This term is used for the culture of the central plains of Northern India, especially the doab region of Ganges (Ganga) and Yamuna rivers, which is regarded as a fusion of Hindu and Muslim elements.
The region of Awadh in the state of Uttar Pradesh is usually considered to be the center of this culture. Allahabad, Lucknow, Kanpur, Faizabad-Ayodhya, Varanasi (Benares) are few of the many centres of this culture.
Lucknow’s Oudhi culture is mix of ganga jamuni tehzeeb which brought together the best of the Persian and Mughal cultures of Islam and the Banarsi Raas rang. Khayal, thumri, Ghazal and Kathak flourished in Lucknow.
Kathak a fine dramatization of poetry in Urdu and Khari boli or Braj bhasha has evolved as an ensemble of Indo-Islamic music and dance and this repertoire is the most beautiful show-piece of Ganga-Jamuni tehzeeb.
- Steven Wesley Ramey, Hindu, Sufi, or Sikh: contested practices and identifications of Sindhi Hindus in India and beyond, Macmillan, 2008, ISBN 978-0-230-60832-0,
... the continuing joint Muslim and Hindu participation in public festivals, relating it to "Ganga-Jamuni Tahzeeb," the attitude of refined hospitality and harmonious relations that historically characterized this region ...
- Socialist Party (India), Janata, Volume 62,
... the ganga-jamuni tehzeeb (composite culture) regarded both religious communities as two eyes of a beautiful bride and their long history witnessed 'give-and-take', at many levels ...
- Malika Mohammada, The foundations of the composite culture in India, Aakar Books, 2007, ISBN 978-81-89833-18-3,
... developed in Awadh as a genre of composite creativity. ... of multiple Indian cultural traditions and provided glimpses of the Ganga-Jamuni tehzeeb of north India with Lucknow as its centre ...
- Plaint Of Ayodhya, The Financial Express, Sunday, Aug 22, 2004 at 0000 hrs IST
- Festival has origin in city's composite culture, TNN, May 13, 2009, 06.52am IST
- Karbala revisited, Express News Service, Saturday , February 12, 2005
- Twin towns welcome verdict with humility, grace, Deccan Chronicle, October 1st, 2010
- An apt reflection of Ganga-Jamuni tehzeeb, Naveen Kumar, TNN, Sep 25, 2009, 10.09pm IST
- Stories behind the masks, Shailaja Tripathi, NEW DELHI, November 4, 2010, The Hindu
- Descendants of Nawabs keep Holi traditions alive, The Indian Express, Tue Mar 10 2009, 15:35 hrs
- Shatranj ke Khiladi and Lucknow
- Ustad Bismillah Khan dies, aged 90, Atiq Khan, The Hindu, Aug 22, 2006
- Kathak dance: Inspired by nature, Lucknow gharana kathak dance.