Gallium nitrate

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Gallium nitrate
Gallium nitrate.png
Identifiers
CAS number 69365-72-6 YesY
PubChem 61635
ChEMBL CHEMBL1200983 N
Jmol-3D images Image 1
Properties
Molecular formula Ga(NO3)3
Molar mass 255.7377 g/mol
Hazards
EU classification Oxidising agent O Irritant Xi
R-phrases R8 R36/37/38
S-phrases S17 S26
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C (77 °F), 100 kPa)
 N (verify) (what is: YesY/N?)
Infobox references

Gallium nitrate (brand name Ganite) is the gallium salt of nitric acid with the chemical formula Ga(NO3)3. It is a drug used to treat symptomatic hypercalcemia secondary to cancer. It works by preventing the breakdown of bone through the inhibition of osteoclast activity, thus lowering the amount of free calcium in the blood.[1][2] Gallium nitrate is also used to synthesize other gallium compounds.

History[edit]

Gallium (Ga) was discovered in 1875 by P.É. Lecoq de Boisbaudran.[3] In most of its compounds, Gallium is found with an oxidation number of 3+. Gallium chemically behaves as close as Iron 3+ when contacting in a complex.[4] That means, Gallium (III) and Iron (III) have similar coordination numbers, electrical charge, ion diameter and electron configuration.

Bio-availability[edit]

Gallium atoms are bound to the phosphates of DNA at low gallium concentrations leading in forming a stable complex.[5] However, there were no interactions seen between the metal and the DNA bases. In fact, gallium competes with magnesium and acts as a competitor for DNA binding since it has an affinity for DNA 100 times higher than that of magnesium.[6] According to Hedley et al., gallium inhibits replicative DNA synthesis, the major gallium-specific target probably being ribonucleotide reductase.[6] In addition to that, it was reported by Chitambar that gallium binds to transferrin than that of Iron. The transferrin gallium complex inhibits the DNA synthesis by acting on the M2 subunit of the ribonucleotide reductase.[7] Moreover, gallium is mostly found as a salt in lysosome within the cell. It seems that gallium (III) act as antagonist to the actions of several ions (Mg2+, Fe2+ and Zn2+) for the processes of cellular metabolism. More specifically, the action of gallium in gallium nitrate on bone metabolism decreases the hypercalcemia associated with cancer.

Preparation[edit]

Gallium nitrate is commercially available as the hydrate. The nonahydrate may also be prepared by dissolving gallium in nitric acid, followed by recrystallization.[8] The structure of gallium nitrate nonahydrate has been determined by X-ray crystallography.[9]

Use and manufacturing[edit]

Preparation of gallium nitride from gallium nitrate[edit]

GaN powder was prepared by heating gallium nitrate salt in flowing ammonia to a high temperature that range between 500-1050 °C. The salt was converted to GaN by monitoring X-ray diffraction and Gallium magnetic angle spinning NMR spectroscopy.[10]

Medication Information[edit]

Gallium nitrate injection is a clear, colorless, odorless, sterile solution of gallium nitrate, a hydrated nitrate salt of the group IIIa element, gallium. The stable, nonahydrate, Ga(N03)3•9H2O is a white, slightly hygroscopic, crystalline powder of molecular weight 417.87, that is readily soluble in water. Each mL of Ganite (gallium nitrate injection) contains gallium nitrate 25 mg (on an anhydrous basis) and sodium citrate dihydrate 28.75 mg. The solution may contain sodium hydroxide or hydrochloric acid for pH adjustment to 6.0-7.0[11]

Overdose[edit]

Use of higher doses of gallium nitrate than recommended may cause nausea, vomiting and increases risk of renal insufficiency. In the case of overdose, serum calcium should be monitored, patients should receive vigorous hydration for 2–3 days and any further drug administrations should be discontinued [11]

Treatment[edit]

The action of gallium in gallium nitrate on bone metabolism decreases the hypercalcemia associated with cancer. Gallium inhibits osteoclastic activity and therefore decreases hydroxyapatite crystal formation, with adsorption of gallium onto the surfaces of hydroxyapatite crystals.[12] Also, the increased concentration of gallium in the bone leads to increasing the synthesis of collagen as well as the formation of the bone tissue inside the cell. It has been reported that a protracted infusion was effective against cancer-associated hypercalcemia.[13] Preliminary studies in bladder carcinoma, carcinoma of the urothelium and lymphomas are also promising.[14] Another interesting schedule of subcutaneous injection with low doses of gallium nitrate has been proposed, especially for the treatment of bone metastases, but the definitive results have not yet been published.[15]

Chemical Reactivity[edit]

Gallium Nitrate can react with reducing agents to generate heat and products that may be gaseous. The products may themselves be capable of further reactions (such as combustion in the air). The chemical reduction of materials in this group can be rapid, but often requires initiation of heat, catalyst and addition of a solvent. Explosive mixtures of Gallium Nitrate with reducing agents often persist unchanged for long periods if initiation is prevented. Some inorganic oxidizing agents such as Gallium Nitrate are salts of metals that are soluble in water; dissolution dilutes but does not nullify the oxidizing power of such materials. Generally, inorganic oxidizing agents can react violently with active metals, cyanides, esters, and thiocyanates.[11]

