Galyani Vadhana

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Galyani Vadhana
Princess of Thailand
the Princess Naradhiwas
Galyani Vadhana02.jpg
Princess Galyani Vadhana in 1995
Princess of Naradhiwas
Reign 6 May 1995 – 2 January 2008
Spouse Aram Rattanakul Serireongrit (1944–1950)
Prince Varananda Dhavaj (1969–1990)
Issue Dhasanawalaya Sornsongkram
House House of Mahidol
Father Mahidol Adulyadej, Prince of Songkla
Mother Princess Srinagarindra
Born (1923-05-06)6 May 1923
London, United Kingdom
Died 2 January 2008(2008-01-02) (aged 84)
Bangkok, Thailand
Burial 15 November 2008
Royal crematorium, Sanam Luang, Bangkok, Thailand
Religion Buddhism

Galyani Vadhana, the Princess of Naradhiwas (Thai: กัลยาณิวัฒนา; Thai pronunciation: [kān.lā.jāː.ní.wát.tʰā.nāː]; RTGS: Kanlayaniwatthana; 6 May 1923 – 2 January 2008) was a princess of Thailand and the elder sister of King Ananda Mahidol (Rama VIII) and King Bhumibol Adulyadej (Rama IX). She was also a direct granddaughter of King Chulalongkorn (Rama V).

Biography[edit]

Early life[edit]

Princess Galyani Vadhana with her parents

Princess Galyani Vadhana was born on 6 May 1923 in London, England, the only daughter of Prince Mahidol Adulyadej of Songkla, the sixty-ninth son of King Chulalongkorn (Rama V) and seventh son by Queen Savang Vadhana, and Miss Sangwan Talapat (later known as Princess Srinagarindra, The Princess Mother). She was initially named May Songkla[1] on her birth certificate and was later named Her Serene Highness Galyani Vadhana Mahidol by King Vajiravudh (Rama VI). The word "Vadhana" in her name came from her paternal grandmother, Savang Vadhana. In 1927, she was subsequently promoted to the royal rank, a Princess of Thailand (Her Highness) by King Prajadhipok (Rama VII).

Education[edit]

In 1935, Princess Galyani Vadhana attended a secondary school for girls named Ecole Superieure des Jeunes Filles de la Ville de Lausanne.

In 1938, she attended the International School of Geneva, a boarding school not far from Lausanne. She was an excellent student, and eventually came first of her school at the final exam and third in all Switzerland.

In 1942, Princess Galyani Vadhana continued her studies at the Faculty of Sciences in the field of chemistry, at the University of Lausanne. She graduated with a Bachelor of Science degree in Chemistry in 1948. While pursuing her science degree, she also studied social science and education for a Diplome de Sciences Sociales Pedagogiques, involving teacher’s education, literature, philosophy, and psychology.

Marriage[edit]

In 1944, Princess Galyani Vadhana renounced her royal status in order to marry Colonel Aram Rattanakul Serireongrit (24 August 1920 – 3 February 1982), the son of General Luang Serireongrit (Charoon Ratanakul Serireongrit), a former Army commander-in-chief who led the invasion of the Shan States during World War II. They are the parents of one daughter, Thanpuying Dhasanawalaya Ratanakul Serireongrit (later Sornsongkram) (born in 1945 in Switzerland). This marriage ended in divorce. In 1950, when the current King ascended the throne, he reinstated her royal status.

In 1969 the Princess married HH Prince Varananda Dhavaj (19 August 1922 – 15 September 1990), son of Prince Chudadhuj Dharadilok, Prince of Bejraburna and Mom Ravi Kayananda. They had no children.

