|Native name: Îles Gambier|
|Major islands||Mangareva, Akamaru, Aukena, Taravai|
|Area||31 km2 (12 sq mi)|
|Overseas collectivity||French Polynesia|
|Population||1,641 (as of 2007)|
The Gambier Islands or Mangareva Islands (French: Îles Gambier or Archipel des Gambier) are a populated (1641 people) small (30 square kilometres (12 sq mi)) group of islands, namely remnants of a caldera along with islets on the surrounding fringing reef, in French Polynesia, located at the southeast terminus of the Tuamotu archipelago. They are generally considered a separate island group from Tuamotu both because their culture and language (Mangarevan) are much more closely related to those of the Marquesas Islands, and because, while the Tuamotus comprise several chains of coral atolls, the Gambiers are of volcanic origin with central high islands. Because of their proximity, the Acteon Group, and the nearby atolls of Maria East, Morane, Marutea South and Temoe ( ) are sometimes included among the Gambiers.
The commune of Gambier is made up of the Gambier Islands (with uninhabited Temoe Atoll 40 km southeast of the main Gambier group), the uninhabited Acteon Group to the northwest (Matureivavao, Tenararo, Tenarunga, Vahanga), and the also uninhabited atolls of Marutea Sud, Maria Est and Morane. This group of islands and atolls covers an area of 35 km².
The Gambier Islands comprises:
- Gambier Group: Papuri, Teauaone, Tepapuri, Puaumu, Vaiatekeue, Teauotu, Apou, Tuaeu, Totegegie, Tarauru Roa, Gaioio, Tenoko, Rumarei, Mangareva, Aukena, Tokorua, Taravai, Tepu Nui, Angakauitai, Motu-O-Ari, Makapu, Akamaru, Mekiro, Teohootepohatu, Atumata, Tauna, Tekava, Kouaku, Motu Teiku, Makaroa, Manui, Kamaka Island
Together with the Tuamotus, the Gambier Islands form Îles Tuamotu-Gambier (French: (les) (Îles) Tuamotu-Gambier or officially la subdivision administrative des (Îles) Tuamotu-Gambier), one of the five primary administrative divisions (subdivisions administratives) of French Polynesia.
The Gambier Islands (Gambier), together with the islands in the eastern part of the Tuamotus (Anaa, Fangatau, Hao, Hikueru, Makemo, Napuka, Nukutavake, Puka-Puka, Reao, Tatakoto and Tureia), form Îles Gambier et Tuamotu Est, one of the 6 electoral districts (circonscriptions électorales) for the Assembly of French Polynesia (Assemblée de la Polynésie française).
The Gambier Islands proper have an enclosing coral reef which is broken by only three passages to the open sea. Besides Mangareva, the other notable high islands of the group are Akamaru, Angakauitai, Aukena, Kamaka, Kouaku, Makapu, Makaroa, Manui, Mekiro and Taravai. These are primary of volcanic origin. A number of others are actually coral islands, hence of secondary volcanic origin, including Papuri, Puaumu, Totengengie and the Tokorua group.
|French commune of Gambier|
|Overseas collectivity||French Polynesia|
|• Mayor (2008–2014)||Monique Labbeyi-Richeton|
|• Land||46 km2 (18 sq mi)|
|• Population1 Density||36/km2 (92/sq mi)|
|INSEE/Postal code||98719 / 98755|
|Elevation||0–441 m (0–1,447 ft)|
|1 Population without double counting: residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once.|
Approximately from the 10th to the 15th centuries the Gambiers hosted a population of several thousand people and traded with other island groups including the Marquesas, the Society Islands and Pitcairn Islands. However, excessive logging by the islanders resulted in almost complete deforestation on Mangareva, with disastrous results for the islands' environment and economy. The folklore of the islands records a slide into civil war and even cannibalism as trade links with the outside world broke down, and archaeological studies have confirmed this tragic story. Today, the islands can support a population of only a few hundred.
In 1834, the Belgian Jesuit priests Honoré Laval and François Caret founded a Roman Catholic mission in the Gambiers. Supposedly they had a very cruel regime and worked the native inhabitants to death in order to create a 'settlement of god' which included a huge cathedral, a monastery, plantations, a convent and a school. Repeated complaints to the French government in Tahiti resulted in sending the Compte Emile de la Ronciere to Mangareva to investigate Laval, who was sent to Tahiti in 1846 and treated as insane. He died in Papeete in 1880.
Effects of French nuclear testing on the Gambiers
||This article or section appears to contradict itself. (March 2013)|
||This section possibly contains original research. (March 2013)|
The Gambiers served as a logistical staging base for French nuclear testing activity in Mururoa. During this time, the French military dragged a chain through some of the coral reef beds to cut a wider and deeper channel for deep draft vessels (***). Higher rate of intoxications by ciguatera were subsequently recorded.
(***) This is very unlikely because it is impossible to clear coral heads by dragging a chain. On the other hand the governing depth of both the inner lagoon and the approaches are around 6.4 meters which is not sufficient for deep draft vessels.
The purpose of dragging the chain may be to clear kelp and other seaweed that would threaten to jam smaller propellors. (deep draught vessells are not threatened by seaweed.) The change to ecology then promotes ciguatera. Due to information in January 2010 by Mme Monique Richton, Mayor of Mangareva, there are no known cases of ciguatera for years. (2)
French military vessels visited the area (as of 1993) every six months collecting specimens of water, food, human hair and other material, as well as taking detailed accounts of births, deaths and other demographic events, presumably for on-going research into the effects of the nuclear testing. citation needed].[
According to French Polynesian doctors who have worked in the area, considerably higher than normal incidences of cancer and thyroid problems are found amongst Polynesians who live near the Moruroa atoll.
Cathédrale Saint-Michel de Rikitea, the largest church in the South Pacific built to seat 1200.
- Vincent, Lindsay (2006-01-01). "French accused of Pacific nuclear cover-up". London: The Guardian. Retrieved 2008-05-12.
- Jared Diamond, Collapse: How Societies Choose to Fail or Succeed (2005), Ch. 3
(2) Michael Marquardt, personal records, Mangareva (Dec 2009 to March 2010)
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Gambier Islands.|
- Atoll list (in French)
- Death of a People. A look at the decline of Mangareva and the missionary influence on the people of the Gambiers.