Çankırı

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"Gangra" redirects here. For the genus of moth, see Gangra (moth).
Çankırı
Municipality
Çankırı is located in Turkey
Çankırı
Çankırı
Coordinates: 40°36′00″N 33°37′00″E / 40.60000°N 33.61667°E / 40.60000; 33.61667Coordinates: 40°36′00″N 33°37′00″E / 40.60000°N 33.61667°E / 40.60000; 33.61667
Country Turkey
Province Çankırı
Government
 • Mayor İrfan Dinç (AKP)
Area[1]
 • District 1,347.05 km2 (520.10 sq mi)
Population (2012)[2]
 • Urban 74,192
 • District 84,225
 • District density 63/km2 (160/sq mi)
Website www.cankiri.bel.tr
Çankırı (Kaleden).jpg

Çankırı is the capital city of Çankırı Province, in Turkey, about 140 km (87 mi) northeast of Ankara. It is situated about 800 m (2500 ft) above sea level.

History[edit]

Çankırı was known in antiquity as Gangra, and later Germanicopolis (Greek: Γάγγρα, Γερμανικόπολις). The city has also been known as Changra, Kandari or Kanghari

Α town of Paphlagonia that appears to have been once the capital of Paphlagonia and a princely residence, for it is known from Strabo that Deiotarus Philadelphus (before 31 BC-5/6 AD), the last king of Paphlagonia, resided there.[3] Notwithstanding this, Strabo describes it as only “a small town and a garrison.”

According to 1st century BC writer Alexander the Polyhistor[4] the town was built by a goat herder who had found one of his goats straying there; but this origin is probably a mere philological speculation as gangra signifies “a goat” in the Paphlagonian language.

Gangra, was absorbed into the Roman province of Galatia upon the death of Deiotarus in 6/5 BC. The earlier town was built on the hill behind the modern city, on which are the ruins of a late fortress, while the Roman city occupied the site of the modern city.

In the writings of the 2nd century AD Greco-Roman writer Ptolemy, the city is referred to as Germanopolis (Greek: Γερμανόπολις).[5][6] It was named Germanicopolis, after Germanicus or possibly the emperor Claudius, until the time of Caracalla.

In Christian times, Gangra was the metropolitan see of Paphlagonia. Hypatios, bishop of Gangra, is considered a saint in the Orthodox Christian tradition. He was killed by Arians on his return from the Council of Nicaea (325 AD), in which he took part.

In the 4th century, the town was the scene of an important ecclesiastical synod, the Synod of Gangra. There is disagreement about the date of the synod, with dates varying from AD 341 to 376. The synodal letter states that twenty-one bishops assembled to take action concerning Eustathius of Sebaste[7] and his followers. The Synod issued twenty canons known as the Canons of Gangra; these were declared ecumenical by the Council of Chalcedon in 451.

Over the centuries the settlement witnessed the hegemony of many cultures and races, such as Hittites, Persians, Ancient Greeks, Parthians, Pontic Greeks, Galatians, Romans, Byzantine Greeks, up to the Seljuks and finally the Ottoman Turks. Traces from its long past are still visible throughout the city. The continuity of the city's name from ancient times across languages is of note: Hangara for the Arabs, Gagra for the Jews and Tzungra or Kângıri or Çankıri for the Turks.

Climate[edit]

Çankırı has a dry summer continental climate (Köppen climate classification Dsa and Dsb) with humid continental climate (Dfa and Dfb) characteristics, since the wettest part of the year is spring and early summer. The province displays all four of these continental climate subtypes depending on location and elevation. The city is located in a transitional region of the province. Summers are usually hot and dry and winters are cold and snowy.

