Galaxolide

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Galaxolide
Galaxolide 200.svg
Identifiers
CAS number 1222-05-5 YesY
PubChem 91497
ChemSpider 82618
Jmol-3D images Image 1
Properties
Molecular formula C18H26O
Molar mass 258.40 g mol−1
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C (77 °F), 100 kPa)
Infobox references

Galaxolide is a polycyclic organic synthetic musk that is used in some perfumes as a fragrance. It is also used in soaps, cosmetics and detergents.[1] Galaxolide was first synthesized in 1965, and used in the late 1960s in some fabric softeners & detergents. High doses were also incorporated in fine fragrances. Galaxolide possesses a clean sweet musky flowery woody odor. It is one of the musk components perfume and cologne manufacturers use to add a musk smell to perfume.

Environmental health impacts[edit]

Although Galaxolide has been reported to be found in human bio monitoring studies,[2][3] its presence in human tissue has been evaluated by several scientific authorities.,[4][5]

Similarly, there have been reports of Galaxolide in environmental compartments.[6][7][8] These studies have also been made part of Galaxolide’s environmental safety reviews by various authorities, who have deemed that there is no need for risk reductions meassures,[9][10][11] Galaxolide has been shown to be removed by ozonation in wastewaters treatment plants.[12]

Regulatory and safety status[edit]

In 2002 The Scientific Committee on Cosmetics and Non-Food Products (SCCNFP; renamed recently as the Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety, or SCCS [13]), the expert scientific board that advises the European Commission on human health issues, reviewed the human safety of galaxolide, when used in cosmetic products, and issued a final opinion on 17 September 2002.[14] The SCCNFP stated that “..HHCB can be safely used as a fragrance ingredient in cosmetic products without any restriction for its use.” (HHCB is an acronym for the chemical description of galaxolide.)

In March 2003, the European Chemicals Bureau (ECB) concluded that galaxolide is not a persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic substance (PBT) according to the ECB criteria and removed galaxolide from their draft list of PBTs.[15]

Under the EU Existing Substances Directive, galaxolide is listed in the 4th Priority List of Substances for review by the EU. This Priority List was the 4th list compiled by the EU of high volume substances that were to be evaluated by the Member States’ Competent Authorities, as part of the requirements of EU Council regulation 793/93 “On the Evaluation and Control of the risk of existing substances”.[16] The EU published the final report for this study in 2008[17] and concluded in this report that for all human health and environmental endpoints; “There is at present no need for further information and/or testing and no need for risk reduction measures”.

Additionally the European Union Scientific Committee for Health and Environmental Risks (SCHER), an advisory body to the European Commission, independently reviewed the environmental, human health, and indirect exposure risk assessment, and agreed with all of the conclusions from the EU experts on the outcome that “There is at present no need for further information and/or testing and no need for risk reduction measures”. The SCHER opinions for galaxolide are available for the environment,[18] for human health[19] and for human health though indirect exposure.[20]

As part of the obligations under the EU’s Registration, Evaluation and Authorization of Chemicals (REACH),[21] the producers and importers of galaxolide on the EU market have registered galaxolide in December 2010[22] with the European Chemicals Agency in Helsinki.

Most recently, in the USA, the Environmental Protection Agency under its Toxic Substance Control Act Work Plan Chemicals Program[23] evaluated galaxolide for human health and environmental effects and concluded that "..the assessment does not indicate risk concerns”.[24]

All above regulatory safety assessments reference peer reviewed publications on the presence of galaxolide in the environment and humans, and many other studies. Considering the robust safety, environmental, and exposure data on this substance, all the above reviews have concluded favorably on the safety of this fragrance ingredient.

References[edit]

  1. ^ http://www.chemicalbook.com/ChemicalProductProperty_EN_CB1706143.htm
  2. ^ Rimkus, G.G. and M. Wolf, Polycyclic musk fragrances in human adipose tissue and human milk. Chemosphere, 1996, 33(10), pages 2033-2043, doi:10.1016/0045-6535(96)00321-9
  3. ^ Kannan K. Reineer JL, Yun SH. Perotta EE, Tao L, Johnson-Restrepo B, Rodan BD. 2005. Polycyclic musk compounds in higher trophic level aquatic organisms and humans from the United States. Chemosphere 61: 693–700.
  4. ^ http://ec.europa.eu/health/ph_risk/committees/sccp/documents/out179_en.pdf
  5. ^ http://echa.europa.eu/documents/10162/947def3b-bbbf-473b-bc19-3bda7a8da910
  6. ^ Chen D, Zeng X, Sheng Y, Bi X, Gui H, Sheng G, Fu J. 2007. The concentrations and distribution of polycyclic musks in a typical cosmetic plant. Chemosphere. 66(2):252-8.
  7. ^ Rüdel H, Böhmer W, Schröter-Kermani C. 2006. Retrospective monitoring of synthetic musk compounds in aquatic biota from German rivers and coastal areas. J Environ Monit. 8(8): 812-23
  8. ^ Kannan K. Reineer JL, Yun SH. Perotta EE, Tao L, Johnson-Restrepo B, Rodan BD. 2005. Polycyclic musk compounds in higher trophic level aquatic organisms and humans from the United States. Chemosphere 61: 693–700.
  9. ^ http://echa.europa.eu/documents/10162/947def3b-bbbf-473b-bc19-3bda7a8da910
  10. ^ http://ec.europa.eu/health/ph_risk/committees/04_scher/docs/scher_o_096.pdf
  11. ^ http://www.epa.gov/oppt/existingchemicals/pubs/TSCA_Workplan_Chemical_Risk_Assessment_of_GALAXOLIDE®.pdf
  12. ^ Ozonation: a tool for removal of pharmaceuticals, contrast media and musk fragrances from wastewater? Thomas A Ternes, Jeannette Stüber, Nadine Herrmann, Derek McDowell, Achim Ried, Martin Kampmann, and Bernhard Teiser, Water Research, April 2003, Volume 37, Issue 8, Pages 1976–1982, doi:10.1016/S0043-1354(02)00570-5
  13. ^ http://ec.europa.eu/health/scientific_committees/consumer_safety/index_en.htm
  14. ^ http://ec.europa.eu/health/ph_risk/committees/sccp/documents/out179_en.pdf
  15. ^ http://esis.jrc.ec.europa.eu/doc/PBT-evaluation/PBT_sum002_CAS_1222-05-5.pdf
  16. ^ http://ec.europa.eu/environment/chemicals/exist_subst/pdf/793_93_ec.pdf
  17. ^ http://echa.europa.eu/documents/10162/947def3b-bbbf-473b-bc19-3bda7a8da910
  18. ^ http://ec.europa.eu/health/ph_risk/committees/04_scher/docs/scher_o_096.pdf
  19. ^ http://ec.europa.eu/health/ph_risk/committees/04_scher/docs/scher_o_086.pdf
  20. ^ http://ec.europa.eu/health/ph_risk/committees/04_scher/docs/scher_o_094.pdf
  21. ^ http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=oj:l:2006:396:0001:0849:en:pdf
  22. ^ http://echa.europa.eu/information-on-chemicals/registered-substances , CAS# 1222-05-5
  23. ^ http://www.epa.gov/oppt/existingchemicals/pubs/workplans.html
  24. ^ http://www.epa.gov/oppt/existingchemicals/pubs/HHCB%20WP%20RA%20FINAL%2008_27_14.pdf