Prestigious royal title[edit]

On 6 May 1995 – the occasion of her 72nd birthday anniversary – her brother, King Bhumibol gave her the noble title "Kromma Luang Naradhiwas Rajanagarindra" (loosely translated "Princess of Narathiwat"), making her the only female member of the Chakri Royal Family in the reign of King Rama IX to have been bestowed this title.[2] In announcing the honour, The King said "the Princess, who was his only sister, had shared the joys and sorrows of life since their early years and was the most highly respected in that she had always given him support. Furthermore, it is a well-known fact that she has been steadfast in her devotion to the King in order that He would enjoy grace and glory." She had represented The King in carrying out various royal duties and had always taken good care of their mother, which was a great relief to him.

Royal projects[edit]

The princess' royal patronage projects included traditional Thai arts, education, sports, social welfare, etc. She was president and honorary president of various organisations and foundations, including the Cardiac Children’s Foundation, the Princess Mother’s Charity Fund, the Autistic Foundation of Thailand. She created her own foundation for funding the studies of gifted young musicians.

She was a patron of various classical music foundations. On her trips, she always gathered important and useful information shown in the Royal news, giving knowledge to people. She also wrote books, poetry, and spoke French. She traveled widely within Thailand and abroad to represent the royal family and her country on missions.

Health issues[edit]

The princess was admitted to Siriraj Hospital in June 2007, suffering from abdominal pains. The doctors found she had cancer, and she remained in the hospital for treatment. In October 2007, doctors reported the princess had suffered an infarction on the left side of her brain as a result of occlusion of a cerebral artery.[3]

At the same time in October, her brother, King Bhumibol Adulyadej was treated at Siriraj after he experienced weakness on his right side; doctors later found out through scans that he had a blood shortage to his brain.[4] He was admitted on 13 October and discharged on 7 November.[5] After leaving Siriraj, he visited his sister at the hospital almost daily.

On 14 December, the Royal Household Bureau released its 25th statement about the princess' health, saying she was feeling increasingly tired and was becoming less responsive.[6]

Interests[edit]

Books and writing[edit]

Princess Galyani Vadhana had liked reading and writing from an early age. While studying Prathom 1 to Prathom 3, she read as many Thai language books as she could find. However, children’s books in Thai were then rare so she often read the newspaper. She remembered once reading a story in the original French—the 1878 novel Sans Famille—while studying in Switzerland, which she later found again.

During her secondary study, especially while at Geneva, Switzerland, she read a lot of literature. She found that reading developed her French language skills. Later, when she was a French teacher at Thammasat University, she read many books on linguistics. In addition, she also studied art, culture, archaeology, and history for many years. When she planned visiting a foreign country, she would first read many books and documents about it.

When she was nine, she published a journal called ‘Ruaen Rom’ with her friends at Srapathum Palace, containing articles she had written. Her mother supported her in reading and writing English. On 10 September 1932, she published a story she had penned. In addition, she wrote eleven poems about the royal family, translated three books, wrote ten tourist guide books, and an academic article.

Photography[edit]

Princess Galyani Vadhana was interested in photography. She had learned to take photographs not only as souvenirs but also for art and academic purposes.

When she visited important places either at home or abroad, she always took photographs of those she found interesting which were useful in her travel writings.

Music[edit]

Princess Galyani Vadhana learned about many fields of western art. She was interested in all types of music and drama, especially classical music by master composers. She began listening to this type of music when studying in Switzerland. She had always studied piano at home with her younger brothers, but only intermittently as she had very little time to practise. While doing her homework, she liked to listen to classical music on a radio and kept her love of it.

In 2004, concerned about the lack of interest in promoting classical music by both governmental and private sectors, Her Royal Highness established a Fund for Classical Music Promotion of which she became President. The fund supported classical music and related activities, provided assistance to Thai musicians to study, and promoted competitions and concerts both in Thailand and internationally. She also supported the Bangkok Symphony Orchestra and the Chulalongkorn University Symphony Orchestra, and was the patron of the Bangkok Opera. Her presence on the classical music scene was ubiquitous.

Education[edit]

Princess Galyani Vadhana was interested in all education not only at university level. She realized that primary education is very important for developing the general population.

