Galician-Asturian

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Galician-Asturian
gallego-asturiano, eonaviego
Pronunciation [ ɡaˌʎeɣoastuˈɾjano, eonaˈβjeɣo]
Native to Spain
Region Asturias
Native speakers
45,000  (2002)[1]
Latin (Asturian alphabet)
Official status
Recognised minority language in
 Asturias[2]
Regulated by Academia de la Llingua Asturiana
Language codes
ISO 639-3
Linguist list
glg-eon
Linguasphere 51-AAA-cae
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Linguistic area of Eonavian language

Eonavian or Galician-Asturian, (official name by Act 1/1998, March 23 of Principality of Asturias)[3] (autonym: eonaviego, gallego-asturiano; Asturian: eonaviegu, gallego-asturianu; Galician: eonaviego, galego-asturiano) is a term used to refer to a set of Romance dialects or falas whose linguistic dominion extends into the zone of Asturias between the Eo and Navia rivers (or more specifically the Eo and Frexulfe rivers). These dialects have been variously classified as the northeastern varieties of Galician,[4] as a linguistic group of its own,[5] or even (less often) as the westernmost varieties of Asturian[citation needed].

The area where these dialects are spoken includes the Asturian municipalities of Boal, Castropol, Coaña, Eilao, El Franco, Grandas de Salime, Pezós, San Martín de Ozcos, Santalla de Ozcos, Santiso de Abres, Tapia de Casariego, Taramundi, A Veiga, Vilanova de Ozcos, and partially those of Navia, Ibias, Villayón, and Allande.

Other terms used include gallego-asturiano, the official term in Asturias,[6] meaning "Galician-Asturian language", a fala ("the speech", not to be confused with the Fala language of Extremadura) and Galego de Asturias ("Galician language of Asturias"). The term Eonaviego was first used by the linguist Xavier Frías Conde, who translated it as Eonavian in English, Éonavien in French, and Eonavienc in Catalan. In 2007, the Academy of the Asturian Language accepted the denomination of Eonavian to refer to this Galician-Portuguese dialect.

This set of dialects was traditionally included by linguists as Galician-Portuguese, or Galician, with some characteristics of the Astur-Leonese Group. That was the opinion of such linguists as Menéndez Pidal,[7] Eugenio Coseriu, Luís Lindley Cintra,[8] Dámaso Alonso, and more recent ones such as Francisco Xavier Frías Conde[9] and Xoán Babarro.[10] Nowadays, however, there is a political-linguistic conflict on the identity of the language, between those that prioritize the mixed identity of this speech and those that continue to prioritize the Galician substratum. The former, mostly in Asturias, identify Eonavian as a dialect continuum between the Asturian and Galician languages, or even a third language belonging to Portuguese-Galician Group spoken only in that area (Ruth González Rodríguez, Ricardo Saavedra Fernández-Combarro and Xoxé Miguel Suárez).[11] The latter, mostly in Galicia, identify it as Galician and request the same protection as is given to Galician in Castile and Leon, that protects the dialects of El Bierzo in cooperation with the Galician Government.

Classification[edit]

Linguistic areas of Asturias, attending only to scientific criteria. In green, Asturogalician languages and in purple, Asturoleonese languages

From a philological point of view, there is not doubt today that the origin of this language is in the Galician-Portuguese language family, the dominant language in the NW of the Iberian peninsula in the Middle Ages. This follows from an examination of the more than six hundred parchments preserved in the monastery of Villanueva de Oscos. An examination of the documents of this monastery, written from the late 12th to early 14th centuries, show an absolute identity between this language and the Galician-Portuguese language.[12]

On an early stage are only documented translations of copies of ancient Latin deeds, that were beginning to be unintelligible to the common people, (v. AHN sec. clergy, carp. 1617, AHN, Sec Clergy, carp. No. 1617. 15, no. 2, Sec AHN clergy carp. 1621 No 15 etc.) and there will not be until mid-13th century when will appear the first original deeds written in the Galician-Portuguese language. In the early 14th century was begun to reveal the oddness of this language with the rest of the galacoifonía. The most of these developments were the result of the Castilian language advancement in the urban centers of the River Eo: Revoredo, Ribadeo and Castropol, such influence was more significant in the writings of the bishops' notaries of Oviedo in these villages,but if the influence of Castilian was growing in the urban centers, the manuscripts of the monastery notaries still kept the original features of this language and others were added that then appear.

The cartulary of Oscos is an essential landmark for understanding the evolution of the Galician-Portuguese language, however monastery's influence was ended with the arrival of the Castillian Congregation in 1511. Its time to close a stage and start another one of great economic and social growth of the monastery around the iron industries, nevertheless with the installation of the reformed order, ended the written language period until its re-emergence in the late 19th century.

Comparative table[edit]

Galician Galician-Asturian Galician-Portuguese (13th-15th c.) Portuguese Western Asturian Latin English
Western Central
cans [ˈkaŋs][13] cas [ˈkas] cais [ˈkajs] cães/cããs cães [ˈkãj̃ɕ] canes [kanes] canes dogs
cabalo [kaˈbalo] cabalo [kaˈbalo] cabalo/caballo [kaˈbalo]/[kaˈbaʎo] * cavalo cavalo [kaˈvaɫu] caballu [kaˈbaʎu] equus horse
ladróns [laˈðɾoŋs] ladrós [laˈðɾos] ladróis/lladróis [laˈðɾojs]/[ʎaˈðɾojs] * ladrões ladrões [ɫaˈðrõj̃ɕ] l.ladrones [ʈʂaðrones] latrones robbers
irmán [iʀˈmaŋ] irmao [iʀˈmao] ermao [eʀˈmao] irmão irmão [iʀˈmãw] hermanu [eʀˈmanu] germanum brother
luz [ˈlus] luz [ˈluθ] luz/lluz [ˈluθ], [ˈʎuθ] * luz/lus luz [ˈɫujʃ] l.luz [ˈʈʂuθ] lucem light
lonxe [ˈlonʃe] lonxe [ˈlonʃe] lònxe/llònxe [ˈlɔnʃe]/ [ˈʎɔnʃe] * longe longe [ˈɫõʒi] ] l.loñe [ˈʈʂoɲe] longe long (far)
cinco [ˈsiŋko] cinco [ˈθiŋko] cinco [ˈθiŋko] cinco cinco [ˈsinku] cincu [ˈθiŋku] quinque five
ollo [ˈoʎo]/[ˈɔʝo][14] ollo [ˈoʎo]/[ˈɔʝo][14] òyo [ˈɔʝo] ollo olho [ˈoʎu] güeyu/güechu [ˈweʝu]/[ˈwetʃu] oculum eye
hora [ˈɔɾa][15] hora [ˈɔɾa]/[ˈoɾa] hora [ˈoɾa] hora hora [ˈɔɾa] hora horam hour
home [ˈome] home [ˈɔme] hòme [ˈɔme] home homem [oˈmẽ] huome/home [ˈwome]/[ˈome] hominem man
ti cantaste(s) [kantaste(s)][16] tu/ti cantaches [tu kantatʃes] tu cantache [tu kanˈtatʃe] tu cantaste tu cantaste [tu kãˈtasti] tu cantasti [kanˈtasti] tu cantavisti you sang
animás [aniˈmas][17] animás [aniˈmas][17] animales [aniˈmales][17] animaes animais [aniˈmajs] animales [aniˈmales] animales animals
niña [ˈniɲa] niña [ˈniɲa] nía [niˈa] ninna menina [meˈnina] neña[ˈneɲa] puellam girl

(*) The lateral sound ʎ: Porcia River to Navia River. The lateral sound l: Eo River to Porcia River.