Climate data for Çankırı
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 15.4
(59.7)
19.2
(66.6)
27.8
(82)
30.6
(87.1)
34.8
(94.6)
39.6
(103.3)
42.4
(108.3)
41.2
(106.2)
37.8
(100)
34.2
(93.6)
24.4
(75.9)
17.6
(63.7)
42.4
(108.3)
Average high °C (°F) 3.4
(38.1)
5.8
(42.4)
11.9
(53.4)
17.7
(63.9)
22.7
(72.9)
27.1
(80.8)
30.9
(87.6)
30.9
(87.6)
26.6
(79.9)
20.1
(68.2)
12.0
(53.6)
5.6
(42.1)
17.89
(64.21)
Daily mean °C (°F) −0.6
(30.9)
0.9
(33.6)
5.6
(42.1)
11.0
(51.8)
15.7
(60.3)
19.8
(67.6)
23.0
(73.4)
22.4
(72.3)
17.6
(63.7)
11.9
(53.4)
5.6
(42.1)
1.6
(34.9)
11.21
(52.17)
Average low °C (°F) −4.2
(24.4)
−3.3
(26.1)
−0.2
(31.6)
4.5
(40.1)
8.4
(47.1)
11.7
(53.1)
14.1
(57.4)
13.7
(56.7)
9.4
(48.9)
5.2
(41.4)
0.6
(33.1)
−1.9
(28.6)
4.83
(40.71)
Record low °C (°F) −24.0
(−11.2)
−23.9
(−11)
−20.5
(−4.9)
−8.9
(16)
−3.0
(26.6)
1.6
(34.9)
4.3
(39.7)
4.6
(40.3)
−1.0
(30.2)
−6.3
(20.7)
−11.6
(11.1)
−18.8
(−1.8)
−24
(−11.2)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 42.3
(1.665)
34
(1.34)
36.8
(1.449)
46.4
(1.827)
54.4
(2.142)
38.7
(1.524)
18.2
(0.717)
17.6
(0.693)
16.5
(0.65)
27.7
(1.091)
26.8
(1.055)
47.9
(1.886)
407.3
(16.039)
Avg. rainy days 11.2 9.4 8.9 12.0 13.1 10.0 5.0 4.0 4.6 7.2 8.1 10.5 104
Mean monthly sunshine hours 62 92.4 158.1 177 241.8 282 322.4 306.9 252 182.9 108 52.7 2,238.2
Source: Devlet Meteoroloji İşleri Genel Müdürlüğü [8]

Economy[edit]

Agriculture[edit]

Various agricultural produce, including wheat, corn, beans, and apples is grown in the farms and fields.

Industry[edit]

Most industry is concentrated near the Çankırı city center and the town of Korgun. Other towns included in the larger industrial area of the city are Şabanözü, Çerkeş, Ilgaz, Kurşunlu, and Yapraklı.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Area of regions (including lakes), km²". Regional Statistics Database. Turkish Statistical Institute. 2002. Retrieved 2013-03-05. 
  2. ^ "Population of province/district centers and towns/villages by districts - 2012". Address Based Population Registration System (ABPRS) Database. Turkish Statistical Institute. Retrieved 2013-02-27. 
  3. ^ Strab. xii. p.564; comp. Liv. 38.26.
  4. ^ Smith, W., Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, vol. 3, s.v. "Stephanus" of Byzantium.
  5. ^ Ptol., Geo. v. 4. § 5, but also “"Gangra (Byzantium)"
  6. ^ Encyclopaedia of the Hellenic World, Asia Minor http://www.ehw.gr/asiaminor/forms/filePage.aspx?lemmaId=7515
  7. ^ Wikisource-logo.svg "Eustathius of Sebaste". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. 1913. 
  8. ^ http://www.dmi.gov.tr/veridegerlendirme/il-ve-ilceler-istatistik.aspx?m=CANKIRI

Further reading[edit]

  • Boğaç A. Ergene: Local Court, Provincial Society and Justice in the Ottoman Empire, Legal Practice and Dispute Resolution in Çankırı and Kastamonu (1652-1744). Studies in Islamic Law and Society, volume 17, Brill, Leiden, 2003. ISBN 90-04-12609-0.