|City & Municipality|
|Nickname(s): Red City|
|• Mayor||Elmar Valiyev|
|• City & Municipality||110 km2 (40 sq mi)|
|Elevation||408 m (1,339 ft)|
|Population (2009)census data|
|• City & Municipality||400,000|
|Time zone||GMT+4 (UTC+4)|
|• Summer (DST)||GMT+5 (UTC+5)|
Ganja (Azerbaijani: Gəncə) is Azerbaijan's second-largest city with a population of around 1.000.000 It was named Elisabethpol (Russian: Елизаветпо́ль, tr. Yelizavetpol; IPA: [jɪlʲɪzəvʲɪtˈpolʲ]) in the Russian Empire period. The city regained its original name—Ganja— in 1920 during the first part of its incorporation into the Soviet Union. However, its name was changed again in 1935 to Kirovabad (Russian: Кироваба́д; IPA: [kʲɪrəvɐˈbat]) and retained it throughout the later Soviet period from 1935. Finally in 1989, during Perestroika, the city regained the original name.
- 1 History
- 2 Climate
- 3 Administrative organization
- 4 Economy
- 5 Buildings, landmarks and museums
- 6 Changing of historical landmarks in Ganja
- 7 Education
- 8 Transportation
- 9 Demography
- 10 Sports
- 11 International relations
- 12 Notable natives
- 13 Gallery
- 14 References
- 15 External links
Origin of the name
Even though some sources from medieval Islamic time attribute the building of the town to a Muslim Arab ruler, modern historians believe that the fact that the name Ganja (گنجه / Ganjeh) derives from the New Persian ganj (گنج: "treasure, treasury") and in Arabic source the name is recorded as Janza (Middle Persian: ganza: treasure, treasury") suggests that the city existed in pre-Islamic times and was likely founded in the 5th century. The area in which Ganja is located was known as Arran from the 9th to 12th century; its urban population spoke mainly in the Persian language.
|Wikisource has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article Elisavetpol (town).|
According to medieval Arabic sources, the city of Ganja was founded in 859-60 by Mohammad b. Khaled b. Yazid b. Mazyad, the Arab governor of the region in the reign of the caliph Al-Mutawakkil, and so-called because of a treasure unearthed there. According to the legend, the Arab governor had a dream where a voice told him that there was a treasure hidden under one of the three hills around the area where he camped. The voice told him to unearth it and use the money to found a city. He did so and informed the caliph about the money and the city. Caliph made Mohammad the hereditary governor of the city on a condition that he would give the money he found to the caliph.
Foundation of the city by Arabs is confirmed by the medieval Armenian historian Movses Kagankatvatsi, who mentions that the city of Ganja was founded in 846-47 in the canton of Arshakashen by the son of Khazr Patgos, “a furious and merciless man”.
Historically an important city of the South Caucasus, Ganja has been part of Sassanid empire, Great Seljuk Empire, Kingdom of Georgia, Atabegs of Azerbaijan, Khwarezmid Empire, Il-Khans, Timurids, Jalayirids, Qara Qoyunlu, Ak Koyunlu, the Safavid, the Afsharid, the Zand and the Qajar empires of Persia/Iran, but often ruled locally by the khans/dukes of the Ganja Khanate. Ganja is also the birthplace of the famous poet Nizami Ganjavi.
The people of Ganja experienced a temporary cultural decline after an earthquake in 1139, when the city was taken by king Demetrius I of Georgia and its gates taken as trophies, and again after the Mongol invasion in 1231. The city was revived after the Safavids came to power. City came under temporary occupation by the Ottomans between 1578–1606 and 1723-1735.
For a short period, Ganja was renamed Abbasabad by Shah Abbas after war against the Ottomans. He built a new city 8 kilometres (5 miles) to the southwest of the old one, but the name changed back to Ganja during the time During the Safavid rule, it was the capital of the Karabakh (Ganja) beylerbey, one of the four such administrative units and principalities. In 1747, Ganja became the center of the Ganja Khanate.