Diachronic Evolution[edit]

Next, is shown the evolution of the language, taking into account the Monastery of Oscos parchments:

English Latin Galician-Portuguese Mediaeval Galician-Asturian Current Galician-Asturian
high altu(m) outo outo alto
tree árbor(em) árvol árvore árbol
key clave (m) chave chave chave
right directu (m) direyto dereyto dereito/dereto
son filius (um) fillo fillo fiyo
ward (keep) guardare guardar gardar guardar
plant plantare chantar chantar chantar
bring tradere trager trager trer
wash lavare lavar lavar/llavar lavar/llavar
hand mānu(m) mão maao mao
apple mattiāna (m) maçã maçaa mazà
mine mea (m) minna/mía mĩa (mina) mía
much multu(m) muito/ muyn muito muito
black niger /nigrum nieiro/neiro neiro negro
night nox/nócte(m) noite noite nòite
obligate obligare obrigar obridar obrigar
who quī / quem quem quen quèn
wall parĭes/ parĕtem parede parede parede
four quattuor quatro quatro cuatro
one (f.) ūna(m) ũa/ hũa ũa úa
leave salire sair sair salir
yours tuus /tuum teu tou tou
truth veritas/ veritatem verdade verdade verdá
English Latin Galician-Portuguese Mediaeval Galician Asturian[18] Current Galician-Asturian

Phonetic system[edit]

Vowels:

Vocalic tónic System in Eonavian
  • Tonic vowels. The system of tonic vowels is similar to Galician, since there are 7 of these vowels in both languages. This information was used by Menéndez Pidal when he assigned this language to the group of Galician-Portuguese Languages[19] This system is very stable, overlooking the alterations that can be observed by effects of metaphony in other regions of Galician phonetics.[20]
Unstressed vowels in Eonavian.
  • Initial unstressed vowels. As was indicated by García García regarding unstressed vowels, "Unlike other areas of Galician phonetics, there aren't relevant differences between open and closed -e- and -o- and can be considered the sound of variant pairs, each with their own archiphonemes, keeping The following system: -i-, E-, a,-O-, u.[21]
Unstressed vowels in final position
  • Final unstressed vowels. There are three unstressed vowels in final position: -e-,-o-and-a -.[22] There is the loss of the -o endings -ene and -inu, ‘sen’, ‘fren’, ‘centen’, 'allén', ‘padrín’, ‘camín’... Is an overall conservation "-e" syllables end, after ‘-ete’ and ‘ite’ headquarters, 'rede', 'vide', 'parede', etc. .. clearer still in place names ‘San Mamede’, ‘Nonide’, ‘Taladride’. It is also normal to have conservation “-e” after “θ”, like in ‘couce, 'fouce', etc. On the other hand has been lost under the influence of Castilian, ‘salú’, ‘verdá’, ‘enfermedá’. The paragogic vowel -e- after liquids consonant appear very residually, Acevedo y Huelves cite ‘carcele’. The final vowel -o- has disappeared in suffix -elo, in toponyms: ‘Tol’, ‘Castropol’, ‘Boal’, etc.
  • Nasal vowels. Until the 19th century, nasal vowels were a fairly common phenomenon throughout Eonaviego, however today it is very unusual. Damaso Alonso was the first in confirming this phenomenon, widespread in nearby Ancares Mountains. M. Menéndez García finds nasality remains in Freixulfe and points in Villallón Village, y Celso Muñiz in the Valledor region, in the frontier with the Asturo-leonese languages. These remnants of nasal vowels in the Eonavian language explain that in this language the syllables ended in nasal coda are always opened, necessary consequence of these sounds velarization, stage prior to the formation of vocalism nasal.[23]
  • Change ringing in unstressed vowels when enclitic position absolute with labial consonant and vowel assimilation.[24] * Unstressed vowels in initial position. Regarding the unstressed vowels, as pointed out by García García "Unlike other areas of the Galaicofonía, there are relevant differences between-e-y-o-open and closed sounds can be considered such as variants of two separate couples archiphoneme, keeping The following system-i-, E-, a,-O-, u.[25]
  • Achievements of nasal vowels and vowel lengthening. As is clearly evident by García García the nasalization of vowels preceding tonic or atonic to ensure –n- in coda “tamen”, or situated between nasal consonants “mañá”. Vowel lengthening occurs as a result by contractions: "vou à casa" or by compensation as a result of the loss of intervocalic nasal "machacan a 'llá/lá", "Que mañá' nos traiga un día de solín".[26] This extension is also in the case of concomitant vowels, for o highlight the article, like occurs in the proverb "A terra que da á ortiga".

Diphthongs:

  • a) Falling diphthong: 'couto', 'souto', 'cantou', 'deitou', 'cantei'...
  • b) Anticipation of the “yod”, like: 'naide', 'coiro', 'agoiro', 'cadeira'...
  • c) Absence of nasal diphthong to end this noted by Menendez Garcia as one of the benchmark isoglosses the speeches and Asturleonesas Galaicas.[27]

Semivowels

  • a) Wau Unlike Galician-Portuguese and Portuguese, the Eonavian like Galician tends to the abolition of semiconsonants, although it has evolved its own evolution, linked to treatment of nasality, such as the relative articles ‘condo’, ‘contó’ or the toponyms 'Sayane' (Saint John) and the names 'Xan'(John, 'Xanón' (Big John) etc…
  • b) Yod: In Eonaviego as in the rest of the Galaicofonía tends to anticipatory assimilation, although today, both Eonaviego and Gallego have a strong influence of the Castilian, in both cases this process does not extend beyond the influence by him. Examples: 'naide', 'beizo', 'coiro', 'caldeiro', 'ribeira', etc...

Nasal consonants:

Map about Galician-Portuguese speaking areas taking into account principally the nasality factor. Map based on Fernández Rei's outline, "Dialectoloxía da lingua galega".
  • a) Lost intervocalic vowels. This fact is the argument of greater weight to who are opposed to the theory of continuum Astur-Galician, precisely because there is the curious fact that this phenomenon is accentuated in the municipalities close to the probable Eonaviegos West following a north-south trend is started in Portugal. This fact is manifested in the formation of plurals, on increases in the training of women, but especially in the loss of the nasal-palatal.[28]
  • b) Velarization of nasal vowels and deformation due to n-falling. Dámaso Alonso, «Engañar, volar, casos y resultados de velariación de –n- en el dominio Gallego».[29]
  • c) Evolution of group Latin nn > n.
  • d) Keeping of group -mb-.
  • e) Simplification of the group m’l y m’n > m
  • f) Lost of the Nasal-palatals, in diminutive feminine, vaquía, cousía, roupía, etc. and some masculines foucío, campío, en el sufijo -ieiro/a: cocieira, dieiro, mulieiro, etc.

