Gammaproteobacteria

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Gammaproteobacteria
Vibrio cholerae
Scientific classification
Domain: Bacteria
Phylum: Proteobacteria
Class: Gammaproteobacteria
Orders

Gammaproteobacteria is a class of several medically, ecologically and scientifically important groups of bacteria, such as the Enterobacteriaceae (Escherichia coli), Vibrionaceae and Pseudomonadaceae. An exceeding number of important pathogens belongs to this class, e.g. Salmonella (enteritis and typhoid fever), Yersinia pestis (plague), Vibrio cholerae (cholera), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (lung infections in hospitalised or cystic fibrosis patients), and Klebsiella pneumoniae responsible for causing pneumonia. Important plant pathogens such as Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri (citrus canker) and Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (kiwifruit Psa outbreak) are also Gammaproteobacteria. Like all Proteobacteria, the Gammaproteobacteria are Gram-negative.

Significance[edit]

The Gammaproteobacteria comprise several medically and scientifically important groups of bacteria, such as the Enterobacteriaceae, Vibrionaceae and Pseudomonadaceae. A number of important pathogens belongs to this class, e.g. Salmonella spp. (enteritis and typhoid fever), Yersinia pestis (plague), Vibrio cholerae (cholera), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (lung infections in hospitalized or cystic fibrosis patients), and Escherichia coli (food poisoning). Members of Chromatium are photosynthetic and oxidize hydrogen sulfide instead of water, producing sulfur as excrement. Some Gammaproteobacteria are methane oxidizers, and many of them are in symbiosis with geothermic ocean vent dwelling animals.[1]

Phylogeny[edit]

Due to a single genus, Acidithiobacillus, Gammaproteobacteria is paraphyletic to Betaproteobacteria (reviewed in Proteobacteria#Taxonomy).

Phylogeny of Gammaproteobacteria

Acidithiobacillus




Betaproteobacteria




Xanthomonadales




Chromatiales



Methylococcus



Beggiatoa




Legionellales



RuthiaVesicomyosociusThiomicrospiraDichelobacterFrancisella





MoraxellaceaeAlcalinovorax




Saccharophagus, Reinekea




Oceanospirillaceae




Marinobacter



Pseudomonadaceae








PseudoalteromonadaceaeAlteromonasIdiomarinaceae




Shewanellaceae




Psychromonadaceae




Aeromonas




Vibrionales




Pasteurellales



Enterobacteriales













Phylogeny of Gammaproteobacteria after[2] Not all orders are monophyletic, consequently families or genera are shown for Pseudomonadales, Oceanospirillales, Alteromonadales. In the case of singleton orders, the genus is shown. (In bacterial taxonomy, orders have the suffix -ales, while families have -aceae.)

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ http://comenius.susqu.edu/biol/202/EUBACTERIA/PROTEOBACTERIAE/gammaproteobacteria-frame.htm
  2. ^ Williams, K. P.; Gillespie, J. J.; Sobral, B. W. S.; Nordberg, E. K.; Snyder, E. E.; Shallom, J. M.; Dickerman, A. W. (2010). "Phylogeny of Gammaproteobacteria". Journal of Bacteriology 192 (9): 2305–2314. doi:10.1128/JB.01480-09. PMC 2863478. PMID 20207755.  edit

External links[edit]