||This article needs additional citations for verification. (November 2011)|
|Parent company||Cengage Learning|
|Founder||Frederick Gale Ruffner|
|Country of origin||United States|
|Headquarters location||Farmington Hills, Michigan|
|Publication types||Books, Databases|
Gale is an educational publishing company based in Farmington Hills, Michigan, the United States, in the western suburbs of Detroit. It was part of the Thomson Learning division of the Thomson Corporation, a Canadian company, but became part of Cengage Learning in 2007.
The company, formerly known as Gale Research and the Gale Group, is active in research and educational publishing for public and academic libraries, schools and businesses. The company may be best known for its full-text magazine and newspaper database InfoTrac and other online databases accessible from schools and libraries, as well as multi-volume reference works, especially in the areas of religion, history and social science.
In 1999, Thomson Gale acquired Macmillan Reference USA (including Scribner's Reference, Thorndike Press, Schirmer, Twayne Publishers, and G. K. Hall) from Pearson (who had acquired it from Simon & Schuster in 1998; Macmillan USA was purchased by Simon & Schuster in 1994). In 2000 it acquired the Munich-based K.G. Saur Verlag, but then sold it to Gruyter GmbH & Co. KG in 2006.
On October 25, 2006 Thomson Corporation announced that it intended to wholly divest the Thomson Learning division, because, in the words of Thomson CEO Richard Harrington, "it does not fit with our long-term strategic vision". Thomson has said that it expected this sale to generate approximately $5 billion. Thomson Learning was bought by a private equity consortium consisting of Apax Partners and OMERS Capital Partners for $7.75 billion and the name was changed from Thomson Learning to Cengage Learning on July 24, 2007.
In October 2007, Cengage Learning announced the appointment of Patrick C. Sommers as president of Gale, effective October 22, 2007.
Gale print imprints include the reference brands Primary Source Media, Scholarly Resources Inc., Schirmer Reference, St. James Press, The TAFT Group and Twayne Publishers, among others. Five Star Publishing is Gale's fiction imprint, with hundreds of books in print in the Western, Romance, Mystery and Science Fiction & Fantasy genres. Gale also sells into the K–12 market with several imprints, including U·X·L, Greenhaven Press, KidHaven Press, Lucent Books, and others.
Gale also owns large print publishers Walker Large Print and Wheeler Publishing.
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In 2008, Gale published The Encyclopedia of Race and Racism, which included an article on Zionism by Noel Ignatiev. On Dec. 17, 2009 the publisher responded to "concerns from several organizations" over "the accuracy of, and support for, certain statements in the Zionism article" by announcing the appointment of an independent committee to investigate "the factual accuracy, scholarly basis, coverage, scope, and balance of every article." In a further response to the Ignatiev article, Gale published a 10-part composite article, "Nationalism and Ethnicity," which includes evaluations of cultural nationalism in Africa, Asia, Europe, Latin America, North America and the Middle East, and Pan-Arabism, in addition to having a new article on Zionism available free of cost to all purchasers of the encyclopedia.
Gale databases 
Gale sells remote access to hundreds of online databases, some of which are updated daily. Some databases have overlapping information, but are targeted towards different markets such as K–12 schools, or public libraries. Clients chose which database they wish to subscribe to, such as: 
The company also sells the following resources:
- Gale Digital Collections, which includes the Eighteenth Century Collections Online (ECCO) distributed as print on demand books in partnership with BiblioLabs/BiblioLife.
- GaleNet – Numerous databases providing articles and analysis in a variety of subjects including business, literature, genealogy, history, health, social sciences and science
- HighBeam Research (acquired in December 2008)
- History Resource Center – Journals, reference works, and primary source documents
- Biography and Genealogy Master Index
- Associations Unlimited – Database with 460,000 international and U.S. national, regional, state, and local nonprofit membership organizations in all fields, including IRS data on U.S. 501(c) nonprofit organizations
See also 
- AccessMyLibrary – web access to Gale databases for patrons of public and school libraries
- Cengage Learning – current corporate entity
- Contemporary Authors published by Gale
- Dictionary of Literary Biography published by Gale
- Encyclopaedia Judaica published by Gale
- New Catholic Encyclopedia published by Gale
- Questia.com owned by Gale
- Encyclopedia.com owned by Gale
- Peter Foster (disambiguation)Gale UK/ROI
- Gale – Helping Libraries Prepare for the 21st Century – inforum.cz – Retrieved February 23, 2009
- McCracken, Jeffrey. "Gale Research to merge. (merger between Gale Research Co. and The Thompson Group)." Crain's Detroit Business. Crain Communications, Inc. September 21, 1998. Retrieved February 23, 2009 from HighBeam Research: http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-21199527.html
- Library Journal, June 1, 2007 – "Thomson Gale Part of Larger Sale", by Norman Oder
- Cengage Learning Names Patrick C. Sommers President of Gale
- "Gale". Retrieved 6 February 2013.
- "Gale to Commission Independent Board to Conduct Thorough Review of the Encyclopedia of... - STAMFORD, Conn., Dec. 17 /PRNewswire/". Connecticut: Prnewswire.com. Retrieved 2012-06-22.
- Cengage Learning. "Database Title Lists". Gale: Title Lists. Retrieved 15 May 2012.
- "Gale Digital Collections – Partnership with BiblioLife". gdc.gale.com. 2010. Archived from the original on 2010-12-17. Retrieved 2010-12-17.
- Thomson Gale-owned sites and services
- Gale Directory Library – dozens of print directories on a digital platform
- Goliath – site with company information
- WiseTo Social Issues – new reference website covering social issues