Ganderbal district

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Ganderbal district
Ganderbal district is located in Jammu and Kashmir
Ganderbal district
Ganderbal district
Location in Jammu and Kashmir, India
Coordinates: 34°08′N 74°28′E / 34.14°N 74.47°E / 34.14; 74.47Coordinates: 34°08′N 74°28′E / 34.14°N 74.47°E / 34.14; 74.47
Country  India
State Jammu and Kashmir
Headquarters Ganderbal
Elevation 1,616 m (5,302 ft)
Population (2011)
 • Total 297,003
 • Official Urdu
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
Telephone code 01942
Vehicle registration JK16
Sex ratio 869 /
Literacy 59.99%

Ganderbal District (گاندربل ضلع (Perso-Arabic)) is a newly formed district of the state of Jammu and Kashmir of India. It was formerly 2 tehsils (Ganderbal and Kangan) of Srinagar District.

Historic sites and remains[edit]

Ganderbal, like the rest of the Kashmir Valley, has witnessed many vicissitudes and experienced many upheavals from time to time. No significant ancient building or archaeological site is found in the district today, except for the Naranag temple, as most of the ancient architectural monuments in the area were destroyed during the rule of Sultan Sikander. What must have once been magnificent architectural show pieces are now in grand ruins.

Kheer Bhawani[edit]

Main article: Kheer Bhawani

Kheer Bawani temple is constructed over a sacred spring situated in village Tulmulla, 5 kilometres (3.1 mi) from the district headquarters of Ganderbal. It is among the ancient temples of Kashmir which has stood even today in its original form of architecture, when most of other temples were destroyed. It is dedicated to the Goddess Kheer Bhawani[1] (originally just Bhawani). The worship of Kheer Bhawani is universal among the Hindus of Kashmir, and other parts of India. A week long pilgrimage has been restored in the month of may every year in which thousands of devotees visits the temple

Naranag Temple[edit]

The Naranag temple[2] is one of the important archaeological sites of the country. Naranag, a group of temples, is situated in the lap of Harmukh Mountain about 50 kilometres (31 mi) from Srinagar city. The site consists of a cluster of temples facing each other at a distance of about 100 metres (330 ft). Historians say that the temple is dedicated to Lord Shiva by the 8th-century ruler Lalithdatiya muktadiya. It is believed that the king Awantivarman paid a visit and donated a pedestal for bathing at Bhutsher. Even today one gets surprised over art and skill of the builders of this temple. Its impressive architecture reveals the glorious past, the magnificent art of the 8th century. The government has only recently constructed walls to protect it from encroachments and nothing else has been done. It is now left in ruins of which only faint traces have survived. This temple has the typical Aryan structure as was present in Aryan Kashmir.


Gund village

Ganderbal district, with its district headquarters located at 33°44′N 75°09′E / 33.73°N 75.15°E / 33.73; 75.15,[3] at an average elevation of 1,950 metres (6,400 ft) above sea level, at a distance of 21 kilometres (13 mi) from Srinagar city.

Ganderbal district is spread across the Sind River. The river is considered as the lifeline of the district. It is the only river in Jammu and Kashmir state on which three hydroelectric power stations are functional; besides that the river provides water for irrigation, 80% population[4] of the district is engaged with farming. The sand (bajri) of this river has a great value for money for its quality.

The district is constituted into three tehsils:

  • Ganderbal
  • Kangan
  • Lar

It is further divided into four blocks: Ganderbal, Wakoora, Lar and Kangan.[5] Each block consists of a number of panchayats. Ganderbal District has 2 assembly constituencies: Kangan and Ganderbal.[6]


Ganderbal district possesses all the typical characteristics of the climate of Kashmir Valley as a whole. In the heat of July, the breeze of Nallah Sindh is enough for relief. Sir Walter Lawrence writes in his book The Valley of Kashmir that in latitude, Kashmir corresponds with Peshawar, Baghdad and Damascus in Asia: with Fez in Morocco: and South Carolina in America, but it presents none of the characteristics of those countries. People have linked the climate of Kashmir to that of Switzerland until the end of May, and of Southern France in July and August. But it is impossible to speak of Kashmir as possessing any one climate or group of characteristics. Every hundred feet of elevation brings some new phase of climate and of vegetation.


