Gangs in New Zealand
There are numerous gangs in New Zealand, of varying criminality, organisation and ethnicity. The New Zealand Police have distinguished between "New Zealand gangs", outlaw motorcycle gangs and local street gangs. They named the three most prominent "New Zealand gangs" as Black Power (not related to the African-American movement); the Mongrel Mob, and the Nomads. Examples of local street gangs are the Junior Don Kings (JDK) and Dope Money Sex (DMS) in Central Auckland.
According to the book Gangs by Ross Kemp, New Zealand has more gangs per head than any other country in the world, with about seventy major gangs and over 4,000 patched members in a population of 4 million people.
- 1 History
- 2 Prison statistics
- 3 Prominent gangs
- 4 Other gangs
- 5 Opposition
- 6 See also
- 7 References
- 8 Further reading
- 9 External links
According to sociologist Jarrod Gilbert, New Zealand has had youth and street gangs since the 1950s. By the 1960s, there were four established gangs, Black Power, Mongrel Mob, Head Hunters and Stormtroopers, they had friends in high places with prime minister Rob Muldoon partying at a Black Power pad in 1976 and Wellington Mayor Michael Fowler stumping bail for seven of them after an altercation with the Mongrel Mob. However organised crime gangs such as those which currently dominate the New Zealand scene mostly date from the 1970s. 'Gangsta' style gangs have been a presence in New Zealand since the early 1990s but individual gangs of this type are typically short lived. New Zealand gangs have generally been heavily influenced by their American counterparts. Although Black Power takes its name from the black liberation movement of the same name, in many ways it and similar gangs are much more akin to white American motorcycle gangs such as the Hell's Angels. Since the early 1990s newer gangs have primarily been influenced by African American street gangs such as the Crips and Bloods.
Gang members account for an increasing proportion of incarcerations in New Zealand. A New Zealand Ministry of Justice study showed that in 1991 just under 80% of prison inmates had no gang history, and just over 90% had no current gang membership. Of the prison population, 4% were members of the Mongrel Mob and 4.3% former members, while 3.6% were current and 3.2% former members of Black Power. No other gang had more than one percent of the prison population. A similar study in 2003 showed that 11.3% of prison inmates were gang members. Of these, 35% were Mongrel Mob and 33% Black Power, with no other individual gang having more than 5% of the imprisoned gang population. As of April 2013, gang members and affiliates account for over 30% of inmates, with over 10% of New Zealand prisoners being Mongrel Mob members.
Black Power was formed in the late 1960s in Wellington as the Black Bulls, and its membership is primarily Māori and Pacific Islander. It has been involved with various kinds of crime, particularly drug dealing. Its symbol is the clenched fist of the American black power movement, and their colours are blue and black.
Head Hunters MC
The Head Hunters motorcycle club is one of the fastest growing motorcycle clubs in the country. It has chapters in West Auckland, Wellsford, Northland and most recently Wellington. Its beginning is said to go back to 1967 and has been historically tied to West Auckland although it maintains a presence in Ellerslie through a senior member. In late 2010 members of the Sinn Fein motorcycle club in Wellington have patched over to become part of the Head Hunters motorcycle club.
The King Cobras are a Central Auckland based gang with its origins born out of the Polynesian Panthers in the early 1970s whose ranks are predominantly Polynesian but not exclusive of others. Their reputed turf is reported to stretch from the Downtown area to Mangere and Papatoetoe. The Cobras also have a presence in the North Shore, and an established presence as far South as the Hutt Valley and the Wellington area. In 2009 it was reported that members of the gang had been involved in a multimillion dollar methamphetamine drug ring organised within Paremoremo Prison. The Cobras maintained a headquarters in Ponsonby up until August 2011 as they are reported to be shifting premises.
Hells Angels MC
The Hells Angels motorcycle club founded a chapter in Auckland in 1961 and has since taken over gangs in Wanganui. New Zealand had the first chapter of the Hells Angels outside the US.
In 2011 the gang made headlines when it tried to register a lottery.