Adverse Reaction[edit]

Kidney[edit]

Adverse renal effects have been reported in about 12.5% of patients treated with gallium nitrate. Two patients receiving gallium nitrate and one patient receiving calcitonin developed acute renal failure in a controlled trial of patients with cancer-related hypercalcemia. Also, it was reported that gallium nitrate should not be administered to patients with serum creatinine >2.5 mg/dL.[11]

Blood Pressure[edit]

In a controlled trial of patients, it was noticed a decrease in mean systolic and diastolic blood pressure after the treatment with gallium nitrate. The decrease in blood pressure was asymptomatic and did not require specific treatment.[11]

Hematologic[edit]

High doses of gallium nitrate were associated with anemia when used in treating patients for advanced cancer. In results, several patients have received red blood cell transfusions.[11]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Gallium Nitrate monograph. Lexi-Comp Online, Lexi-Drugs Online, Lexi-Comp Inc. Hudson, OH. Available at: [1]. Accessed September 13th, 2008.
  2. ^ Ganite at drugs.com
  3. ^ Green MA and Welch MJ: Gallium radiopharmaceutical chemistry. Int J Rad Appl Instrum B 16: 435-448, 1989
  4. ^ Hart MM and Adamson RH: Antitumor activity and toxicity of salts of inorganic group 3a metals: aluminum, gallium, indium, and thallium. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 68: 1623-1626, 1971
  5. ^ Hart MM, Smith CF, Yancey ST and Adamson RH: Toxicity and antitumor activity of gallium nitrate and periodically related metal salts. J Natl Cancer Inst 47: 1121-1127, 1971
  6. ^ a b MANFAIT M and Collery P: Etude in vitro par spectroscopie Raman de la conformation d'un ADN sous l'influence des ions magnésium et gallium. Magnesium Bull 4: 153-155, 1984
  7. ^ Hedley DW, Tripp EH, Slowiaczek P and Mann GJ: Effect of gallium on DNA synthesis by human T-cell lymphoblasts. Cancer Res 48: 3014-3018, 1988
  8. ^ Birnara, Christiana; Kessler, Vadim G.; Papaefstathiou, Giannis S. (2009). "Mononuclear gallium(III) complexes based on salicylaldoximes: Synthesis, structure and spectroscopic characterization". Polyhedron 28 (15): 3291. doi:10.1016/j.poly.2009.04.039. 
  9. ^ Hendsbee, Arthur; Pye, Cory; Masuda, Jason (2009). "Hexaaquagallium(III) trinitrate trihydrate". Acta Crystallographica E 65: i65. doi:10.1107/S1600536809028086. 
  10. ^ Balkas_, C. M.; Davis, R. F. J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 1996, 79, 2309
  11. ^ a b c d e f Gallium Nitrate. National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine. April 13th, 2012 < http://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/summary/summary.cgi?cid=61635#x332>
  12. ^ Warrell RP Jr, Issacs M, Alcock NW and Bockman RS: Gallium nitrate for treatment of refractory hypercalcemia from parathyroid carcinoma. Ann Intern Med 107: 683-686, 1987
  13. ^ Warrell RP Jr: Questions about clinical trials in hypercalcemia [editorial]. J Clin Oncol 6: 759-761, 1988
  14. ^ Seligman PA and Crawford ED: Treatment of advanced transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder with continuousinfusion gallium nitrate. J Natl Cancer Inst 83: 1582-1584, 1991
  15. ^ Warrell RP Jr: Gallium nitrate for the treatment of bone metastases. Cancer 80: 1680-1685, 1997
HNO3 He
LiNO3 Be(NO3)2 B(NO3)3 C N O F Ne
NaNO3 Mg(NO3)2 Al(NO3)3 Si P S ClONO2 Ar
KNO3 Ca(NO3)2 Sc(NO3)3 Ti V Cr(NO3)3 Mn(NO3)2 Fe(NO3)3 Co(NO3)2, Co(NO3)3 Ni(NO3)2 Cu(NO3)2 Zn(NO3)2 Ga(NO3)3 Ge As Se Br Kr
RbNO3 Sr(NO3)2 Y Zr Nb Mo Tc Ru Rh Pd(NO3)2 AgNO3 Cd(NO3)2 In Sn Sb Te I Xe
CsNO3 Ba(NO3)2 Hf Ta W Re Os Ir Pt Au Hg2(NO3)2, Hg(NO3)2 Tl(NO3)3 Pb(NO3)2 Bi(NO3)3 Po At Rn
Fr Ra Rf Db Sg Bh Hs Mt Ds Rg Cn Uut Fl Uup Lv Uus Uuo
La Ce Pr Nd Pm Sm Eu Gd(NO3)3 Tb Dy Ho Er Tm Yb Lu
Ac Th Pa UO2(NO3)2 Np Pu Am Cm Bk Cf Es Fm Md No Lr


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