Lateral consonants:

  • a) Keeping intervocalic lateral consonants. Except in the counties more westerly is trend to the maintenance of intervocalic -l Should indicate that this is a recent phenomenon as in cartulary of Villanueva de Oscos Monastery the tendency to the disappearance of the intervocalic -l- is like the rest of the Galician-Portuguese languages.
  • b) Palatalization of the initial lateral and degemination absence of the "-ll-" Latin. These uses today, we can see only half the territory, however, the examination of the Cartulary de Oscos confirm that this phenomenon was widespread in all Galician and Asturian counties from Eo and Navia. (See García Leal, "En los Albores del Asturiano (II). «La palatización de la -l- inicial en la documentación latina altomedieval del Reino Astur-leonés», (718-1037).
  • c) Velarization the group "B'D" (cold, Dold, etc.), a phenomenon now very residual, totally unknown to Huelves Acevedo García García who reported "coldo" and "codo" but was widespread in the Oscos' cartulary.[30]

Evolution of the Latin groups:

  • a) Evolution -cl-, -pl- y -fl- to palatal dull sound. There is an agreement in this point with western Bable and Galician, since the “che vaqueira” tends to be more fricative(š) than affricate (ć).
  • b) Evolution of the group -lt-, -ct- and -sc- to it and ix
  • c) Evolution of the group dj, gj, gi, j, nj, li, gl to palatal
  • d) Evolution of the group “ss” to palatal, dull fricative
  • e) Evolution of the group gy, -dy-, -sc- to palatal dull fricative
  • f)The liquid consonants after occlusives changed to vocalic sound: oculu > òyo, vetulu > vèyo, apicula > abeya, tegula > tèya, flagrare > cheirar, agru > eiro, cathedra > cadèira.

An other phenomenon itself :

  • a) Slide to fricative sound occlusives sharper than Asturian even more than the Galician language: 'louxa', 'vixo', 'dexobado', 'xardía', 'broxa', 'xebrar', 'xastre', 'ameixola', 'èixola'.
  • b) Palatalization to letter x.
  • c) Distinction between palatals, fricatives and laterals. García García proposes following oppositions: 'callo' ('callar' verb), cayo ('caer' verb), rayo (meteorological phenomenon), rallo ('rallar' verb), etc.
  • d) Neutralization of liquid pool, although this phenomenon is on the verge of disappearance.
  • e) Keeping sound -f- Latin.
  • f) Evolution geminate “ss” to fricative: Lat. passaru > Eon. páxaro, Lat. bassare > Eon. baxar, etc.

Morphological aspects[edit]

Verbal Forms

  • Verbal tenses: Indicative: Present, Imperfect, Perfect simple, Past perfect simple, Future Conditional; Subjunctive: Present and imperfect; Imperative, Infinitive simple and conjugate, participle and gerund.
  • Synthetic future. In Eonavian is characteristic the construction of the future tense with the phrase verb 'haber' + pronoun + tense infinitive: "eiyes atizar" u otras "eivos dar", "y'a poñer", which are similar to others used in Galician-Portuguese to prioritize the personal pronoun to the desinence ending: atizaryes-ei, darvos-ei, poñerlle-a.[31]
  • Conjugated infinitive. Use of conjugated infinitive in subordinate constructions where the infinitive end or part of a prepositional phrase, where processes have different subjects and aims to avoid ambiguity.
  • Verbal desinence. There is in this language, like the rest of the family Galician-Portuguese, a strong dependence of original vocalism in the Latin language, in fact, that in Galician-Asturian is even more conservative. So e.g., the verbal inflection of Eonavian is conditioned by the loss of the distinction between open and closed vowels in Vulgar Latin. The disappearance of the distinction between unstressed vowels, and given the mobility of stressed vowels within the verbal root, the morpheme was prevailed over the root in most cases, distinguishing between open and closed position as tonic when combined.

Thus the vowels acquired certain metaphonic connotations, to incorporate this distinction into verbal inflection, ignoring the etymological origin of the words. So in cases of strong personal forms, namely, the three person singular and third plural present indicative, subjunctive and the whole of the second imperative, speakers always distinguish between vowel -e- and o-open, always distinguishing between strong and weak forms other than monosyllabic verbs, where the stressed vowel of the root morpheme and the match, and with the exception of the verbs give duty and, in fact irregular in Galician-Asturian. That said, these are the main features of the verb forms in this language:

- Desinence –des in the 2nd person plural every conjugations. Confirm, García García, that although the ending is maintained stably in the 2nd and 3rd, in the 1st conjugation is giving way to the influence of Castilian -ais and -aides.[32]
- Desinence of perfect past –che. Verbal Forms 1st person singular: ‘veño’, ‘teño’, ‘vexo’.
- Deformation vocal by rizotónic effect.
- Keeping infinitive ended in “-r-“ to the join with pronomes
- Disappearance of the desinence –s- in 1st person plural to join ‘nos’ enclitic.
- The -n- paragogic is presented in 1st person singular perfect in all strong and bending double –er, -ir, dixen-, puxen, fun, salin, còmín.
- Endings in “-i” often take -n paragójica: tomein, falein, subirein, falarein, hein, sein.
- Using the vowel e-open forms 1st person plural past (coyèmos, dixèmos), or the open vowel –o- in the forms of plural in 2nd and 3hd (fòmos, fòron).
- The infinitive in –er- in many verbs in Castillian is in -ir, so e.g.: ‘morrer’, ‘encher’, ‘ferver’, ‘render’, etc., less frequently and in form hesitant, conversely: ‘valir’/’valer’ y ‘tosir’/’toser’.
- Alternation occurs -e- open and closed ar verbs with-e-open rizotónica. In these, is opened the vowel -e- radical of three persons of the singular and 3ª of the plural.
- In the inchoative verbs and other in-cer and circulatory, the 1st person singular present indicative and subjunctive all present are treated as "ces” –“ce”, lluzo, lluce, lluza, lluzas, lluza.
- Alternation -e- opened and -e- closed in the thematic vowel tonic of most verbs in -er.
- The vowel -e- closed is typical of the three persons in plural of the perfect simple, six of pluperfect simple, all the imperfect subjunctive in the two series, forms of the gerund and the 1st person future. Present-e-closed the 1st and 2nd person plural of this tense, the plural of the imperative the 1st and 2nd person plural of the future, both in this as in the hypothetical future-e.
- There are verbs (‘medir’ and sentir) that show alternation i/e in the root vowel: with -i-in the strong forms (forms in the singular and 3rd plural of present tense, of singular imperative and all the subjunctive) and -e-in the weak vowels.
- As in Western Asturian occurs, is accentuated in the first two persons of the plural present subjunctive.
  • Composite shapes. Garcia Garcia and Celso Muñiz admit the existence of composite shapes with verb ‘ter’ as an assistant, but with a criterion more restricted than in Castilian and probability connotations. However this position should be noted, more as such an approach particular of these authors on the morphosyntax of the compound forms than as the existence of one's own specialty of the Eonavian language.