From her long experience in teaching French language, she realized the problem of interrupted French language study at Mattayom (High School) and university level. In 1977 she formed L'Association Thailandaise des Professeurs de Francais (The Association of Thai Professors Teaching French Language) to act as the center for meeting and exchanging experiences of – and improving – the teaching of French language in Mattayom and university classes. She was President of the association between 1977 and 1981, when she became its honorary president for the rest of her life. Her assistance to the association took many forms, including in publishing journals to distribute the latest knowledge, writing her own articles in journals, and supporting teachers' seminars, research abroad and study in higher education.

As a result of her continuous work in the teaching and research of the French language in Thailand, she was conferred many honorary doctorates and also honours from many foreign governments and international organizations, including UNESCO.

Culture, Archaeology, and History[edit]

Princess Galyani Vadhana was interested in history and archaeology for many years. She thought these fields to be the foundations of other subjects and believed in applying reasoning to support historical ideas. She always said that her thoughts were not always correct and she would accept new data if supported by reason and evidences.

In performing her duties, she became interested in many important places, which she later visited by herself. She also led groups and associations on educational tours to many historic sites, and she advised fellow guides to emphasize education about the sites.

When visiting historical sites, she did not merely accept information given to her by the archaeologists, but she would research the sites beforehand, and deeply question experts about the site's restoration and excavation, and the impact on neighbouring people of the archaeologists' operations.

Duties[edit]

Medical Services and Public Health[edit]

The Cardiac Children Foundation of Thailand[edit]

This foundation was begun in 1981 by the Princess Mother. Princess Galyani Vadhana became its patron on 15 June 1984. She added some of her personal property to her mother's fund and provided personal advice, thus developing its activities. It helps many cardiac sick children, especially from poor families, to be cured and treated by professional cardiac doctors, using mechanical heart valve replacement, heart pacemaker, balloon catheter, and surgery without prosthesis. Furthermore, this foundation disseminates knowledge of cardiac diseases to doctors, nurses, and the public. It also provides funds for pediatricians to study cardiac diseases in children either in Thailand or abroad.

The HSH Princess Boonjirathorn (Chumphon) Juthathuj Foundation[edit]

This is a foundation set up by HSH Princess Boonjirathorn Juthathuj on 27 June 1979 to provide scholarships and awards to medical and nursing students, nursing lecturers, and nurses affiliated with Ministry of Public Health. Its President was Princess Galyani Vadhana who chaired the scholarship and award conferring committee. The first prize-giving by Princess Boonjirathorn was organized at Samitivej Hospital on 18 September 1979. Afterwards scholarships and awards were given by the Princess every year.

The Breast Foundation[edit]

This foundation was created in December 1994 from Charity Funds of the Princess Mother. Princess Galyani Vadhana was President, while her mother was Patron and Honorary President. Its objective is to promote knowledge and understanding of breast cancer screening. The Breast Center was established in Siriraj Hospital to provide complete breast diseases examination and diagnosis. With the modern equipment in the center, the first in Thailand, breast radiography can be carried out to enable biopsies to be carried out accurately, correctly, with very little pain. It is also timesaving and less expensive.

The Mother Princess Medical Volunteer Foundation[edit]

In 1964, while the Mother Princess was staying at Phu Phing Palace, Chiang Mai, she realised how poor the local populace were especially in food and medicine. She set up "The Mother Princess Medical Volunteer Unit" on 22 February 1969, and persuaded doctors, dentists, pharmacists, and nurses to join the unit to go and treat patients in remote communities. On 21 May 1974, the unit was renamed to become "The Mother Princess Medical Volunteer Foundation" with the Mother Princess as its President.

Princess Galyani Vadhana followed her mother's eaxample in the foundation's daily operations. Together they would lead volunteers to visit and treat people in rural areas. Some patients were sent for treatment at the provincial central hospital or to Bangkok. They often journeyed by helicopters because some areas had no roads. After the Princess Mother died, Princess Galyani Vadhana became President.

