|France, Northern Italy, San Marino, Monaco, Channel Islands, parts of Belgium and Switzerland|
The Gallo-Romance branch of the Romance languages includes French and the languages of northern Italy. Based on mutual intelligibility, David Dalby counts seven languages: Gallo-Wallon, French, Franco-Provençal (Arpitan), Romansh, Ladin, Friulian, and Lombard.
The Gallo-Romance group includes:
- The Langues d'oïl, or Oïl languages. These include Standard French, Picard, Walloon, Lorrain and Norman.
- The Arpitan language, also known as Franco-Provençal. Formerly thought of as a dialect of either Oïl or Occitan, it is linguistically a language on its own, or rather a separate group of languages, as many of its dialects have little mutual comprehensibility. It shares features of both French and the Provençal dialect of Occitan.
The Gallo-Romance group can include:
- The Rhaeto-Romance languages. They include Romansh of Switzerland, Ladin of the Dolomites area, Friulian of Friuli. Rhaeto-Romance can be classified as Gallo-Romance, or as a branch of the Western Romance languages.
- The Occitano-Romance languages of Southern France and neighbouring areas, includes Occitan and Catalan.
- Occitano-Romance can be classified as Gallo-Romance, Iberian Romance, or as a branch of the Western Romance languages.
- The Gallo-Italic languages. They include Piedmontese, Ligurian, Lombard, Emiliano-Romagnolo, Gallo-Italic of Sicily and Gallo-Italic of Basilicata. Gallo-Italic can be classified as Gallo-Romance, Italo-Dalmatian, or as a branch of the Western Romance languages.
Traditional geographical extension
Historically, various Gallo-Romance languages were spoken in the North of France, parts of Flanders, Alsace and part of Lorraine; the Wallonia region of Belgium, the Channel Islands, Switzerland, and northern Italy.
Today, a single Gallo-Romance language (French) dominates much of this geographic region (including the formerly non-Romance areas of France), and has also spread overseas.
See the Romance languages article for a description of the characteristics of Gallo-Romance.
- Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Gallo-Romance". Glottolog. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology.
- Charles Camproux, Les langues romanes, PUF 1974. p. 77–78.
- Pierre Bec, La langue occitane, éditions PUF, Paris, 1963. p. 49–50.
- G.B. Pellegrini, "Il cisalpino ed il retoromanzo, 1993". See also "The Dialects of Italy, edited by Maiden & Parry, 1997
- David Dalby, 1999/2000, The Linguasphere register of the world’s languages and speech communities. Observatoire Linguistique, Linguasphere Press. Volume 2. Oxford.
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