Nominal Forms

  • Gender and number. The gender and number is made into analogic desinences: o/a, os/as. Theses forms are altered by effect the lost the consonant -n- intervocalic: ratois (mice), caxois (drawers).
  • Augmentatives and diminutives. The instability of nasal consonants make the alteration also of the augmentatives and diminutives forms: casúa (big house), pedrúa (big stones), casía (small house), pedría (small stone), etc.
  • Plural Gender. It is also characteristic of Eonavian, change gender to specify a group or an unknown number of things, so e.g. "el anada", "el herba", (is different "a herba" a blade of grass, than "el hierba", a grass farod), in adverbial locutions to "da feito" (in fact), "da remoyo" (soacking), etc.
  • Identity between male and neutral articles and demonstrative. Although the forms of gender-neutral are widespread, as has highlighted Frías Conde, the use of these forms is due to the influence of Castilian, so these forms originally was unknown in Eonavian, («Los derivados de "ille" e "illum" en el gallego de Asturias», Revista de Filología Románica, nº 10, 1993, pp. 241–252), so if it in itself is strange that it is precisely the neutral "lo", the only article that begins in a consonant, it is beyond question the strangeness of that article, if we consider that no analyst records the existence of contractions with article -lo', something which is unacceptable both in Galician and Asturian.

Syntax[edit]

Pronominal forms

  • Keeping Latin vocalism of the first-person pronoun, albeit with different embodiments: Èu/Èo
  • General extension of prepositional contractions of a similar nature. Contractions of unstressed pronouns, accusative dative used more so in enclitic position that proclitic: mo, ma, mas, cho, cha, chas, yo, yos, yas.
  • Distinction between accusative and dative in the personal pronouns so in 2ª te/che than in 3ª person ye/lo/la. The pronominal form «min» used always as a complement with preposition: a min, por min, de min, etc.
  • Using interest dative: ‘’Eso nun che me gusta nada, vouchéme fer un traxe, llevábachebos un traxe, éche grande, vaiye cansao’’. In these cases the pronomes “che”- and –“ye”- have sympathetic value or of interest to highlight the attention of the recipient of the action. However the indirect object lost this condition when t is preceded by the reflexive indirect object, then normal operating.
  • The roll of no reflexive complement, is replaced by different forms contracts: ‘’ye: yo, ya, yos, yas, así: deoyo, llevayo’’, etc.

System verb combinations:

  • Temporary periphrasis future or imminent: ir (a) + inf. Vouche contar el que pasou; estar a + inf. estar + ger.: tábamos a mirar os coches; haber + inf. haber a + mf. haber de + inf.: heivos dar as ferramentas, hía a contarvos úa cousa, han de traballar máis; Querer + inf: Peime que quer estear.
  • Modal periphrasis of duty or hypotetical. Haber (de) + mf. Habemos cuntar as ovellas; haber que + mf. (imp.): hai que reforzar a ponte; ter que + inf.: tivemos que botalo abaxo; deber + inf.: débeste erguer máis cedo; poder + inf. Xa podes vir pra acó.[33]
  • Aspectual periphrasis:
a) Imperfectives: andar a + inf.= andar + ger; anda a falar máis da conta; levar a + inf. = levar + ger. Leva todo el día a durmir; ir + ger. Xa imos recollendo nisas;
b) Perfectives: acabar de + mf. Acaba de ye falar; dar (por) + part: Non dou feira a xeira; deixar de + inf: Deixamos de trabayar onte; levar + part. Iva durmido xa tres horas; ter + part.” Teño rematado(s) os exames; haber + part.: ha falao con él dúas veces.[34]

Partitives .

  • Keeping prepositional syntagma partitives (accusative partial) in restrictive clauses or specify content with transitive verbs.[35]

Prepositions:

  • Prepositions: a, agá, ante, ata, acía, baxo, cara, con, contra, de, dende, en, entre, escontra, menos, pra, prantre, por, según, sen, xunta, tras/tres.

The Chartulary of the Oscos Abbey[edit]

Monastery of Oscos Apse

One of the most relevant aspects of this tongue is the study of its evolution for Middle Ages through the parchments which are kept in the Villanueva de Oscos Chartulary. This Chartulary is the fourth most important in Asturias after San Pelayo, San Vicente and the Oviedo's Chatedral, being very interesting its conservation, if we take into account the huge information provided with regard to a community so small like was the Villanueva de Oscos Abbey. These documents show us the vitality of this language in the Middle Ages and give us very important information about the origin of the romance languages in the northwest of Iberian Peninsula. The Chartulary preserves 616 parchments about the Middle Ages: 32 from the 12th century, 261 from the 13th century, 224 from the 14th century and 99 from the 15th century.[36]

The first scholar who dealt with its study, was Aureliano Fernández-Guerra in 1865 in the very important article «Speech about the Carther of Aviles», in this study, he used extracts of 19 documents, dating since 1256 until 1316. In the following year, Martín Sangrador y Vitores includes in his work about Asturias Administration a copy in Galician language of the Royal Prerrogative which was given away by Fernando II to the Abbey. The next edition of the documents about monastery had to wait until the middle of the 20th century when the Royal Institute of Asturian Studies, RIDEA, edits the article «El convento benedictino de Villanueva de Ozcos»[37] by Marcos G. Martínez, edition rather poor, and we should wait until 1981 when Pedro Floriano Llorente publishes in RIDEA «Colección dipolomática de Villanueva de Ozcos»,[38] that implies an important improvement concerning the previous, both by perfection technical, as by the personal and toponymic references.

Nonetheless, this edition just deals with this issue as far as the 1200 year. In 1994, the Britonia journal takes back again the interest about this issue and publishes the second serial of the monastery's parchments, edited by Floriano Llorente and which cover until the first half of the 13th century. This edition, however, failed to meet the editors' expectations, because doesn't produce any document in romance language. For that reason, Britonia publishes a second version less known which covers until the 1300 year, which is more interesting for the study of this question.

These works will serve as a basis, for publishing another set of documents by the professor Alvárez Castrillón, in his book Los Ozcos en los siglos X-XIII, un modelo de organización social del espacio en la Asturias medieval, (2001), this work, however, only addresses the historic aspects, and nor the linguistics. In the following years, the professor Sanz Fuentes has published also four documents more with regard to Buron Hospital. Finally Alvárez Castrillón, has edited in 2008 others 605 parchments as attachment at the book «La Comarca de los Oscos en la Edad Media, poblamiento, economía y poder», and in 2011, he edited other 293 documents more concerning stage 1139–1300, Colección Diplomática del Monasterio de Santa María de Villanueva de Oscos, (1139-1300).