Nature and Environment Conservation[edit]

In 1991, Princess Galyani Vadhana visited and stayed at Huai Nam Dang Watershed Management Unit. She found that the nearby forests were deteriorated as a result of agricultural reclamation, so she had the idea of forming a Royal Forest Department to restore the forests. Then in 1995, the Royal Forest Department dsignated this area as Huai Nam Dang National Park, and built a chalet-styled palace, which the princess named "Silver Orchids Palace," dedicated to her. She stayed there during late January and early February every year to visit nearby hill tribes. Her thinking was that thebpublic and local administration organization co-operate to look after forest, water, wildlifes, and rare flora resources to maintain natural balance.

Foreign Affairs[edit]

Princess Galyani Vadhana traveled abroad many times on formal and private visits. In addition to strengthening friendly relations with those countries, her visits helped spread knowledge of Thai culture and customs. Before any such visit she would carry out careful research.

After most of these visits, she collected her notes and the information she had gathered to publish books or reproduce them in digital media for distribution.

Writings[edit]

About the royal family[edit]

  • Busy Fingers
  • Postcard Games
  • Prince Mahidol and Art
  • Popular Chronicle From The Press, The Demise of the Princess Mother

Translation[edit]

  • Le Couronnement Espagnol – The Spanish Coronation

Travelogue[edit]

  • Yunnan
  • Bhutan : Green Island on Land
  • Is It Cold in Siberia?
  • Turkey : Land of the Roman Emperors and Ottoman Sultans
  • Xinjiang and Gansu : Pictures from Far Away Places
  • Eastern China : Mountain, Lake, Temples

Foundations and Associations in her responsibility or patronage[edit]

As the honorary president[edit]

  • The Mother Princess Medical Volunteer Foundation
  • The Prosthesis Foundation of H.R.H. The Princess Mother
  • L'Association Thaïlandaise des Professeurs de Français
  • The Siam Society Under Royal Patronage
  • The World Tipiṭaka Presentation Worldwide

As the president[edit]

As the patron[edit]

  • The Foundation for Slum Child Care (FSCC)
  • The Cardiac Children Foundation of Thailand (CCFT)
  • The Green World Foundation (GWF)
  • Bangkok Biomaterial Center
  • Joe Louis Puppet Theatre
  • Bangkok Opera Foundation (from 2001–2006)

Honors[edit]

Decorations[edit]

From the King of Thailand[edit]

From French Republic[edit]

Awards[edit]

  • Victor Hugo Medal, from UNESCO, in 1992
  • Naratip Award, from The Writers Association of Thailand, in 2002
  • WHO/SEARO Award, from Regional Office for South East Asia of World Health Organization, in 2003

Honorary Degrees[edit]

Death[edit]

On 2 January 2008, the Royal Household Bureau announced that during the night of Tuesday, 1 January 2008, the Princess's condition had worsened and she had died at 2:54 am on Wednesday, 2 January 2008, at Siriraj Hospital in Bangkok, Thailand, aged 84.[7][8][9][10] There was to be a mourning period of 100 days, starting from the day of her death. The Prime Minister announced that all government officials and agencies would wear black for 15 days while the cabinet would wear black for the full 100 days.[11]

Funeral[edit]

Main Article: Death and funeral of Princess Galyani Vadhana
Royal crematorium
The procession for HRH Princess Galyani Vadhana' royal urn

The 300 million baht (US$10 million, £7.1 million) funeral, was the first full royal funeral since 1995, when the king's mother Srinagarindra was cremated. There had been only four royal funerals in the king's 62-year reign. They give rare glimpse of the pageantry of the House of Chakri. The royal funeral tradition dates back to the Ayutthaya period[12] is influenced by thousand-year-old India's Hindu traditions that treat kings as incarnations or descendants of deities and Buddhism's merit-making ceremonies. The six-day funeral ceremony and ritual officially started on Friday 14 November 2008, at the Grand Palace, and ended on 19 November when Galyani's ashes were transferred to the Rangsi Vadhana Memorial, Wat Ratchabophit Sathit Maha Simaram temple.[13]