Highway 61 MC
The Highway 61 motorcycle club was founded in 1968 and was the largest outlaw motorcycle club in New Zealand in 2010. It has chapters in Auckland, Hastings, Wellington and Christchurch, and by 2008 had expanded into Brisbane and the Gold Coast in eastern Australia. They are mainly European and Maori in descent.
The Mongrel Mob was formed and organised in Hastings about 1968 and, like its Black Power rivals, is primarily Māori and Pacific Islander. The gang has been active in organised crime and has been involved in several murders. Its symbol is a bulldog wearing a German Stahlhelm helmet, and the gang makes use of other Nazi imagery. Their colours are red and black. The Mongrel Mob is currently the largest gang in New Zealand.
In 2010 members of the Australian motorcycle club the Rebels have announced they will be establishing a presence in New Zealand in 2011. Rebels MC members have been sighted wearing their patches in various places throughout the North Island in early 2011.
Road Knights MC
The Tribesmen is a prominently Māori motorcycle club formed in the 1980s in Otara, they have a presence in South Auckland and as far south as Rotorua . and Murupara. the Tribesmen are also rivals with the Mongrel Mob.
The Tribesmen have a feeder youth street gang called Killer Beez (sometimes Killer Bees, Killabeez, or KBZ), possibly a reference to the hip hop group Killa Beez, a name given to Wu-Tang Clan affiliates who also wear yellow and black. Killer Beez was headed by Josh Masters, formerly a vice-president of the Tribesmen gang. Masters was one of 44 people from both gangs arrested in a police swoop in May 2008. In total 60 Killer Beez were arrested an operation which involved 110,000 intercepted messages. Charges included supplying methamphetamine, conspiracy to supply methamphetamine and money laundering. Masters plead guilty but is currently (October 2011) fighting to have that overturned.
In 2011 Vila Lemanu was the most senior Killer Beez member not in prison, he was on the run for several months before having his conviction quashed by the Court of Appeal and a new trial ordered.
Red Devils MC
The Red Devils have a presence in Mt Eden and Nelson and in 2012 were involved in the high-profile collapse of an anti-drug operation. Prosecution against 21 people was halted due to a '"gross abuse of process" by police'
- Devil's Henchmen MC (Christchurch and Timaru) - the original South Island outlaw motorcycle club, formed in Christchurch in 1973
- Epitaph Riders MC (Christchurch and Greymouth)
- Filthy Few MC (Tauranga, Rotorua, Waihi and Matamata)
- Forty Five MC (Auckland)
- Greasy Dogs (Mount Maunganui)
- Huhu MC (Tokoroa), started as a largely bush crew from the early 1950s, MC in the early 1970s.
- Lone Legion MC (Blenheim)
- Lost Breed MC (Nelson)
- Magogs MC (New Plymouth)
- Mothers MC (Palmerston North)
- Outcasts MC (Hamilton)
- Outlaws MC (Napier)
- Red Devils MC (Nelson)
- Satans Slaves MC ( Wellington )
- Southern Vikings MC (Dunedin)
- Templars MC (Christchurch)
- Tyrants MC (Pahiatua)
- Ara Toa Whanau MC (Palmerston North, Horowhenua, Heretaunga)
- StormTroopers (Dargaville)
- Tribal Huk (Ngaruawahia)
- FBI's (Full Blooded Islanders)- Pacific Islanders - Wellington
- Right Wing Resistance - A White Supremacist skinhead gang formed by Kyle Chapman, based originally in Christchurch, but claims to have a presence across the country.
- Bloods (Nationwide)
- Crips (Nationwide)
- Darksiders (Connected to Black Power, Wellington)
- Dope Money Sex (Central Auckland) (Also under the Crips Umbrella).
- Killerbeez (Connected to the Tribesman)
- T.O.C. (Thugs of Canal) Avondale based street gang which is named after the street they hold ground on.
- J.C.B. (Junior Crip Boys) Otahuhu based crip gang.
In 2009 the Wanganui District Council voted to ban gang patches, but it was overturned following a judicial review instigated by the Hells Angels. The council tried again in 2011, this time restricting the ban to just the central business district, malls and parks.