The documents of the chartulary give us an important information for the knowledge of the language which was spoken in the western Asturias during the Middle Ages. These documents shown us the origin and the evolution of this language, however this serial of parchments finishes with the arrival the Congregation of Castile in 1511 at Monastery, which moment will be an end of a cycle and will be the beginning of a new one, the big economic growth around the iron industry. However with the installation of the reformed Order, it closes the documental history of this language until it resurges late in the 19th century.

Texts[edit]

2nd half of the 12th century, 1153

...Testo uobis et concedo per suis terminis certis per termino de Menustux e inde de super ad petram de Gio a Cornu de Menyones, et ad penna de Teyxeyra, et al Pico pequeno, et allas mestas de Bouspoulim) et como uay pello regueyro a Sobrepe aa pena das ouellas, et inde in directum ad petra Vocatoria et ad aquam de Ferueça et cómodo uertitur aquam al final de Pena Leyra, na Gauia per ubi potueritis inueniere.... Ad patrem (sic) vero regis quingentos solidos boos exsoluat.

—Floriano Llorente, Pedro.Coleción diplomática del Monasterio de Villanueva de Oscos, 1981, RIDEA, 102, p. 138[39]

1st half of the 13th century

Cunusçuda cousa seia a quantos esta carta viren commo eu María Uicentez de Cedamona vendo a uos abbade don Guillermo de Santa María de Villa Noua d’Oscos e ao conueto desse mismo lugar quanta heredade eu aio e deuo auer en Çedamona por preço qua a mí e a uos ben prougo, conuen a saber: hun boy boon e çen solidos, preço me outorgo por ben pagada e sse mays val doo por Deus e por mina alma e de meus parentes. E de este día en deante seia tirada de nosso poder e seia metuda en no uosso e no do moestero e se alzen da mina parte ou da aldea contra esta uençon contra esta doaçon veer, aia a maldiçon de Deus e a mina e con Iudas eno inferno iasca por senpre e aa uoz del rey peyte çen morabentinos e dobre ao moestero a heredade e a carta uala por senpre. Feyta a carta en Gyo...

—Floriano Llorente, Pedro.Coleción diplomática del Monasterio de Villanueva de Oscos, 1981, RIDEA, 102, p. 142,[39]

2nd half of the 13th century, 1261

Se vos ende quissierdes yr leyxade a quarta de quanto overdes ao monasterio… a vossa morte venirdes aa septultura do monasterio con vossas mandaciones

—Castellano Oliveros, Luis. "Algunas reflexiones sobre el infinitivo conjugado en los documentos del Monasterio de Villanueva de Oscos", Britonia II, 1995-1996, p. 124

2nd half of the 13th century, 19 June 1276

In dei nomine Amen. Cunnuzuda cousa seia aquantos esta carta viren et oyren. Como nos don Miguel pela gracia de dios Abbade do Monesteyro de Sancta Maria de Vila Noua d’Oscos et ho Conuento dese mismo logar. Damos anos Rodrigo Affonso tam sola mente poren uossos dias emprestamo: amea daquela nossa herdade de vila Donga. Que he ena Vila d’Aures aque tenno de uos Lope Trauesso. Et damos uola todos sous terminos et con todos sous vilares assy comoa nos auemos. Per tal preyto uos damos esta herdade sobredita quela non possades vender nen supinnorar nen enallenar per neguna maneyra et adia de vosso passamento que ffique esta herdade ia dita liure et quita al Monesteyro ia dito con quanto bon paramento enela ouuer.

Et Eu Rodrigo Affonso ia dito obridome per mi et per todas mias bonas et su pena Mil mrs. de Moeda Real; que nunca esta herdade ia dita meu fillo et filla nen quen vener en mias bonas; que nuncaa embarguen al Monesteyro ia dito. Et se meu fillo ou mia filla aesta carta quiseren passar aian amia maldizion et nunca seian herdados en mia herdade, et peyten al Monesteyro mil moravidiis da moeda real et acarta seia sempre atodo tempo valiosa. Et eu Rodrigo Affonso ia dito; recibo de vos don abade et do Conuento ia dito este prestamo que me vos dades et outorgo ben et lealmente de comprir quanto esta carta diz. Et que esto seia mays ffirme et no possa venir en dolda.

Mandamos ambas las partes ffacer esta carta partida per ABC feyta carta en Vila noua d’Oscos XII dias por andar del mes de Junyo en era de mil et CCC et XIII annos. Regnante el rey don Affonso en Leon en Castela en todos los outros sous Rengos ayglegia de Oviedo porgante. Rodrigo Rodriguiz meyrino mayor del Rey eno Regno de Leon et en Asturias, osque presentes foron Suer Lopez prior testis, Pay Martiniz Suprior testis. Miguel Celareyro testis, Iohan Pelaiz vestiario testis, Pero Fernandiz cantor; testis Petro Iohanes sucantor testis, Andreu Perez clerigo desancta offemena testis, sou parente pero pelaiz clerigo testis, Lope Díaz testis, Meen Perez testis, Pay Eanes testis, Pero Chazin testis Gonzalo caio testis ffernan Díaz fillo de Diego vello testis et outros muytos que viron et oyron et eu Freire Domingo Monniz Notario puplico de Vila Nova d’Oscos scriui esta carta per mandado danbaslas partos et puys enela meusinal
Fernández Guerra y Orbe, Aureliano, Discurso en la Real Academia Española en el aniversario de su fundación, Madrid, 1865, p 84

2nd half of the 13th century

Devante de vos Johan Rodriguez, juyz del Rey, Eu frey Johan Peláez vestiario de Vila Nova d’Oscos polo abbade e polo convento desse mismo logar, dígonos querellando e pézonos por justicia que fagades ao concello da Pobra de Revoredo, que como nos eno noso monte de Candanosa teníamos noso frade o qual monte iaz eno noso couto de Santa Columba, ho qual couto avemos ven gardado con todos sous dereytos, que veneron los omes da pobla de Revoredo acernaron os nosos montes, nomenadamente… Ende nos dizemos que los danos que feceron enos montes devanditos os quaes nos pertenecen de dereyto e deven ser nosos por razón de Santa Columba que nolos fagades entregar os quaes danos estimamonos C maravedís dos pretos. Salvo de toller e de nader se mester for

— Alvárez Castrillón, José A., Los Oscos en los siglos X-XII, p. 144.

1st half of the 14th century, 1328[40]

E por esta doaçión e por esta esmolna que vos Pedro Méndez façedes ao monsterio sobredito e abade e convento que son e que an de de vir, e por cuanto ben e emparamento façedes ao mosterio e prometedes de façer, nos abbade e convento logo de presente reçebemosvos llogo por noso familiar e damosvos e outorgamos parte en todo o ben que se feçer no mosterio de Santa María de Villa Nova en toda a orden de Cistel ata o día da fin do mundo...

—Alvárez Castrillón, José A., Los Oscos en los siglos X-XII p. 144.