On Saturday, three processions (from the royal throne hall, where she had lain in state for ten months) were composed of three thousand two hundred and ninety-four soldiers, flanked by conch shell-blowers, drummers and musicians. Two of the processions involved using the Phra Yannamat Sam Lam Khan (Golden Palanquin with Three Poles), an eighteenth century seven metric ton palanquin carried by sixty men. The two-century-old sandalwood golden teak urn held Galyani's remains, whose body was seated in upright position, on top of an elaborately decorated fourten-ton golden carriage.[14]

Both dressed in white ceremonial dress, the Crown Prince and Prime Minister Somchai Wongsawat, inter alia, took part in the procession, on Sanam Luang parade ground.[15] In Uttaradit, black-dressed Thais flocked to the royally-sponsored Wat Klong Poh in the provincial seat to place four hundred thousand sandalwood flowers at the crematorium.[16]

At 10:00 pm on Saturday, the King and Queen Sirikit, with the help of a hydraulic tappet, set light to a 40 m (130 ft) high funeral pyre. The $5.7m (£3.8m) temporary royal crematorium, a complex of pavilions constructed on the Sanam Luang parade ground over seven months, had been lavishly decorated with flowers, garlands and carved banana stalks.[17] After the cremation, the funeral buildings will be torn down, as they are sombre reminders of a royal death. According to Hindu belief, it is said that the spirit of the princess will then return home to Mount Meru, where all deities eternally live.[18][19][20][21]

Memorials[edit]

Galyani Vadhana Building[edit]

Galyani Vadhana Building is in the Priest Hospital, Bangkok and has nine stories and 15,096 m2 usable area. With Princess Galyani Vadhana's support The Kidney Foundation of Thailand coordinated with Ministry of Public Health in its construction and in asking Government Lottery Office to provide funds for it. Following the celebration of the Princess's seventy-second birthday in 1995, her permission was sought to name the building after her, which she permitted, and put the headstone on 20 May 1994. The purpose of the building is to support the treatment of terminal chronic renal failure patients by hemodialysis with artificial kidney. It has forty-six artificial kidney machines to treat three to four hundred patients.

Naradhiwas Rajanagarindra Road[edit]

Naradhiwas Rajanagarindra Road runs through Bangrak, Sathorn, and Yannawa Districts, Bangkok. It is built from ferroconcrete with eight sixty meter wide lanes. Its length is 5.115 km from Surawongse Road in Bangrak District in the south east and meets Rama III Road in Yannawa District.

The road was dug out the drainage system and Chong Nonsi Canal. It was included as an approach road project in the fourth Bangkok Development Plan (1992–1996). Upon completion, the Bangkok Metropolitan Government asked for permission to name it after Princess Galyani Vadhana, and the King consented in 1996.

Naradhiwas Rajanagarindra Hospital[edit]

Naradhiwas Rajanagarindra Hospital is a general hospital with 260 beds, located at Mueang District, Narathiwat Province. Its total area is 113,600 m2. At first it was just a medical station. In 1952, Ministry of Public Health upgraded it to a hospital, named "Narathiwat Hospital". Later when Princess Galyani Vadhana was bestowed the title Naradhiwas Rajanagarindra, the hospital board requested the Ministry of Public Health to give the new hospital a name, and the king named it "Naradhiwas Rajanagarindra Hospital" on 28 February 1997.

Princess of Naradhiwas University[edit]

Princess of Naradhiwas University was found under the act on 9 of February 2005 by merging all educational institutions in the province together. Those institutions are Naradhiwas Technical College, Naradhiwas Agricultural & Technology College, Takbai vocational college and Boromarjonani College of Nursing, Narathiwat.

