||This article includes a list of references, but its sources remain unclear because it has insufficient inline citations. (April 2014)|
|Luzon Bleeding-heart, Gallicolumba luzonica|
|16–17 living species,
at least 7 extinct since c. 3000 BC
Phlegoenas Reichenbach, 1852
Gallicolumba is a mid-sized genus of ground-dwelling doves (family Columbidae) which occur in rainforests on the Philippines, Indonesia, and in the Pacific region. They are not closely related to the American ground-doves (genus Columbina). Rather, the present genus is closest to the monotypic Thick-billed Ground Dove genus Trugon.
This genus includes the Pacific ground-doves and the bleeding-hearts known from the Philippines. The latter are named for their vivid-red patch on the breast, which looks startlingly like a bleeding wound in some species and has reminded naturalists of a dagger stab. The diet of doves of this genus consists of fruits and seed.
Systematics and extinctions
Trugon and Gallicolumba might be ranked as a (very small) subfamily, but the available data suggests that they are better considered part of a quite basal radiation of Columbidae which consists of many small and often bizarre lineages (e.g. Goura and Otidiphaps which are ecologically convergent to Galliformes, and maybe even the famous didines (Raphinae). Currently not quite 20 species of Gallicolumba are extant. Of the larger genera of Columbidae, Gallicolumba is the one most affected by extinction. 3-4 species have disappeared since the 18th century, and most of the remaining are decreasing in numbers, threatened with extinction or have lost subspecies due to habitat destruction, invasive species, or overhunting. In addition, there are several species never studied alive but known from subfossil bones. These became extinct during the human settlement of the Southern Pacific region (c. 3000 BC - 1400).
The bones of Gallicolumba are distinct enough to usually recognize this genus with ease. Still, the evolutionary affiliation of extinct species is often uncertain. A considerable number of recognizably distinct now-extinct Polynesian taxa used to inhabit the area where the white-headed lineage (G. jobiensis, G. erythroptera) and the Melanesian expansion that brought about G. sanctaecrucis and G. stairi (and possibly G. rubescens) would have met.
- Luzon Bleeding-heart, Gallicolumba luzonica
- Mindanao Bleeding-heart, Gallicolumba crinigera (criniger is a spelling error in the description)
- Mindoro Bleeding-heart, Gallicolumba platenae
- Negros Bleeding-heart, Gallicolumba keayi
- Sulu Bleeding-heart, Gallicolumba menagei - possibly extinct (late 1990s?)
- Cinnamon Ground Dove, Gallicolumba rufigula
- Sulawesi Ground Dove, Gallicolumba tristigmata
- White-breasted Ground Dove, Gallicolumba jobiensis
- Norfolk Ground Dove, Gallicolumba norfolciensis - extinct (c.1800)
- White-throated Ground Dove, Gallicolumba xanthonura
- Rota Ground Dove, Gallicolumba sp. - prehistoric
- White-fronted Ground Dove, Gallicolumba kubaryi
- Polynesian Ground Dove, Gallicolumba erythroptera
- White-headed Polynesian Ground Dove, Gallicolumba erythroptera albicollis - probably extinct (20th century); taxonomic status unresolved
- Great Ground Dove, Gallicolumba nui - prehistoric
- Henderson Ground Dove, Gallicolumba leonpascoi - prehistoric
- New Caledonian Ground Dove, Gallicolumba longitarsus - prehistoric
- Tongan Ground Dove, Gallicolumba stairi
- Santa Cruz Ground Dove, Gallicolumba sanctaecrucis
- Tanna Ground Dove, Gallicolumba ferruginea - extinct (late 18th-19th century)
- Thick-billed Ground Dove, Gallicolumba salamonis - extinct (mid-20th century)
- Marquesan Ground Dove, Gallicolumba rubescens
- Bronze Ground Dove, Gallicolumba beccarii
- Palau Ground Dove, Gallicolumba canifrons
- Wetar Ground Dove, Gallicolumba hoedtii
- Johann Georg Heck: Bilder-Atlas zum Conversations-Lexikon. Verlag Leipzig, Brockhaus, 1849.
- Gibbs, David; Barnes, Eustace & Cox, John (2001): Pigeons and Doves. Pica Press, The Banks, ISBN 1-873403-60-7
- Steadman, David William (2006): Extinction and Biogeography of Tropical Pacific Birds. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-77142-3
- del Hoyo, J.; Elliot, A. & Sargatal, J. (editors). (1997). Handbook of the Birds of the World. Volume 4: Sandgrouse to Cuckoos. Lynx Edicions. ISBN 84-87334-22-9