The Ganderbal district is not only the valley of Nallah Sindh, it is equally rich in landscape. It has great exposure in adventure tourism. The nature has been generous in gifting the district with places of unparalleled beauty. It is obvious to call it as the district of lakes, as it possesses the most number of lakes in the whole State. Before the advent of armed insurrection in the state, these lakes were the main attraction for foreign tourists who used to visit these places so often. But since the early 1990s, strategic areas of all of these pleasure spots have been occupied by Indian army and paramilitary forces. In addition, the government has preferred a policy of environmentally hazardous development program which mainly consist of building concrete structures in these places, thus harming their natural beauty and the ecological balance.


Main article: Sonamarg

This world-famous hill station is situated 80 kilometres (50 mi) from Srinagar and located on the banks of Nallah Sindh at an altitude of meters. Sonamarg, once a great tourist puller and favourite place for shooting of Bollywood films, is perhaps the best health resort in the country. Sonamarg also hosts the International Championships of Rafting on Nallah Sindh. It presents a glamorous look due to its alpine meadows, snow-clad mountains, and healthy climate. Sonamarg skirts Nallah Sindh river and torrential flow of water in this river enriches its awesome beauty. Besides several hotels in private sector have come up here and these hotels provide modern facilities to their guests. A number of treks in this region also begin from Sonamarg to high altitude lakes of Vishansar, Krishansar, Gadsar and Gangabal stocked with snow trout and brown trout.

Manasbal Lake[edit]

Main article: Manasbal Lake

Manasbal Lake is the main attraction for tourists in Ganderbal district, 12 kilometres (7.5 mi) north west of district headquarters of Ganderbal. It is 5 kilometres (3.1 mi) long and 1 kilometre (0.62 mi) wide. It is located in the Jhelum valley, north of Srinagar city in the State of Jammu and Kashmir in India. The name Manasbal is said to be a derivative of the Lake Manasarovar.[7] Lake is encircled by three villages: Jarokbal, Kondabal (also called Kiln place; is situated on the north-eastern side of the lake) and Ganderbal and is stated to be the deepest lake (at 13 m or 43 ft depth) in the Kashmir valley. The large growth of lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) at the periphery of the lake (blooms during July and August) adds to the beauty of the clear waters of the lake. The Mughal garden, called the Garoka, (meaning bay window) built by Nur Jahan overlooks the lake.[8]

The lake is a good place for birdwatching as it is one of the largest natural stamping grounds of Aquatic birds in Kashmir and has the sobriquet of "supreme gem of all Kashmir Lakes".[9][10] The rootstocks of lotus plant which grows extensively in the lake are harvested and marketed, and also eaten by the local people.[7]

The lake is approached from Srinagar by a 30-kilometre (19 mi) road via Shadipur, Nasim[disambiguation needed] and Gandarbal. Road to Wular Lake, the largest lake in Kashmir, passes through this lake, via Safapur.[7]


Main article: Harmukh
Gangabal Lake at foothills of Harmukh

Harmukh (also known as Mount Haramukh or Harmukh mountain) is a mountain with a peak elevation[11] of 16,890 ft (5,148 metres), in Ganderbal district of Indian occupied Kashmir. Harmukh is part of the Himalaya Range, and is located between Nallah Sindh to its south and Neelum River to its north. It rises from Gangabal Lake[12] in the vicinity of Kashmir valley. It is more hazardous to reach Mount Haramukh from the east and south side of Ganderbal and has never been climbed from these sides; thus, it is mostly climbed in the north-west from the Arin Bandipore side.

Harmukh was first climbed by the Great Trigonometric Survey's Thomas Montgomerie in 1856 and made the first survey of the Karakoram some 210 km (130 miles) to the south, and sketched the two most prominent peaks, labelling them K1 and K2.[13] Harmukh was later climbed by many other climbers.[14] Therefore, Harmukh is the mountain from which the world‘s 2nd highiest mountain peak K2 was discovered and the Serveyer‘s mark K2 continues to be the name.