Russian expansion into the South Caucasus met strong opposition in Ganja. In contrast with spreading suzerainty over Christian Georgia and Sunni Daghestan, military attack on the khanate in 1804 led by Pavel Tsitsianov was seen as a direct challenge to Iran being an incursion into a mainly Shia-populated territory. Some western sources assert that "the capture of the city was followed by a massacre of up to 3,000 inhabitants of Ganja by the Russians". They also claim that "500 of them were slaughtered in a mosque where they had taken refuge, after an Armenian told the Russian soldiers that there might have been "Daghestani robbers" among them". Thosaunds of Azeris left Ganja and fled to Iran following the capture.
According to the October 1813 Gulistan Treaty, the Ganja Khanate, together with most of Azerbaijan, Georgia, and Dagestan, were recognized as part of the Russian Empire after Persia's defeat in the Persia-Russia wars except Persian occupation between 1826-1827. It was renamed Elisabethpol (Russian: Елизаветполь) after the wife of Alexander I of Russia, Elisabeth, and in 1868 became the capital of Elisabethpol Governorate. Elizavetpol was an uyezd of Tiflis Governorate before 1868. The Russian name was not accepted by Azerbaijanis who continued to call the city Ganja.
In 1918, Ganja became the temporary capital of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic, at which point it was renamed Ganja again, until Baku was recaptured from the British backed Centrocaspian Dictatorship. In April 1920, the Red Army occupied Azerbaijan. In May 1920, Ganja was the scene of an abortive anti-Soviet rebellion, during which the city was heavily damaged by fighting between the insurgents and the Red Army. In 1935, Joseph Stalin renamed the city Kirovabad after Sergei Kirov. In 1991, Azerbaijan re-established its independence, and the ancient name of the city was given back. For many years the 104th Guards Airborne Division of the Soviet Airborne Troops was based in the town.
A construction boom is dramatically transforming the urban face of Ganja as the city has seen a boom in the construction sector in recent years. This boom has inevitably led to dramatic changes in the city's urban development, transforming the old Soviet city into a hub of high-rise, mixed-use buildings.
|Climate data for Ganja|
|Average high °C (°F)||6.5
|Average low °C (°F)||−2.3
|Precipitation mm (inches)||10
|Avg. precipitation days||4||5||5||6||9||7||3||4||3||6||3||4||59|
|Source: World Meteorological Organisation (UN) |
|This section requires expansion. (April 2010)|
Ganja is divided into:
The economy of Ganja is partially agricultural, partially tourist based, with some industries in operation. Ore minerals extracted from nearby mines supply Ganja's metallurgical industries, which produces copper and alumina. There are porcelain, silk and footwear industries. Other industries process food, grapes and cotton from the surrounding farmlands.
The city has one of the largest textile conglomerates in Azerbaijan and is famous for a fabric named Ganja silk, which received the highest marks in the markets of neighboring countries and the Middle East.
Buildings, landmarks and museums
- Nizami Mausoleum, built in honor of Nizami Ganjavi, stands just outside the city of Ganja, Azerbaijan. It attracts nearly 35000 visitors per year.
- Shah Abbas Caravanserai, At present it is in use of the Ganja State Humanitarian college
- Juma (Shah Abbas) Mosque, the mosque was under construction in 1606 under the project of Sheikh Baahaddin Mahammad Amilin mosque and currently is biggest mosque of the city.
- Khan Bagi. The 17th century built garden
- Chokak Bath, center of the applied art
- The European bath of 19th century.
- The former Armenian Church. Built in the 19th century and currently, it is unused.
- Caucasian Albanian Church. Built in the 15th century and currently, it is in use of the Ganja State Philharmonic Chamber.
- Russian Orthodox church.
