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In physical cosmology, galaxy filaments, also called supercluster complexes or great walls or "great attractors", are amongst the largest known cosmic structures in the universe. They are massive, thread-like structures with a typical length of 50 to 80 megaparsecs h-1 that form the boundaries between large voids in the universe. Filaments consist of gravitationally bound galaxies; parts where a large number of galaxies are very close to each other (in cosmic terms) are called superclusters.
Discoveries of structures larger than superclusters started in the 1980s. In 1987 astronomer R. Brent Tully of the University of Hawaii’s Institute of Astronomy identified what he called the Pisces-Cetus Supercluster Complex. In 1989 the CfA2 Great Wall was discovered, followed by the Sloan Great Wall in 2003. On January 11, 2013, it was announced that a large quasar group was discovered, the Huge-LQG, which dwarfs previously discovered galaxy filaments in size.
In 2006, scientists announced the discovery of three filaments aligned to form one of the largest structures known to humanity, composed of densely packed galaxies and enormous blobs of gas known as Lyman-alpha blobs.
Galaxy filaments 
Filament subtype of filaments have roughly similar major and minor axes in cross-section, along the lengthwise axis.
|Coma Filament||The Coma Supercluster lies within the Coma Filament. It forms part of the CfA2 Great Wall.|
|Perseus-Pegasus Filament||1985||Connected to the Pisces-Cetus Supercluster, with the Perseus-Pisces Supercluster being a member of the filament.|
|Ursa Major Filament||Connected to the CfA Homunculus, a portion of the filament forms a portion of the "leg" of the Homunculus.|
|Lynx-Ursa Major Filament (LUM Filament)||1999||from 2000 km/s to 8000 km/s in redshift space||Connected to and separate from the Lynx-Ursa Major Supercluster.|
|z=2.38 filament around protocluster ClG J2143-4423||2004||z=2.38||110Mpc||A filament the length of the Great Wall was discovered in 2004. As of 2008, it was still the largest structure beyond redshift 2.|
Galaxy walls 
The Galaxy wall subtype of filaments have a significantly greater major axis than minor axis in cross-section, along the lengthwise axis.
|CfA2 Great Wall (Coma Wall, Great Wall, Northern Great Wall, Great Northern Wall, CfA Great Wall)||1989||z=0.03058||251Mpc long
||This was the first super-large large-scale structure or pseudo-structure in the universe to be discovered. The CfA Homunculus lies at the heart of the Great Wall, and the Coma Supercluster forms most of the homunculus structure. The Coma Cluster lies at the core.|
|Sloan Great Wall (SDSS Great Wall)||2005||z=0.07804||433Mpc long||This was the largest known structure or pseudo-structure to be discovered until it was eclipsed by the Huge-LQG large quasar group found eight years later.|
|Sculptor Wall (Southern Great Wall, Great Southern Wall, Southern Wall)||8000 km/s long
5000 km/s wide
1000 km/s deep
(in redshift space dimensions)
|The Sculptor Wall is "parallel" to the Fornax Wall and "perpendicular" to the Grus Wall.|
|Grus Wall||The Grus Wall is "perpendicular" to the Fornax and Sculptor Walls.|
|Fornax Wall||The Fornax Cluster is part of this wall. The wall is "parallel" to the Sculptor Wall and "perpendicular" to the Grus Wall.|
- A "Centaurus Great Wall" (or "Fornax Great Wall" or "Virgo Great Wall") has been proposed, which would include the Fornax Wall as a portion of it (visually created by the Zone of Avoidance) along with the Centaurus Supercluster and the Virgo Supercluster also known as our Local Supercluster within which the Milky Way Galaxy is located (implying this to be the Local Great Wall).
- A wall has been proposed to be the physical embodiment of the Great Attractor, with the Norma Cluster as part of this wall. This wall is also referred to as the Great Attractor Wall or Norma Wall.
- A wall has been proposed, in 2000, to lie at z=1.47 in the vicinity of radio galaxy B3 0003+387.
- A wall has been proposed, in 2000, to lie at z=0.559 in the northern Hubble Deep Field (HDF North).
Large Quasar Groups 
|Clowes & Campusano LQG
(U1.28 , CCLQG)
||It is the largest structure known in the universe, as of January 2013.|
Map of nearest galaxy walls 
Maps of large-scale distribution 
The universe within 1 billion light-years (307 Mpc) of Earth, showing local superclusters forming filaments and voids.
See also 
- Galaxy clusters
- Galaxy superclusters
- List of galaxy clusters
- List of galaxies
- List of galaxy superclusters
- Observable universe#Large-scale structure
- Void (astronomy)
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- Boris V. Komberg, Andrey V. Kravtsov, Vladimir N. Lukash; "The search and investigation of the Large Groups of Quasars"; arXiv:astro-ph/9602090 ; Bibcode: 1996astro.ph..2090K ;
- Bharadwaj, Somnath; Bhavsar, Suketu; Sheth, Jatush V. The Size of the Longest Filaments in the Universe. Astrophys.J. 606 (2004) 25-31
- M. J. Geller & J. P. Huchra, Science 246, 897 (1989).
