The surname Galbraith is derived from the Gaelic elements gall ("stranger") and Breathnach ("Briton"). The Britons referred to in the name may be the British people who lived in what is today Scotland before the arrival of the Gaels. The name is recorded in Lennox, during the early 13th century. The surname is rendered in Scottish Gaelic as Mac a' Bhreatannaich. The surname is borne by members of Clan Galbraith, a Scottish clan that was seated in Lennox from the year 1100 to the 17th century.
- Alastair Galbraith (actor), Scottish actor
- Alastair Galbraith (musician), musician from Dunedin, New Zealand
- Clare Calbraith, Actor.
- Danny Galbraith (born 1990), Scottish footballer
- Declan Galbraith (born 1991), British singer
- Evan Griffith Galbraith (1928–2008), United States diplomat
- Francis Joseph Galbraith (1913–1986), United States diplomat
- Gatewood Galbraith (1947–2012), a Kentucky lawyer, author and politician
- George Galbraith (born 1955), Danish ice hockey goaltender and coach
- Jack Galbraith, former Scottish footballer
- James Galbraith (Canadian politician) (born 1940), Canadian Progressive Conservative politician
- James K. Galbraith (born 1952), United States economist, son of John Kenneth Galbraith
- Jo-Ann Galbraith (born 1985), Australian archer
- John Kenneth Galbraith (1908–2006), Canadian-born American economist
- Patrick Galbraith (ice hockey) (born 1986), Danish professional ice hockey goaltender
- Patrick Galbraith (born 1967), United States professional tennis player
- Paul Galbraith, (born 1964), Scottish-born classical guitarist
- Peter W. Galbraith (born 1950), United States diplomat and commentator, son of John Kenneth Galbraith
- Robert Galbraith, (born 1965), pen name of J.K. Rowling; writer of "The Cuckoo's Calling"
- Sam Galbraith (born 1945), Scottish Labour Party politician
- Sheldon Galbraith (born 1922), Canadian figure skating coach
- Tam Galbraith (1917–1982), Scottish Conservative and Unionist politician
- Thomas Dunlop Galbraith, 1st Baron Strathclyde (1891–1985), British politician
- Thomas Galbraith, 2nd Baron Strathclyde (born 1960), British Conservative Party politician
- Thomas J. Galbraith (mid-19th century), United States politician
- Vivian Hunter Galbraith, British historian
- W. R. Galbraith, (mid-late 19th century) Civil engineer in the United Kingdom
- Walter Galbraith (1918–1995), Scottish football player and manager
- 4089 Galbraith, an asteroid
- Clan Galbraith, a Scottish clan
- Galbraith Mountain, local name for North Lookout Mountain near Bellingham, Washington
- Galbraith supermarkets
- Galbraith Family History, Ancestry.com, retrieved 26 February 2013. This webpage cited: Dictionary of American Family Names, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-508137-4.
- Black, George Fraser (1946), The Surnames of Scotland: Their Origin, Meaning, and History, New York Public Library, p. 285
- Robertson, Boyd; Taylor, Iain (2003), Teach Yourself Gaelic, Teach Yourself, pp. 341–342.
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