- "New Zealand Police Criminal Investigation Branch: Organised Crime". Archived from the original on 13 January 2007.
- Gower, Patrick (20 August 2007). "Gang pack rapes random, alcohol-fuelled". The New Zealand Herald. Retrieved 30 September 2011.
- Kemp, Ross (2007). Gangs. p. 45. ISBN 978-0-7181-5328-1.
- Kemp, p 50
- Gower, Patrick (18 August 2007). "Bash, bling and blood". The New Zealand Herald. Retrieved 30 September 2011.
- Trust: A true story of Women and Gangs. Pip Desmond. 2009. Page 26
- Ministry of Justice - Census of Prison Inmates 1991
- Corrections Department - Gang Membership.
- Egarr, Tristan (14 July 2008). "Gang Land". Salient (www.salient.org.nz). Retrieved 5 December 2010.
- "Bridget Saunders: Fight night at the Headhunters' HQ". Sunday Star-Times. 11 May 2008. Retrieved 15 January 2009.
- "Schoolgirls pay to party at gang HQ". The New Zealand Herald. 15 August 2003. Retrieved 30 September 2011.
- Hurley, Bevan (7 August 2011). "Exodus for weakened Cobras". The New Zealand Herald. Retrieved 30 September 2011.
- Taylor, Phil (15 November 2003). "Dope houses low on police hit-list". The New Zealand Herald. Retrieved 30 September 2011.
- Fisher, David (11 January 2009). "Millionaire prisoner involved in drug ring". The New Zealand Herald. Retrieved 30 September 2011.
- "Hells Angels pursue rejected lottery plan". stuff.co.nz. 2011. Retrieved 30 October 2011. "Imagine the Hells Angels running a housie night? No, nor could the Department of Internal Affairs"
- Newbold, Greg; Taonui, Rāwiri (13 July 2012). "Gangs – Motorcycle and white supremacist gangs". Te Ara – the Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Retrieved 13 October 2013.
- "Highway 61 bikies dig in at Yatala". goldcoast.com.au. 28 January 2008.
- Kemp, pp 47-71
- Denis O'Reilly, 'Nga Kupu Aroha: Words of Love', nzedge.co.nz.
- "Kiwi police ready to fight Aussie gangs". The New Zealand Herald. NZPA. 28 January 2011. Retrieved 30 September 2011.
- Thorne, Dyland (20 June 2008). "Gang tensions on knife edge". The Southland Times. Retrieved 3 July 2008.
- Stokes, Cam. "Motorcycle Gang Locations". GangScene. Archived from the original on 24 July 2011. Retrieved 29 June 2009.
- "Rotorua man jailed for bar robbery". nzherald.co.nz. 2011. Retrieved 8 October 2011. "A Rotorua man was jailed for more than seven years today for his role in the armed robbery of a bar two years ago."
- "Murupara cursed by gang violence - Judge". 3 News. 12 December 2011.
- Savage, Jared (2011). "Gang's NZ offsiders have notched up 170 years' jail time". nzherald.co.nz. Retrieved 8 October 2011. "The Tribesmen have been weakened by successful police operations targeting the drug dealing of the gang and feeder gang the Killer Beez."
- "New Zealand Parliament - Young people and gangs in New Zealand". parliament.nz. 2011. Retrieved 8 October 2011. "Publicity has surrounded the Killer Beez (KB), an affiliated criminal youth gang. Originally formed in Otara in 2003 to provide recruits to the Tribesmen gang, the KB identifying colours are yellow and black."
- Laxon, Andrew (2011). "Out in force on the mean streets". nzherald.co.nz. Retrieved 8 October 2011. "But in 2008 police smashed both gangs wide open with a six-month cannabis and methamphetamine sting operation that arrested 60 Killer Beez members and put many of the gang's leaders in jail."
- Stickley, Tony (2011). "Police bugs track 110,000 gang messages". nzherald.co.nz. Retrieved 8 October 2011. "Police intercepted more than 110,000 phone and text messages between the Killer Beez and Tribesmen gang members during a major three-month drug operation in South Auckland and the Waikato."
- "Gang boss badly beaten in prison". stuff.co.nz. 2011. Retrieved 8 October 2011.
