Gamma

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Gamma (uppercase Γ, lowercase γ; Greek: Γάμμα Gámma) is the third letter of the Greek alphabet. In the system of Greek numerals it has a value of 3. It was derived from the Phoenician letter Gimel gimel. Letters that arose from gamma include the Roman C and G and the Cyrillic letters Г and Ґ.

Uses

Greek

The alphabet on a black figure vessel, with a Λ-shaped gamma

In Ancient Greek, gamma represented a voiced velar stop /ɡ/. In Modern Greek, it represents a voiced fricative. It is realized either as a palatal /ʝ/ (before a front vowel, /e, i/), or as a velar /ɣ/ (in all other environments).

Both in Ancient and in Modern Greek, before other velars (κ, χ, ξ k, kh, ks), gamma represents a velar nasal /ŋ/. A double gamma γγ represents the sequence /ŋɡ/ (phonetically varying [ŋɡ~ɡ]) or /ŋɣ/.

International Phonetic Alphabet

In the International Phonetic Alphabet, lowercase gamma (ɣ) represents the voiced velar fricative. A lowercase gamma that lies above the baseline rather than crossing it (ɤ) represents the close-mid back unrounded vowel.

Math and science

Lower case

The lower-case letter \gamma is used as a symbol for:

Upper case

The upper-case letter \Gamma is used as a symbol for:

Meteorology

Technical notes

HTML

The HTML entities for uppercase and lowercase gamma are Γ and γ.

Unicode

  • Greek Gamma
Character Γ γ
Unicode name GREEK CAPITAL LETTER GAMMA GREEK SMALL LETTER GAMMA GREEK LETTER SMALL CAPITAL GAMMA MODIFIER LETTER SMALL GREEK GAMMA GREEK SUBSCRIPT SMALL LETTER GAMMA
Encodings decimal hex decimal hex decimal hex decimal hex decimal hex
Unicode 915 U+0393 947 U+03B3 7462 U+1D26 7518 U+1D5E 7527 U+1D67
UTF-8 206 147 CE 93 206 179 CE B3 225 180 166 E1 B4 A6 225 181 158 E1 B5 9E 225 181 167 E1 B5 A7
Numeric character reference Γ Γ γ γ ᴦ ᴦ ᵞ ᵞ ᵧ ᵧ
Named character reference Γ γ
  • Coptic Gamma
Character
Unicode name COPTIC CAPITAL LETTER GAMMA COPTIC SMALL LETTER GAMMA
Encodings decimal hex decimal hex
Unicode 11396 U+2C84 11397 U+2C85
UTF-8 226 178 132 E2 B2 84 226 178 133 E2 B2 85
Numeric character reference Ⲅ Ⲅ ⲅ ⲅ
Character Ɣ ɣ ˠ ɤ
Unicode name LATIN CAPITAL LETTER GAMMA LATIN SMALL LETTER GAMMA MODIFIER LETTER SMALL GAMMA LATIN SMALL LETTER RAMS HORN
Encodings decimal hex decimal hex decimal hex decimal hex
Unicode 404 U+0194 611 U+0263 736 U+02E0 612 U+0264
UTF-8 198 148 C6 94 201 163 C9 A3 203 160 CB A0 201 164 C9 A4
Numeric character reference Ɣ Ɣ ɣ ɣ ˠ ˠ ɤ ɤ
  • CJK Square Gamma
Character
Unicode name SQUARE GAMMA
Encodings decimal hex
Unicode 13071 U+330F
UTF-8 227 140 143 E3 8C 8F
Numeric character reference ㌏ ㌏
  • Technical / Mathematical Gamma
Character 𝚪 𝛄 𝛤 𝛾
Unicode name DOUBLE-STRUCK
CAPITAL GAMMA
DOUBLE-STRUCK
SMALL GAMMA
MATHEMATICAL BOLD
CAPITAL GAMMA
MATHEMATICAL BOLD
SMALL GAMMA
MATHEMATICAL ITALIC
CAPITAL GAMMA
MATHEMATICAL ITALIC
SMALL GAMMA
Encodings decimal hex decimal hex decimal hex decimal hex decimal hex decimal hex
Unicode 8510 U+213E 8509 U+213D 120490 U+1D6AA 120516 U+1D6C4 120548 U+1D6E4 120574 U+1D6FE
UTF-8 226 132 190 E2 84 BE 226 132 189 E2 84 BD 240 157 154 170 F0 9D 9A AA 240 157 155 132 F0 9D 9B 84 240 157 155 164 F0 9D 9B A4 240 157 155 190 F0 9D 9B BE
UTF-16 8510 213E 8509 213D 55349 57002 D835 DEAA 55349 57028 D835 DEC4 55349 57060 D835 DEE4 55349 57086 D835 DEFE
Numeric character reference ℾ ℾ ℽ ℽ 𝚪 𝚪 𝛄 𝛄 𝛤 𝛤 𝛾 𝛾
Character 𝜞 𝜸 𝝘 𝝲 𝞒 𝞬
Unicode name MATHEMATICAL BOLD ITALIC
CAPITAL GAMMA
MATHEMATICAL BOLD ITALIC
SMALL GAMMA
MATHEMATICAL SANS-SERIF
BOLD CAPITAL GAMMA
MATHEMATICAL SANS-SERIF
BOLD SMALL GAMMA
MATHEMATICAL SANS-SERIF
BOLD ITALIC CAPITAL GAMMA
MATHEMATICAL SANS-SERIF
BOLD ITALIC SMALL GAMMA
Encodings decimal hex decimal hex decimal hex decimal hex decimal hex decimal hex
Unicode 120606 U+1D71E 120632 U+1D738 120664 U+1D758 120690 U+1D772 120722 U+1D792 120748 U+1D7AC
UTF-8 240 157 156 158 F0 9D 9C 9E 240 157 156 184 F0 9D 9C B8 240 157 157 152 F0 9D 9D 98 240 157 157 178 F0 9D 9D B2 240 157 158 146 F0 9D 9E 92 240 157 158 172 F0 9D 9E AC
UTF-16 55349 57118 D835 DF1E 55349 57144 D835 DF38 55349 57176 D835 DF58 55349 57202 D835 DF72 55349 57234 D835 DF92 55349 57260 D835 DFAC
Numeric character reference 𝜞 𝜞 𝜸 𝜸 𝝘 𝝘 𝝲 𝝲 𝞒 𝞒 𝞬 𝞬

These characters are used only as mathematical symbols. Stylized Greek text should be encoded using the normal Greek letters, with markup and formatting to indicate text style.

See also