2nd half of the 13th century, 2nd half, year XIV 1377

Sepan quantos esta carta viren commo Teresa Meen, frada profesa no Monesterio de Santa María de Villa Nova d'Oscos, do en doazon al dito monesterio, por las almas de meu padre de mina madre e mía, e de aquelos a quen eu son teuda, todos benes asy mobres commo rayzes que eu aio en Lanteyro, en Bullaso, en Lavallos e en Mon, e en todos los terminos e jurdiçon da Probra de Castropol, e otorgo e mando que seian do monesterio todos, por quanto os mandaron y meu padre e mina madre con meu otorgamento. E vos, o dito don Abbad e convento, non me avedes a tirar estos erdamentos nen parte de delos, nen los otros que y el monesterio que levava meu padre e mia madre por los trinta maravedís según teno huna carta per que nos aforastes e dovos liçençia que vos pósades trocar e ministrar por lo dito foro os novos delos. E non avedes a dar nen aforar, nen vender, nen supinnorar, nen allear, nen malparar estos ditos herdamentos e benes. E Eu Teresa Meen frada profesa do dito monesterio asy o otorgo e prometo de ter e gardar todo esto que se aquí reconta.

—Alvárez Castrillón, José A., Los Oscos en los silgos X-XII, p. 187.

1st half of the 14th century, 1417

...per tal preyto e condyçon vos aforo estas ditas herdades que as lavredes ben, e paredes ben, e que diades nos el dito don Abade e monesterio por foro cada anno huna taega de bon centeno medido per la medida dita de Santalla, livre de polvo e de palla; e que seyades amigos boos e leales do monesterio ennas cousas que vos poderdes, e qe estas ditas herdades que vos non posades vender nen subpynorar nen escabyar a outra parte por ninguna manera, e a la morte ou saydo del postermeyro de vos a los desste foro sayr que nos fiquen ao dito monesterio as ditas erdades lyvres e quitas e desenbargadas de vos e de vosa voz con todos sous chantados e aboamentos que elas estevere, vosa novydade alçada dando al monesterio aquelo que lle deverdes deste dito foro as quales herdades iaçcen su signo de Santalla d'Oscos...

—Alvárez Castrillón, José A., Los Oscos en los silgos X-XII, p. 215

2nd half of the 15th century, 1466

Sepan quantos esta carta viren commo nos don Lope abbad del moesterio de Santa María de Uilla Nova d’oscos, e prior e conuento do dito moesterio aforamos a uos Lopez Pérez e a uosa muller Ynés Fernández, e a os fillos e netos que ouierdes unos de outros, conuén a saber que uos aforamos o noso casal de Bustapena asy commo lebóu e usou Miguel Andrés que ende moróu, casa e orrio e teytos e paos e erdamentos [bravos e] mansos que lle pertenescen e con la erdad que foy de [...] Domínguez e de Aluaro que lauraua Aluaro de Perdigueros. [Esto] todo asy commo senpre andóu esto commo dito [he vos] aforamos que déades e pagedes de foro en cada hun anno todos los foros e deretos ao convento e [ao moesterio] asy commo pagaua o dito Miguel Andrés e desta erdad que auedes de dar el quarto a Dominga Fernández por seus días muller que foe de Aluaro de Perdigueros...

—Alvárez Castrillón, José A., Los Oscos en los silgos X-XII p. 233

2nd half of the 16th century, Ibias Tormaleo, song

Deita palla al boi Gonzalvo

Deita palla á ó boy
Freija Ferrández fiandera honrada
puja cada fío, va pucherada

— Cartas de Eugenio de Salazar vecino y natural de Madrid escrita a sus particulares amigos suyos, publicada por la sociedad de Bibliófilos españoles, Madrid, Imprenta y estinotipia de Rivadeneyra, 1866, p. 88

19th century

(Boal):

Lliras che quito, nel marco las poño, toma, can, lliras y pan.

En Villanova nin vaca nin nora nacen os gutos y votanlos fora.
En Llanteiro nun hay mozas, en Mezà todas son veyas, en Miñagon milindrosas y en Serandías a fror d'ellas.
Pernas tortas das Cavanas, regallóis os da Pilella, chamuscados os de Boal, viva el llugarín de Armal.

Veite cerzo, cercellín, de este valle regueirín, qu'ei che vèn Xuan de riba, xurando y devotando, que ch'a partir ua dida, si te coye costa arriba, que ch'a partir un brazo si te coye costa abaxo.
—Acevedo Huelves, Boal y su Concejo, Oviedo 1.898 pp. 50, 61 and 76

(Villanueva de Oscos, village)

Polavila polavila, Eu ben sei donde la hay, indo porlo río arriba no moliño de meu pay

—.Acevedo Huelves, Boal y su Concejo, Oviedo 1.898 p. 76.[41]

(El Franco, village)

En casa chía, llougo se fai a cía.
Condo che dian a oveya, coye a corda y vay por ella.
As cuitas ayías, num me quitan dormir.
A mía fiya arruita fame muita, a mía nora vocía e de chía.
A terra que da á ortiga è pra mía fiya/, a que nun la cría è pra mía vecía
Pra que nun queren, teño èo abondo
Antroido, godoiro, paso por Arbon con un cesto na mau comendo rapón.
D`os sesenta pra riba, nun moyes a barriga.
De valdre texen os cais, que nun rompen a roupa.
A vaca da mía vecía, da meyor lleite ca mía.
Condo Dios nun quer, os Santos nun poden.
Que mañá nos traiga, un boo día de solín.
Arco de veya revolve na terra, col dido monín que nun chova por mín, col dido pulgar que chova nel mar.
Foyas na figueira, farros na ribeira.
Cerco lluar ponte a enxugar.
Xente de marina, xente de gran caldeirada, día de muyto víspera de nada.
Home fraque y non de fame, mira que nun te agarre.
Condo chove y fai frío, cantan os gallos na veira del río.
Condo Dios quer, de todos os ventos chove
El anada de un mal ano, máyase nun eirado.
Cantaide nenas, cantaide, /cantaide y nun teñais pena/que ven un barco de mozos/ a dous cuartos á docena.
Si a Candeleira chora/ el inverno xa vai fora / si a candeleira rí / El inverno ta por vir
Alló enriba, nun, sei unde, encontrein con nun sei quen, en casa de xa me esqueice, nun me podo acordar ben.

—Fernández Fernández, Marcelino. El Franco y su Concejo, p. 112

1st half of the 20th century

(Navia Village)

Este neñín que teño nel collo

e d'un amor que se tyama Vitorio,
Dios que madeu, treveme llongo

por non andar con Vitorio nel collo.
García Lorca, Las nanas infantiles[42]

(River Eo)

As laxas d'a nosa entrada tan, madeus, muito moyadas, non miou mia sogra por elas e que anuncian a xelada
Poderan ser cuadradas y tamén alongadas mais nunca veredes cocías redondiadas

— Labandera Campoamor, JA; Boletín de letras del Real Instituto de Estudios Asturianos nº 71, 1970, [43]

(Castropol village)

Ayer dicícheme c'hoy
hoy dicesme que mañá
y mañá as me decir
¿Cocéronxe xa as patacas?
- Non: pero eiyes atizar candela -

—Sela García, Alejandro; Artículo publicado en el Aldeano, 2º semestre, Castropol 1932.