Changing of historical landmarks in Ganja
"The Azeri government has changed all tiles with Persian inscription in Nezami Ganjavi’s mausoleum located in Ganja, the second largest city in Azerbaijan, in an attempt to change the Persian poet’s identity, reports say. According to reports, Nezami’s Persian poems had been inscribed on the tiles inside the mausoleum. The inscribed tiles were removed under the pretext of restoration work in the mausoleum. The Azeri government has been waging an extensive campaign to change the identity of the renowned 12th-century Persian poet (1141-1209), whose formal name was Jamal ad-Din Abu Muhammad Ilyas ibn-Yusuf ibn-Zakki. In 2012, Heydar Aliyev Foundation, which is run by Azerbaijan’s first lady Mehriban Aliyeva, paid Rome City Municipality 110,000 euros to install a monument of Nezami in Villa Borghese Park in the Italian capital. The Italian inscription on the monument claims Nezami to be an Azerbaijani poet. Iranian expatriates in Italy and Italian scholars have protested the move."
|This section requires expansion. (April 2010)|
Ganja is home to four major institutes for post-secondary education.
- Ganja State University
- Azerbaijan State Agricultural Academy
- Azerbaijan Technological University
- Azerbaijan Teachers Institute, Ganja Branch
|This section requires expansion. (April 2010)|
Ganja sits on one of the Azerbaijani primary rail lines running East-West connecting the capital, Baku, with the rest of the country. The Kars–Tbilisi–Baku railway will run along the line through the city. The railway provides both human transportation and transport of goods and commodities such as oil and gravel.
|1 Georgians, Jews, Ukrainians etc.
Ganja is the second largest city of Azerbaijan after Baku with about 313,300 residents. The city is also inhabited by a large number of Azerbaijani refugees from Armenia and IDPs from the Azerbaijani community of Nagorno-Karabakh and surrounding areas. Their number was estimated to be 33,000 in 2011.
Historic Armenian community
In addition to Persian- and Turkic-speaking Muslims, the city has had a numerically, economically and, culturally significant Armenian community. Among the Armenians, the city is known as Gandzak (Գանձակ) The name Gandzak derives from gandz (Arm. - գանձ), the loan word from Old Iranian, which means treasure or riches. The city's historically important Christian figures include Kirakos Gandzaketsi, author of the History of the Armenians), Armenian philosopher Mkhitar Gosh author of the Code of Laws that was used in Armenia, Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia and Armenian diasporan groups in Europe, 13th century polymath Vardan Areveltsi and Grigor Paron-Ter, Armenian Patriarch of Jerusalem. Among the modern time's prominent Armenian person's of the city were Russian-Armenian architect Karo Halabyan, secretary of the Armenian SSR Communist Party Askanaz Mravyan, and the Olympic champion Albert Azaryan.
The city has one professional football team, Kapaz PFK, currently competing in the top-flight of Azerbaijani football, the Azerbaijan Premier League. It has three Azerbaijani league and four cup titles.
Twin towns — Sister cities
- Abraham Alikhanov - Armenian Soviet physicist, Academy USSR.
- Albert Azaryan - 3-time Olympic champion, four-time world champion, 2-time European champion
- Artur Rasizade — Prime Minister of Azerbaijan (1996–2003 and since 2003).
- Askanaz Mravyan - Armenian Soviet state and party leader, secretary of the Communist Party of Armenia (1920–1922).
- Aydin Ibrahimov, wrestler, 1964 Olympic bronze medalist, World and European champion
- Fikret Amirov — composer, People's Artist of USSR (1965), Hero of Socialist Labor.
- Gandzaketsi, Kirakos - Armenian historian of the 13th century., The author of "History of Armenia".
- Gosh, Mkhitar - Armenian philosopher, literary and social activist, theologian and priest 12th - 13th centuries.
- Hakob Hakobyan - Soviet Armenian writer, the national poet of Armenian SSR and Georgian SSR.
- Javad Khan — khan of Ganja Khanate (1786–1803).
- Mahsati Ganjavi — poetess.
- Karo Halabyan (1897–1959) - architect, academician, president, vice-president of the Academy of Architecture of the USSR, the Secretary of the Union of Architects of the USSR (1932–1950).
- Mirza Shafi Vazeh — Azerbaijani poet.
- Murtuz Alasgarov — Speaker of the National Assembly of Azerbaijan (1996–2005).
- Nasib Yusifbeyli — Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic (1919–1920).
- Nigar Rafibeyli — writer.
- Nizami Ganjavi — famous poet.
- Surat Huseynov — Prime Minister of Azerbaijan (1993–1994).
