Mugharet el-Zuttiyeh ("Cave of the Robbers") is a prehistoric archaeological site in Upper Galilee, Israel. It is situated 0.8 km from the Nahal Amud outlet, approximately 30 m above the wadi bed (148 m below sea level). It was found to house a fossil today known as the "Galilee skull" and "Galilee Man". Discovered in 1925, the skull was the first ancient fossilised hominin (primitive man) found in Western Asia. Its taxonomy is that of H. heidelbergensis, and together with the remains found at Es Skhul and the Wadi el-Mughara Caves, were classified in 1939 by Arthur Keith and Theodore D. McCown as Palaeoanthropus palestinensis.
Zuttiyeh cave is at the opening of a limestone ravine where Nahal Amud turns eastward, 250 meters above a smaller cave known as Mugharet el-Emireh (Cave of the Princess).
The cave was excavated in 1925-1926 by Francis Turville-Petre. It was the first paleontological excavation in the region. Turville-Petre discovered a skull, referred to as the Galilee skull, that was initially described as the second Neanderthal-like specimen. It was originally attributed to a Mousterian level and is now thought to be from an earlier Acheulo-Yabrudian complex. Later studies showed that the face was relatively flat, with no evidence of Neanderthal-like facial prognathism.
The frontal bone and part of the upper face were found in the Mugharan level, which leads to an estimate of the age of the fossil to range from 300-200 Ka BP. Similarities with Zhoukoudian remains suggest a possible ancestral relationship.
- "The Israel Museum Permanent Exhibitions: Archaeology Wing – The Dawn of Civilization". New York: The Ridgefield Foundation. 1995. Skull (cast) Zuttiyeh Cave Lower Palaeolithic. Retrieved 2013-03-13.
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- Rast, Walter E. (1992). Through the Ages in Palestinian Archaeology: An Introductory Handbook. Continuum International Publishing Group. p. 50. ISBN 9781563380556. "Galilee man" (lowercase "m") in this source is a typo – ref. Solo Man, Peking Man and so forth.
- Breaking Ground: Pioneering Women Archaeologists, Getzel M. Cohen, Martha Joukowsky. Books.google.co.il. Retrieved 2013-04-25.
- Cartmill, Matt and Smith, Fred H. (2009). The Human Lineage. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 0471214914. Retrieved 2013-03-01.
- The Palaeolithic Origins of Human Burial, Paul Pettitt, 2013, p59
- Human Adaptation in the Asian Palaeolithic: Hominin Dispersal and Behaviour during the Late Quaternary, Ryan J. Rabett, 2012, p90
- The stone age of Mount Carmel : report of the Joint Expedition of the British School of Archaeology in Jerusalem and the American School of Prehistoric Research, 1929-1934, p18
- The Mugharet el-Emireh in Lower Galilee: Type-Station of the Emiran Industry, Dorothy Garrod
- "Excavations in Wadi Amud". Persee.fr. Retrieved 2013-04-25.
- USA (2013-03-25). "Zuttiyeh face: A view from the East". Ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. PMID 8333489.
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- On the Animal Remains Obtained from the Mugharet-el-Zuttiyeh in 1925 & 1926