrieved 15 July 2007.
- "Stadium info". Galatasaray SK. Retrieved 9 November 2011.
- TRT Website
- Minshull, Phil. "Goodbye to Hell". BBC. Retrieved 9 November 2011.
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- Loudest Crowd Roar At A Sport Stadium, Guinness World Records, 22 March 2011
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- "Taraftarın gerçek yüzü!". Ligtv.com.tr. 15 December 2008.
- "En çok taraftar hangi takımda? İŞTE CEVABI". Samanyolu Haber. 6 April 2010.
- "Türkiye'de En Çok Taraftara Sahip Takım Hangisi?". Sabah Gazetesi Spor Sayfası. 13 June 2012.
- "Turkey to send anti-terror police to Leeds to protect Galatasaray". CBC. 11 November 2000.
- "Galatasaray find new home while 'Hell' rebuilt". ABC Sport. 7 June 2003.[dead link]
- "UEFA coefficients". UEFA.com. UEFA. Retrieved 6 September 2013.
- "List of Youth League Champions". Turkish Football Federation. Retrieved 21 May 2008.[dead link]
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- Turagay, U., Özgün, G., Gökçin, B., Ahunbay (2006). 17 May: The story of a championship. İstanbul: D Yapım. OCLC 169899400
- Hasol, D. (2004). Dreams/realities in Galatasaray. İstanbul: Yapı Yayın. ISBN 978-975-8599-44-8
- Tuncay, B. (2003). Galatasaray with European Success and Notable Players. Yapı Kredi Kü̈ltü̈r Sanat Yayıncılık. ISBN 978-975-08-0427-4
- Yamak, O. (2001). Galatasaray: Story of 95 years. Sinerji. OCLC 59287768
- Çakar, A. (1995). 90 questions about history of Galatasaray SK. Cağaloğlu, İstanbul: Demir Ajans Yayınları. OCLC 42434622
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- Tekil, S. (1983). Galatasaray 1905–1982: Memories. Arset Matbaacılık Koll. Şti. OCLC 62614035
- İsfendiyar, F. (1952). History of Galatasaray. İstanbul: [Doğan Kardeş yayınları]. OCLC 27753643
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- Galatasaray Sports Club official website (Turkish) (English) (French)
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- ultrAslan Supporters' Group (Turkish)
- Galatasaray Multimedia Archives (Turkish)
- Galatasaray SK on Twitter on Twitter (Turkish)