2nd half of the 20th century

(El Franco village)

Vaich'a fer muito bèn

Tèdes que vir a fèsta
¿Pareceche que fòron us nenos, us lladrois ou us parcoteixos us que tiraron as patacas al alto?
¿Sachasche el hòrto, atendich'as vacas ou fixich'a xanta?
Fun al eiro, pero nun puiden sachar nada?
Teis que ter ma(i)s tempo al fougo, parecem'a min esa caldeira.
De recoyeredes entre us dous, el herba, è fácil que nun vola piye'l augua
Tèinch'ua búa chía de d'herba
Vid'a mía casa pra miraremos esos llibros
Xa verás como en chegando`l vrao, imos a'ndar de fèsta'n fèsta
Nun vos quèro delante, iscai xa!

— García García, José. (1983) El habla de El Franco, Bernaldo de Quiros 1.983

Literature in Galician-Asturian Language[edit]

The Castropol newspaper was the first publication that includes sistematically texts in eonavian.

The first known writer in Eonavian language perhaps could be Fernan Soares de Quiñones or Quinhões dos cancioneiros, troubadour of the last third of the 13th century. This troubadour was author of four songs of moral satire, known as (cántigas de escarnio y maldecir). One of these cántigas relates, in ancient Galician-Portuguese language, to the "costumes" (manners) and "feituras" (facts) of the "Cavalon" (old horse), which tells the adventures of a nobleman who lived in Seville, and had come from Oscos Region in “Esturas” (Asturias) on the border with Galicia. These verses are included in a “Cántiga” that is within the theme of “escarnio“ (ridicule) and “maldecir” (cursing) but with the impersonation which is typical of the “Cántiga de amigo” (friend song). Any way, It seems that the reference to the knight of Oscos presents allegorical connotations with the origin of the Asturian knight that might be related with the type of speech used in the cantiga.[44]

As has been indicated, after the arrival of the Castillian Congregation at the Monastery of Santa María de Villanueva de Oscos in 1511, there ends the written record of this language until its resurgence in the late 19th century.

In the early years of the 20th century there is an identification with the Galician Language, reflected in authors like Cotarelo Valledor and Antolin Santos Ferraria who operates entirely in Galician. Fernandez and Fernandez and Bernardo Acevedo Huelves were the first authors who are aware of the peculiarities of this language. The latest one is usually attributed the first sonnet in this language: “Vusté era un gran señor, Eu era un gran probe”(You was a great lord, I was a large poor man). Poet contemporary of those is Ramón García González, (1870-1938) who shows the influence of the modernist spirit, prevailing in the early 20th century. His best-known work is a long poem entitled "El xardín". Another poet recognized in that time, was Villar Conrado Loza (Taramundi 1873-Tapia 1962), who provides to focus on the themes around migration, recurring theme in the folk literature on the early 20th century.

After the Spanish Civil War, it was produced a decline of the literature in Asturian Galician, losing the identity features that were beginning appear. This is a folk literature in which was mixing the Galician and Castilian languages. This literature tends to be anecdotic rather than the purely literary. In the decade of the seventies, thanks to the work of authors such as Damaso Alonso, the writers of the western end Asturian begin to reaffirm the identity of this language. Among these writers were authors as Manuel Garcia Sanchez, known Manolo Galano, author particularly concerned about the popular culture of the region, who published in 1994 with the Jacinto López Díaz "Vocabulario da Roda" and who ten years earlier had published in 1984: "Cuentos Parzamiques". Frequent contributor to the magazine Entrambasauguas, he publishes in 2005 a recast of twenty written contributions to the magazine in the book "Vento d'outono". Beside those, can quote be some more recent authors as Xose Miguel Suarez (Mantaras, Tapia, 1965) and Xavier Frias Conde. These writers start their literary careers, from the philological study of the language, (albeit from very different perspectives).

Due to the difficulty of publishing books for an audience so small, the most remarkable of all this literature is its projection through various magazines of the region. The oldest magazine is "A Freita" which appeared eleven numbers; this is a general magazine that started to being published in 1992. Among its contributors, was writers as Benigno Fernandez Braña, Xan Castañeira, Xosé Maximo Fernandez Muniz, Adela Valledor Conde, etc. In 1995, the magazine attached a literary supplement, published with the will to make available to the authors of Eo-navia other formats, through a kind of book edition less formal.[45]

Since 1996, by the Department of Linguistics of Eo Navia was published the magazine “Entrabasauguas”. Among the writers which often encouraged to collaborate with the magazine, are writers as Veiguela Crisanto (Vegadeo 1959), Alejandro Blanco Antunez, (Navia 1933), Teresa Lopez, (Boal 1950), Xoxe Carlos Alvarez Blanco, Xavier Vilareyo (Mieres 1967), Fredo de Carbexe (El Franco 1967), etc.

In the genre of theater, as is mentioned above, there is some tradition the writers who develop a folk literature, such as Villar and Manuel Galano. Lately, it has recovered old plays as: "Condo el cariño è de Verdá” comedy released in 1936 by the Association Armal and “El tratto de FF Arias”, premiered in Figueras in 1926.

Association[edit]

In this dialectal area, there are associations supporting each side, such as Asociación Abertal (defending the Galician theory) and Xeira or Fala Viva (defending the Asturian theory). Its protection and language policy is the responsibility of the Asturian Government and the Secretaría Llingüística del Navia-Eo, a division of the Academia de la Llingua Asturiana responsible for this area. There are two different orthographies for Eonavian, the official one (more Asturian-like) and one made by the Mesa prá Defensa del Galego de Asturias (more Galician-like).