Titles[edit]

Styles of
Princess Galyani Vadhana of Thailand
Female Royalty's Standard of Thailand.svg
Reference style Her Royal Highness
Spoken style Your Royal Highness
Alternative style Ma'am
  • Her Serene Highness Princess Galyani Vadhana Mahidol[22] (6 May 1923 – 8 November 1927)
  • Her Highness Princess Galyani Vadhana (8 November 1927 – 10 July 1934)
  • Her Royal Highness Princess Galyani Vadhana (10 July 1934 – 11 July 1944)
  • Mrs. Galyani Vadhana Ratanakul Serireongrit (11 July 1944 – 25 March 1950)
  • Her Royal Highness Princess Galyani Vadhana (25 March 1950 – 6 May 1995)
  • Her Royal Highness Princess Galyani Vadhana, Princess of Naradhiwas (6 May 1995 – 2 January 2008 )

The Princess's style and title in full: Somdet Phrachao Phinangthoe Chaofa Galyani Vadhana Krommaluang Naradhiwas Rajanagarindra (Thai: สมเด็จพระเจ้าพี่นางเธอ เจ้าฟ้ากัลยาณิวัฒนา กรมหลวงนราธิวาสราชนครินทร์)

Ancestors[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Search birth records". findmypast.co.uk. Retrieved 25 August 2012. SONGKLA May Kensington London 1923 
  2. ^ "The only female "Krom" of the King Rama IX Reign". The Nation. Retrieved 3 January 2008. 
  3. ^ "Doctors monitor Princess". The Nation (Thailand). Archived from the original on 24 January 2008. Retrieved 19 December 2007. 
  4. ^ "Thailand's king taken to hospital". BBC News. 13 October 2007. Retrieved 24 November 2007. 
  5. ^ "Homeward-bound King Bhumibol, in pink, snaps pics of happy, weeping subjects". MCOT English News, Thai News Agency. Retrieved 24 November 2007. 
  6. ^ "Princess less responsive". Bangkok Post (via Citebite). Retrieved 19 December 2007. 
  7. ^ "HRH Princess Galyani Vadhana passes away". The Nation. Retrieved 2 January 2008. 
  8. ^ "พระเจ้าพี่นางฯสิ้นพระชนม์ เมื่อเวลา02.54น.วันที่2ม.ค.". Thai Rath. Archived from the original on 4 January 2008. Retrieved 2 January 2008. 
  9. ^ "Thais mourn revered king's sister". BBC News. Archived from the original on 3 January 2008. Retrieved 2 January 2008. 
  10. ^ "Sister of Thai king dies at 84 after long illness". CNN News. 2 January 2008. Retrieved 2 January 2008. 
  11. ^ "King, Queen preside over bathing rites for Princess Galyani". MCOT English News. Retrieved 2 January 2008. 
  12. ^ Ancient Royal Traditions. Retrieved on 15 November 2008.
  13. ^ The Enshrinement of the Royal Ashes. Retrieved on 15 November 2008.
  14. ^ Royal Carriages and Palanquins in the Royal Cremation Ceremony. Retrieved on 15 November 2008.
  15. ^ Thousands mass for funeral of Thai king's sister, Google.com
  16. ^ Thais upcountry to lay sandalwood flowers for late princess, MCOT.net
  17. ^ Thais pay respects to princess, BBC.co.uk
  18. ^ Thailand's King to Preside Over Sister's Cremation, Bloomberg.com
  19. ^ Thais bid farewell to revered king's sister, ChannelNewsAsia.com
  20. ^ King, Queen conduct ceremonial royal fire placement, Bangkokpost.com,
  21. ^ Tens of thousands pay respects to Thai princess, Reuters.com
  22. ^ Jeffrey Finestone, The Royal Family of Thailand: The Descendants of King Chulalongkorn, Phitsanulok Publishing Co., Ltd., Bangkok, 1989.

External links[edit]