- Gay, Edward (28 September 2011). "Killer Beez boss seeks to have guilty plea revoked". The New Zealand Herald. Retrieved 8 October 2011.
- Fox, Michael (7 October 2011). "Killer Beez boss on the run". Stuff. Retrieved 9 October 2011. "Constable Louis Solia of Otara police said Lemanu was probably the most senior Killer Beez member on the street and warned he should not be approached."
- "Vila Lemanu | Bag-snatch Co-Accused Sentence Quashed". Stuff. 2011. Retrieved 12 December 2011. "In August, the Court of Appeal quashed Shadrock's murder conviction and ordered a re-trial which is due to take place at the High Court in Auckland next June."
- "New Zealand Parliament - Crimes Amendment Bill, Local Government Amendment Bill, Sentencing Amendment Bill (No 3) — Third Readings". parliament.nz. 2011. Retrieved 8 October 2011. "I ask members to consider a gang called the Killer Beez. It has its own hip-hop record label called Colourway Records. What does it do? It makes music videos—recruitment advertisements for gangs, thinly disguised as music videos, that are played on mainstream"
- "44 in dock after drug raids". nzherald.co.nz. 2011. Retrieved 8 October 2011. "During the operation, police seized $200,000 in cash, 538g of pure methamphetamine with a street value of more than $500,000, nearly 400g of cannabis, 15 vehicles under the Proceeds of Crimes Act, 12 firearms and all the assets from the business premises of Colourway Records in Otara."
- Vass, Beck (14 March 2007). "Armed drug raid on city gang pad". Bay of Plenty Times. Retrieved 16 May 2009.
- ""Greasy Dogs" among gangs hit in crackdown". Newstalk ZB. 16 March 2007. Archived from the original on 12 July 2009.
- Jaram, Dannielle Moewai (2009). "Joe Harawira: the emergence of a matauranga Maori environmentalist". MAI Review (1): 4. Retrieved 8 September 2009.
- Cowlishaw, Shane (9 May 2012). "Newtown: Eight Gangs Living in Suburb". The Dominion-Post. Retrieved 22 June 2012. "Satan"
- "Notorious gangs eye up Christchurch". The Press. 7 August 2013. Retrieved 13 October 2013.
- "Drug crusader admits threat to pharmacist". Waikato Times. 7 August 2007. Retrieved 16 May 2009.
- "Jurassic Roar". August 2008. Retrieved 1 September 2009.
- "Nga Kupa Aroha/Words of Love". Retrieved 1 September 2009.
- "Nga Kupa Aroha/Words of Love". Retrieved 1 September 2009.
- Collins, Simon (31 January 2007). "Residents share tales of terror from youth gangs in 'dead-end' street". The New Zealand Herald. Retrieved 30 September 2011.
- Boyes, Nicola (31 October 2005). "Peace talk starts small in the neighbourhood". The New Zealand Herald. Retrieved 29 September 2011.
- Berry, Ruth (29 January 2007). "Sharples calls for tougher line on gang problems". The New Zealand Herald. Retrieved 30 September 2011.
- Young, Audrey (30 January 2007). "Sharples' gangs call divides opinions". The New Zealand Herald. Retrieved 30 September 2011.
- Lundy, Sharon (5 March 2007). "Gang patches could be banned nationwide". The New Zealand Herald. NZPA. Retrieved 30 September 2011.
- "Wanganui to try new gang patch ban bylaw". 3 News NZ. March 14, 2011.
- "Whanganui amends gang patch bylaw". 3 News NZ. December 20, 2011.
- "Gang patch bill set to pass". 3 News NZ. August 29, 2012.
- "Gang patch outlawing welcomed by police". 3 News NZ. November 7, 2012.
- "Harawira: Proposed gang patches ban 'racist'". NZ Herald. August 22, 2012.
- Gilbert, Jarrod (2013). Patched: the history of gangs in New Zealand. Auckland University Press. ISBN 9781869407292.
- Gang related news at the New Zealand Herald
- "Our underbelly". The Press. 28 March 2008. - discusses gangs in Christchurch