- Toghrul Asgarov - Olympic champion wrestler (2012).
- Vardan Areveltsi (Vardan the Great) - Armenian historian, geographer, philosopher, educator and social activist church of the 13th century.
- The State Statistical Committee of the Republic of Azerbaijan
- The Ganja State Historical-Cultural reserve
- В Азербайджане численность населения достигла 8 млн. 922 тыс. человек (Russian)
- Encyclopedia Iranica, "Ganja", C. Edmund Bosworth Archived 23 August 2011 at WebCite
- Ростислав Борисовч Рыбаков (1995). Восток в средние века. ISBN 978-5-02-017711-6.
- Дьяконов, Игорь Михайлович. Книга воспоминаний. Издательство "Европейский дом", Санкт-Петербург, 1995., 1995. - ISBN 978-5-85733-042-5. cтр. 730-731 Igor Diakonov. The book of memoirs.
- V.Minorsky. A History of Shirvan and Derbent.
- History of the Caucasian Albanians by Movses Dasxuranci, C.J.F. Dowsett trans. (London 1961), chapter 21.
- Iran. (2007). In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved March 17, 2007
- Timurid Dynasty. (2007). In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved March 16, 2007
- Jalayirid. (2007). In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved March 17, 2007
- Kara Koyunlu. (2007). In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved March 15, 2007
- Ak Koyunlu. (2007). In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved March 17, 2007
- Aznet.org: Ganja's History
- Seyyaf Sednik oqli Pashayev. "The Monuments of Ganja Khanate of the Period form 1606 - 1804". Retrieved 2007-02-16.
- "Beglerbeg" in Cyclopædia dictionary, (ed. Ephraim Chambers), First Volume, London: Printed for J. and J. Knapton (and 18 others), 1728, p. 95 (accessed March 17, 2007)
- I.Petrushevskiy. Ocherki po istorii feodal'nikh otnosheniy d Azerbaijane i Armenii v XVI - nach. XIX vv., Leningrad, 1949, p. 122, in Russian
- Peter Avery; William Bayne Fisher; Gavin Hambly; Charles Melville (1991-10-25). The Cambridge history of Iran: From Nadir Shah to the Islamic Republic. Cambridge University Press. p. 332. ISBN 978-0-521-20095-0.
- John F. Baddeley, The Russian Conquest of the Caucasus, London: Longmans, Green and Co., 1908, p. 67, citing "Tsitsianoff's report to the Emperor: Akti, ix (supplement), p. 920".
- John F. Baddeley, "The Russian conquest of the Caucasus", London: Longmans, Green and Co., 1908, p. 67, citing "Tsitsianoff's report to the Emperor: Akti, ix (supplement), p. 920".
- Елизаветпольская губерния (Elizavetpol Governorate) in Brockhaus and Efron Encyclopedic Dictionary (Russian)
- Tadeusz Swietochowski (2004). Russian Azerbaijan, 1905-1920: The Shaping of a National Identity in a Muslim Community. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-52245-8.
- Charles van der Leeuw (2000-07-04). Azerbaijan: a quest for identity : a short history. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 124. ISBN 978-0-312-21903-1.
- Gəncənin tarixi... (Azerbaijani)
- Ministry of Culture and Tourism of the Republic of Azerbaijan: Ganja's History
- "На дороге Баку-Газах возводятся грандиозные "Гянджинские ворота" - ФОТО". Day.az (in Russian). Retrieved 15 April 2013.
- "World Weather Information Service – Ganja". United Nations. Retrieved 19 January 2011.
- Ganja on Cities & Sites
- Gəncə Dövlət Universitetinin Riyaziyyat-İnformatika fakültəsi: GƏNCƏNİN TARİXİ (Azerbaijani)
- Nizami Gəncəvinin məqbərəsi uça bilər (Azerbaijani)
- Baku destroys Persian poet inscriptions | Azadnegar
- Gəncə Beynəlxalq hava limanının açılış mərasimi (Azerbaijani)
- (Russian) Ethno-Caucasus: Азербайджан
- Елисаветополь в Энциклопедическом словаре Брокгауза и Ефрона
- (Russian) Демокоп Weekly г. Елисаветполь
- (Russian) Ethno-Caucasus: КИРОВАБАДСКИЙ ГОРСОВЕТ (1939 г.)
