Isotopes of gallium

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Natural gallium (Ga) consists of a mixture of two stable isotopes: gallium-69 and gallium-71. The most commercially important radioisotopes are gallium-67 and gallium-68.

Gallium-67 (half-life 3.3 days) is a gamma-emitting isotope (the gamma emitted immediately after electron-capture) which is used in standard nuclear medical imaging, in procedures usually referred to as gallium scans. It is usually used as the free ion, Ga3+. It is the longest-lived radioisotope of gallium.

The shorter-lived gallium-68 (half-life 68 minutes) is a positron-emitting isotope which is generated from germanium-68 in gallium-68 generators, for use in a small minority of diagnostic PET scans. For this use, it is usually attached as a tracer to a carrier molecule, which gives the resulting radiopharmaceutical a different tissue-uptake specificity from the ionic Ga-67 radioisotope normally used in standard gallium scans.

Standard atomic mass: 69.723(1) u

Table[edit]

nuclide
symbol
Z(p) N(n)  
isotopic mass (u)
 
half-life decay
mode(s)[1][n 1]
daughter
isotope(s)[n 2]
nuclear
spin
representative
isotopic
composition
(mole fraction)
range of natural
variation
(mole fraction)
excitation energy
56Ga 31 25 55.99491(28)# p 55Zn 3+#
57Ga 31 26 56.98293(28)# p 56Zn 1/2-#
58Ga 31 27 57.97425(23)# p 57Zn 2+#
59Ga 31 28 58.96337(18)# p 58Zn 3/2-#
60Ga 31 29 59.95706(12)# 70(10) ms β+ 60Zn (2+)
61Ga 31 30 60.94945(6) 168(3) ms β+ 61Zn 3/2-
62Ga 31 31 61.944175(30) 116.18(4) ms β+ 62Zn 0+
63Ga 31 32 62.9392942(14) 32.4(5) s β+ 63Zn (3/2-)
64Ga 31 33 63.9368387(22) 2.627(12) min β+ 64Zn 0(+#)
64mGa 42.85(8) keV 21.9(7) µs 2+
65Ga 31 34 64.9327348(9) 15.2(2) min β+ 65Zn 3/2-
66Ga 31 35 65.931589(3) 9.49(7) h β+ 66Zn 0+
67Ga[n 3] 31 36 66.9282017(14) 3.2612(6) d EC 67Zn 3/2-
68Ga[n 4] 31 37 67.9279801(16) 67.71(9) min β+ 68Zn 1+
69Ga 31 38 68.9255736(13) Stable 3/2- 0.60108(9)
70Ga 31 39 69.9260220(13) 21.14(3) min β- (99.59) 70Ge 1+
EC (0.41%) 70Zn
71Ga 31 40 70.9247013(11) Stable 3/2- 0.39892(9)
72Ga 31 41 71.9263663(11) 14.095(3) h β- 72Ge 3-
72mGa 119.66(5) keV 39.68(13) ms IT 72Ga (0+)
73Ga 31 42 72.9251747(18) 4.86(3) h β- 73Ge 3/2-
74Ga 31 43 73.926946(4) 8.12(12) min β- 74Ge (3-)
74mGa 59.571(14) keV 9.5(10) s (0)
75Ga 31 44 74.9265002(26) 126(2) s β- 75Ge (3/2)-
76Ga 31 45 75.9288276(21) 32.6(6) s β- 76Ge (2+,3+)
77Ga 31 46 76.9291543(26) 13.2(2) s β- 77Ge (3/2-)
78Ga 31 47 77.9316082(26) 5.09(5) s β- 78Ge (3+)
79Ga 31 48 78.93289(11) 2.847(3) s β- (99.911%) 79mGe (3/2-)#
β-, n (.089%) 78Ge
80Ga 31 49 79.93652(13) 1.697(11) s β- (99.11%) 80Ge (3)
β-, n (.89%) 79Ge
81Ga 31 50 80.93775(21) 1.217(5) s β- (88.11%) 81mGe (5/2-)
β-, n (11.89%) 80Ge
82Ga 31 51 81.94299(32)# 0.599(2) s β- (78.5%) 82Ge (1,2,3)
β-, n (21.5%) 81Ge
83Ga 31 52 82.94698(32)# 308(1) ms β- (60%) 83Ge 3/2-#
β-, n (40%) 82Ge
84Ga 31 53 83.95265(43)# 0.085(10) s β-, n (70%) 83Ge
β- (30%) 84Ge
85Ga 31 54 84.95700(54)# 50# ms [>300 ns] 3/2-#
86Ga 31 55 85.96312(86)# 30# ms [>300 ns]
  1. ^ Abbreviations:
    EC: Electron capture
    IT: Isomeric transition
  2. ^ Bold for stable isotopes, bold italics for nearly stable isotopes (half-life longer than the age of the universe)
  3. ^ Deexcitation gamma used in medical imaging
  4. ^ Medically useful radioisotope

Notes[edit]

  • Commercially available materials may have been subjected to an undisclosed or inadvertent isotopic fractionation. Substantial deviations from the given mass and composition can occur.
  • Values marked # are not purely derived from experimental data, but at least partly from systematic trends. Spins with weak assignment arguments are enclosed in parentheses.
  • Uncertainties are given in concise form in parentheses after the corresponding last digits. Uncertainty values denote one standard deviation, except isotopic composition and standard atomic mass from IUPAC which use expanded uncertainties.
  • Nuclide masses are given by IUPAP Commission on Symbols, Units, Nomenclature, Atomic Masses and Fundamental Constants (SUNAMCO)
  • Isotope abundances are given by IUPAC Commission on Isotopic Abundances and Atomic Weights

References[edit]

  1. ^ http://www.nucleonica.net/unc.aspx


Isotopes of zinc Isotopes of gallium Isotopes of germanium
Table of nuclides