- Sky and Telescope, "Refining the Cosmic Recipe", 14 November 2003
- Wall, Mike (2013-01-11). "Largest structure in universe discovered". Fox News.
- Than, Ker (2006-07-28). "Scientists: Cosmic blob biggest thing in universe". SPACE.com. Retrieved 2007-03-11.
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- THE ASTRONOMICAL JOURNAL, 115:1745-1777, 1998 May ; THE STAR FORMATION PROPERTIES OF DISK GALAXIES: Hα IMAGING OF GALAXIES IN THE COMA SUPERCLUSTER
- 'Astrophysical Journal', Part 1 (ISSN 0004-637X), vol. 299, Dec. 1, 1985, p. 5-14. "A possible 300 megaparsec filament of clusters of galaxies in Perseus-Pegasus" 12/1985 Bibcode: 1985ApJ...299....5B
- 'The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series', Volume 121, Issue 2, pp. 445-472. "Photometric Properties of Kiso Ultraviolet-Excess Galaxies in the Lynx-Ursa Major Region" 04/1999 Bibcode: 1999ApJS..121..445T
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- 'The Astrophysical Journal', Volume 602, Issue 2, pp. 545-554. The Distribution of Lyα-Emitting Galaxies at z=2.38 02/2004 Bibcode: 2004ApJ...602..545P doi:10.1086/381145
- 'The Astrophysical Journal', Volume 614, Issue 1, pp. 75-83. The Distribution of Lyα-emitting Galaxies at z=2.38. II. Spectroscopy 10/2004 Bibcode: 2004ApJ...614...75F doi:10.1086/423417
- 'Relativistic Astrophysics Legacy and Cosmology - Einstein's, ESO Astrophysics Symposia', Volume . ISBN 978-3-540-74712-3. Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, 2008, p. 358 Ultraviolet-Bright, High-Redshift ULIRGS 00/2008 Bibcode: 2008ralc.conf..358W
- Chin. J. Astron. Astrophys. Vol. 6 (2006), No. 1, 35–42 PDF
- 'Scientific American', Vol. 280, No. 6, p. 30 - 37 PDF (1.43 MB) 06/1999 Bibcode: 1999SciAm.280f..30L
- Unveiling large-scale structures behind the Milky Way. Astronomical Society of the Pacific Conference Series, Vol. 67; Proceedings of a workshop at the Observatoire de Paris-Meudon; 18–21 January 1994; San Francisco: Astronomical Society of the Pacific (ASP); c1994; edited by Chantal Balkowski and R. C. Kraan-Korteweg, p.21 ; Visualization of Nearby Large-Scale Structures ; Fairall, A. P., Paverd, W. R., & Ashley, R. P. ; 1994ASPC...67...21F
- 'Astrophysics and Space Science', Volume 230, Issue 1-2, pp. 225-235 Large-Scale Structures in the Distribution of Galaxies 08/1995 Bibcode: 1995Ap&SS.230..225F
- World Science, Wall of galaxies tugs on ours, astronomers find April 19, 2006
- 'The Astronomical Journal', Volume 120, Issue 5, pp. 2331-2337. B3 0003+387: AGN-Marked Large-Scale Structure at Redshift 1.47? 11/2000 Bibcode: 2000AJ....120.2331T doi:10.1086/316827
- FermiLab, Astronomers Find Wall of Galaxies Traversing the Hubble Deep Field, DARPA, Monday, January 24, 2000
- 'The Astronomical Journal', Volume 119, Issue 6, pp. 2571-2582 ; QSOS and Absorption-Line Systems surrounding the Hubble Deep Field ; 06/2000 ; doi:10.1086/301404 ; Bibcode: 2000AJ....119.2571V ;
- ScienceDaily, "Biggest Structure in Universe: Large Quasar Group Is 4 Billion Light Years Across", Royal Astronomical Society, 11 January 2013 (accessed 13 January 2013)
- Clowes, Roger G.; Harris, Kathryn A.; Raghunathan, Srinivasan; Campusano, Luis E.; Soechting, Ilona K.; Graham, Matthew J.; "A structure in the early universe at z ~ 1.3 that exceeds the homogeneity scale of the R-W concordance cosmology"; arXiv:1211.6256 ; Bibcode: 2012arXiv1211.6256C ; doi:10.1093/mnras/sts497 ; Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 11 January 2013
Further reading 
- arXiv, PDF, Kevin A. Pimbblet, 14 March 2005
- Pictures of the filamentary network
- The Universe Within One Billion Light Years with List of Nearby Superclusters (from the Atlas of the Universe):