- (Russian) Ethno-Caucasus: КИРОВАБАДСКИЙ ГОРСОВЕТ (1959 г.)
- (Russian) Ethno-Caucasus: КИРОВАБАДСКИЙ ГОРСОВЕТ (1970 г.)
- (Russian) Ethno-Caucasus: КИРОВАБАДСКИЙ ГОРСОВЕТ (1979 г.)
- Ethnic composition of Azerbaijan 1999
- Ethnic composition of Azerbaijan 2009
- Ganja City Executive Power official web page, retrieved 9 March 2012
- Soviet Census in 1926-1979, Newspaper Pravda Press, Moscow, 1983
- According to the 1892 official data, 10524 of 25758 inhabitants of the city were Armenians, there were 6 Armenian Apostolic (Gregorian) churches", Elizavetpol article, Brockauz and Efron Encyclopedia (in Russian)
- "the union of Georgian and Armenian armies near Gandzak", Great Soviet Encyclopedia (BSE)
- "Mkhitar Gosh was born in Gandzak", Mkhitar Gosh article, (BSE)
- "Gandzak (Ganja)" [jss.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/reprint/6/2/145.pdf The death of the last 'Abbasid Caliph': a contemporary Muslim account, by Boyle J. // Semitic Studies.1961; 6: 145-161
- Philological Society (Great Britain); Philological Society (Great Britain). (1956). Transactions of the Philological Society. Published for the Society by B. Blackwell. p. 100.
- Kirakos, Gandzaketsi, History of the Armenians, New York: Sources of the Armenian Tradition, 1986.
- "Armenian philosopher, literary and public activist", Mkhitar Gosh at BSE
- Mkhitar Gosh at BSE
- "Despite the code of Gosh hadnt official character, it used in Armenia, as in the foreign countries, where there were Armenian population". Code of Laws by Gosh at Great Soviet Encyclopedia (BSE)
- (Armenian) Hovhannisyan, P. «Վարդան Արևելցի» (Vardan Areveltsi). Soviet Armenian Encyclopedia. vol. xi. Yerevan, Armenian SSR: Armenian Academy of Sciences, 1985, pp. 312-313.
- Alabyan at BSE
- Mravyan at BSE
- Azarian at BSE
- M. Setton, Kenneth; Robert Lee Wolff; Harry W. Hazard (2006-03-24). "XVIII: The Kingdom of Cilician Armenia". The later Crusades, 1189-1311 (A History of the Crusades, volume, II). Madison, Wisconsin: University of Wisconsin Press. p. 633. ISBN 978-0-299-04844-0.
- Гянджа сегодня (Russian)
- "Twin-cities of Azerbaijan". Azerbaijans.com. Retrieved 2013-08-09.
- Vesti.az (Azerbaijani)
- "РАСИЗАДЕ Артур - БД "Лабиринт"" (in Russian). База данных "Лабиринт.
- "Амиров Фикрет Мешади Джамиль оглы". Great Soviet Encyclopedia.
- History of the Middle Ages. Europe and Asia. Badak AN, Voynich IE, Volchek NM et al Minsk. "Harvest." In 2000. p. 275.
- "Вазех". Great Soviet Encyclopedia.
- "АЛЕСКЕРОВ Муртуз - БД "Лабиринт"" (in Russian). База данных "Лабиринт.
- "Усуббеков (Юсифбейли) Насиб бек Юсиф оглы". Биографический словарь «Политические деятели России. 1917».
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Ganja.|
- City administration
- Ganja - The memories of stones
- Ganja Automobile Factory
- Ganja at the Azerbaijan Development Gateway
- Historical Monuments of Ganja
- Nizami Ganjavi Museum of History and Ethnography of Ganja
- Ganja (as Gəncə) at GEOnet Names Server
- World Gazetteer: Azerbaijan – World-Gazetteer.com