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ (Spanish)According Sociolinguistic II of Asturias (2002) study, sponsored by the Academy of the Asturian Language, performed by 'Euskobarómetro' seven out of ten respondents (72%) said they were speaking eonaviego, but only one in five (24%) claimed to know how to read, and one in six (16%) write. In this study speakers who live outside the Eo-navia are not included. Llera Ramo, F.J. y San Martín Antuña, Pablo. II Estudio Sociolingüístico de Asturias, 2002 Oviedo, Academia de la Llingua Asturiana, 2003. ISBN 84-8168-360-4, p. 99
  2. ^ "Asturian in Asturias in Spain". Database for the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. Public Foundation for European Comparative Minority Research. Retrieved 19 June 2013. 
  3. ^ http://www.boe.es/boe/dias/1998/04/30/pdfs/A14573-14576.pdf
  4. ^ Alonso Zamora Vicente, Dialectología Española, Biblioteca Románica Hispánica, Editorial Gredos. Madrid, (1960), p. 85
  5. ^ Alonso y Fernández de las Redondas, Damaso, complete Works, Gredos (1971), vol. I, p. 391
  6. ^ (Spanish) Used in the "Disposición additional" (Addenda) of the Ley 1/98, de 23 de marzo, de uso y promoción del bable/asturiano (Law 1/98 of use and promotion of Asturian language)
  7. ^ (Spanish) Menéndez Pidal, R (1906): "El dialecto Leonés", Revista de Archivos, Bibliotecas y Museos, 2-3:130-131
  8. ^ (Portuguese) Lindley Cintra, Luís F. Nova proposta de classificação dos dialectos Galego-Portugueses Boletim de Filologia, Lisboa, Centro de Estudos Filológicos, 1971, p. 16-17
  9. ^ (Spanish) Frías Conde, F. X. (2002): O galego exterior ás fronteiras administrativas. Gijón:VTP
  10. ^ (Galician) Babarro, X. (2003): Galego de Asturias. Fundación Pedro Barrié de la Maza
  11. ^ (Spanish) See point of view of Suárez Fernández La Nueva España newspaper and Ruth González and Ricardo Saavedra Un estudio concluye que la fala es una lengua con entidad propia, La Voz de Asturias, News Paper 2006, may 10th]
  12. ^ (Spanish) See Alvárez Castrillón, Xose A. Colección diplomática del monasterio de Santa María de Villanueva de Oscos (1139-1300), Ridea, 2011
  13. ^ Bold type indicate official standard spelling. On the phonemic representation cf. Freixeiro Mato (2006).
  14. ^ a b Carballo Calero, Ricardo (1974): Gramática elemental del gallego común. Vigo: Galaxia, p 130
  15. ^ Metaphony produced by final /a/ and by final /o/ (usually produced [ʊ]). All the diverse productions are considered admissible. In the east there's little to none metaphony.
  16. ^ Different evolution of the group /ste/ led to different desinences for the past tense formation along Galician geography.
  17. ^ a b c Plural form of singular animal, 'animal'.
  18. ^ (Spanish) See Alvárez Castrillón, Xose A. "Colección diplomática del monasterio de Santa María de Villanueva de Oscos (1139-1300)", Ridea, 2011; about nasal vowels ĩ and ũ see also Frías Conde, "O relativo do continuum entre galego e asturiano en Asturias", Ianua, Revista Philologica Romanica, ISSN-e 1616-413X, num. 5, 2004-2005 , pp. 93-106
  19. ^ (Menéndez Pidal, El dialecto leonés, 2ª, prológo y edición Carmen Bobes Naves, Ridea, Oviedo 1.962, pp. 16 and 17)
  20. ^ (Spanish) Fernández Vior, J. A.: Notas etnolingüísticas del conceyo da Veiga, Academia de la Llingua Asturiana, Llibrería llingüística, Uvieu, 1997, p. 48
  21. ^ (Spanish) See García García, José,He speaks of theFranco, pp. 119.
  22. ^ (Spanish) See García García, José, El habla de El Franco, p. 73
  23. ^ (Spanish) See Fernández Fernández, Marcelino, El Franco y su concejo, p. 51, Dámaso Alonso y García Yebra «Cuadernos de estudios gallegos, XVI», Santiago de Compostela 1.961 pp. 43-79, see too by the language Ancares Mountains «El gallego-leonés de los Ancarés y su interés para la dialectología portuguesa», in II Coloquio de Estudios Luso Brasileiro, Lisboa p. 331.
  24. ^ (Spanish) See García García, José, El habla de El Franco, p. 83.
  25. ^ (Spanish) See García García, José, El habla de El Franco, p. 119.
  26. ^ (Spanish) See García García, José, El habla de El Franco, p. 34.
  27. ^ (Spanish) See Menéndez García, "Algunos límites dialectales para el occidente de Asturias", IDEA 1.951 nº 14
  28. ^ (Spanish) See Porto Dapena, fonología velar gallega.
  29. ^ (Spanish) See Damaso Alonso, Engañar, volar, casos y resultados de velariación de –n- en el dominio Gallego. Homenaje a Fr. Krüger, Mendoza II, 1952, pp 210 y ss.
  30. ^ (Spanish) See Suárez Fernández, Xose Luis, Vocabulario de Mántaras (Tapia) "Aportaciois al Lexico Galego-Asturiano", Xeira, La Caridad, 1997
  31. ^ This type of construction although there is less frequent, also can see in Old Castilian, for example the book of the Cifar Knight, (approx. 1300) «bien se que vos pesa, pero conoçerle-hedes esta vegada mejoría". Separable times are documented in Castilian to the 18th century and are still preserved in Judeo-Sephardic; see e.g. Hanssen, Gramática histórica de la lengua castellana, (1913), Paris 1966, § 62.
  32. ^ (Spanish) See e.g., García García, El habla del El Franco, p. 188
  33. ^ Timothy, Gupton: "On the structure of the VP in the Spanish of Western Asturias ter + the (in)variable agreement participle", Ianua. Revista Philologica Romanica, nº. 1, 2000, pp. 1-13
  34. ^ (Spanish) Frías Conde, El gallego exterior a las fronteras administrativas, p. 157
  35. ^ (Asturian) See too «Informe sobre a fala ou gallego asturiano», publicado por la Academia de la Lengua Asturiana en 2006, p. 31; Bechara, Evanildo, Moderna Gramática Portuguesa, 36ª edición, 2003, p. 161; (Galician) Cidrás Escáneo, Francisco (1998): “Marcaxe preposicional do obxecto en galego. Emerxencia e vicisitudes dun proceso de gramaticalización sintáctica”, in Dieter Kremer (ed.): Homenaxe a Ramón Lorenzo. Vigo: Galaxia, vol II: 569-580). In most of the cases this phenomenon, is caused by simple ellipsis of nominal forms.
  36. ^ Alvárez Castrillón, José Antonio, Colección Diplomática del Monasterio de Santa María de Villanueva de Oscos, Ridea, 2011, p. 33
  37. ^ «El convento benedictino de Villanueva de Ozcos» BIDEA nº 22, 1954
  38. ^ (Spanish) Vid. Floriano LLorente, Pedro, «Colección dipolomática de Villanueva de Ozcos» 1st serial, BIDEA 102, Oviedo, 1981, p. 127-190.
  39. ^ a b http://www.ridea.org/biblioteca/bidea/PDFs/102-06.pdf
  40. ^ (Spanish) See Alvárez Castrillón, José A., Los Oscos en los siglos X-XII, p. 159
  41. ^ (Asturian) See Acevedo Huelves, Boal y su Concejo, Oviedo 1.898
  42. ^ García Lorca, Federico, Obras completas, conferencias, Las nanas infantiles (Spanish)
  43. ^ Labandera Campoamor, JA; Boletín de letras del Real Instituto de Estudios Asturianos nº 71, 1970 (Spanish)
  44. ^ (Spanish) Beltran, Vicenç; Tipos y temas trovadorescos XIII. Fernan Soarez de Quinhones; pp. 394-397. Beltran, Vicenç; La Corte de Babel. Los problemas de Fernán Soarez de Quiñones; pp. 212
  45. ^ (Spanish) See e.g. Frías Conde, FJ; «Nos confíns da literatura galega: escritores asturianos en galego»; Revista de lenguas y literaturas catalana, gallega y vasca, number 5, 1996‑1997 pp. 223-240

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