Gangabal Lake[edit]

Main article: Gangabal Lake

Gangabal Lake (Urdu:-ﮔﻨﮕﺒﻞ ﺟﮭﻴﻞ), also called Gangbal Lake, is a lake situated at the foothills of Mount Haramukh (the highest mountain peak in the vicinity of Kashmir valley)[15] in Ganderbal district, north of Srinagar city in the state of Jammu and Kashmir in India. It is an alpine high altitude oligotrophic lake,[16] and is home to many types of fishes[17] of which one is the brown trout.[18]

The lake has a maximum length of 2.5 kilometres (1.6 mi) and maximum width of 1 kilometre (0.62 mi). It is fed by precipitation, glaciers and springs. The lake water outflows to a nearby small lake (Nundakol)[19] and then via Wangath nallah[20] to Nallah Sindh[21] The trout fishes are present in the lake.[22] Gangabal lake is approached from Srinagar 45 kilometres (28 mi) by road via Ganderbal up to Naranag[23] and then a 15 kilometres (9.3 mi) track upslope.

Colleges and schools[edit]

  • Central University of Kashmir (under construction)
  • Sheikhul Alam Public School Nawabbagh lar Ganderbal
  • SKUAST, Faculty of Fishries, Rangil
  • SKUAST, Faculty of Forestry, Benhama (under construction)
  • Government Degree College, Ganderbal
  • Government Degree College, Kangan
  • Hyderiya Model School, Tulla Mulla, Ganderbal
  • Sainik School, Manasbal
  • Kirmania Model High School Batwina Ganderbal
  • Alamdar-e-Kashmir Educational institute
  • Dream Land School
  • Qamria Higher Secondary School
  • Vijay Memorial School
  • Hill Top School
  • Public High School Watlar
  • Sultania Higher Secondary School Ganderbal.
  • New Tiny Hearts School, Duderhama.
  • Oxford High School, Duderhama.
  • Government Middle School, Duderhama
  • Government Physical College, Ganderbal.
  • Abrar public school prang kangan.
  • Zia Educational Institute Batwina Ganderbal.
  • Gousia Islamic Educational Institution Batwina.
  • Government Boys Higher Secondary School Batwina Ganderbal.
  • Shaheen Public School Manigam
  • The H.K.M.C (RA) Educational Institute Manigam


See also[edit]


  1. ^ Bhag-P 5.25.1
  2. ^ "Naranag temple in ruins". Retrieved 2012-04-25. 
  3. ^ "Falling Rain Genomics, Inc - Ganderbal". Retrieved 2012-04-24. 
  4. ^ "Agriculture directory of Ganderbal". diragrikmr.nic. Retrieved 2012-04-25. 
  5. ^ Statement showing the number of blocks in respect of 22 Districts of Jammu and Kashmir State including newly Created Districts dated 2008-03-13, accessed 2012-04-24
  6. ^ "ERO's and AERO's". Chief Electoral Officer, Jammu and Kashmir. Retrieved 2012-04-24. 
  7. ^ a b c, Manasbal Lake
  8. ^ Mansbal lake
  9. ^ Manasbal Lake
  10. ^ kashmir lakes
  11. ^ "How high is Harmukh". Retrieved 2012-04-24. 
  12. ^ "Geography of Kashmir". Retrieved 2012-04-24. 
  13. ^ Curran, Jim (1995). K2: The Story of the Savage Mountain. Hodder & Stoughton. p. 25. ISBN 978-0340660072. 
  14. ^ "Rimo expeditions". Retrieved 2012-04-25. 
  15. ^ "Trekking Kashmir". Retrieved 2012-04-19. 
  16. ^ Raina, HS; KK Vass (May–June 2006). "Some biological features of a freshwater fairy shrimp, Branchinecta schantzi, Mackin, 1952 in the Northwestern Himalayas, India". J. Indian Inst. Sci. 86: 287–291. Retrieved 21 February 2012. 
  17. ^ "Fishes and Fisheries in high altitude lakes, Vishansar, Gadsar, Gangabal, Krishansar". Retrieved 2012-04-19. 
  18. ^ Petr, ed. by T. (1999). Fish and fisheries at higher altitudes : Asia. Rome: FAO. p. 72. ISBN 92-5-104309-4. 
  19. ^ [1]
  20. ^ [2]
  21. ^ A major tributary to the Jehlum river.
  22. ^ [3]
  23. ^ "Jammu and Kashmir update". Retrieved 2012-04-25. 

External links[edit]

  • [4] List of places in Ganderbal