Emperor Gaozu of Han
||This article includes a list of references, but its sources remain unclear because it has insufficient inline citations. (February 2011)|
|A portrait of Liu Bang in Sancai Tuhui|
|Reign||28 February 202 BC – 1 June 195 BC|
|Predecessor||none, Xiang Yu as King of Western Chu|
|Spouse||Empress Lü Zhi|
|Concubine||Consort Cao, mother of Prince Fei
Consort Qi, mother of Prince Ruyi
Consort Bo, mother of Prince Heng
|Liu Fei, Prince Daohui of Qi
Liu Ying, Crown Prince
Liu Jian, Prince Ling of Yan
Liu Ruyi, Prince Yin of Zhao
Liu Heng, Prince of Dai
Liu Hui, Prince Gong of Zhao
Liu You, Prince of Huaiyang
Liu Chang, Prince Li of Huainan
Princess Yuan of Lu
|Family name: Liu (劉)
Given name: Ji (季), later Bang (邦)
Style name: Ji (季)
|Short: Emperor Liu Bang (高帝)
Full: Gao Huangdi (高皇帝)
|Taizu (太祖), later Gaozu (高祖)|
|Born||256 BC(皇甫謐) (215–282),
the famous author of acupuncture books.</ref>/247 BC
|Died||1 June 195 BC
(aged c. 60-61/c. 51–52)
Emperor Liu Bang (256 BC or 247 BC – 1 June 195 BC), commonly known by his temple name Gaozu (Chinese: 高祖; pinyin: Gāozǔ; Wade–Giles: Kao Tsu), personal name Liu Bang, was the founder and first emperor of the Han Dynasty, ruling over China from 202 BC to 195 BC. Liu Bang was one of the few dynasty founders in Chinese history that emerged from the peasant class (another prominent example being Zhu Yuanzhang, founder of the Ming Dynasty). In the early stage of his rise to prominence, Liu Bang was addressed as "Duke of Pei" (Chinese: 沛公; pinyin: Pèi Gōng), with the "Pei" referring to his hometown of Pei County. He was also granted the title of "King of Han" by Xiang Yu, when the latter split the former Qin Empire into the Eighteen Kingdoms. Liu Bang was known by this title before becoming Emperor of China.
- 1 Birth and early life
- 2 Insurrection against the Qin Dynasty
- 3 Chu–Han contention
- 4 Establishment of the Han Dynasty
- 5 Reign
- 6 Death
- 7 Song of the Great Wind
- 8 Evaluation
- 9 Family
- 10 Modern references
- 11 See also
- 12 Notes and references
- 13 External links
Birth and early life
Liu Bang was born into a peasant family in Zhongyang Village (中陽里), Feng Town (豐邑), Pei County (沛縣), which is in present-day Feng County, Xuzhou, Jiangsu. His parents' names were not recorded in history and they were referred to as "Liu Taigong" (劉太公; literally: "Old Sir Liu") and "Liu Ao" (劉媼; literally: "Old Madam Liu"). It is said that before Liu Bang's birth, his mother was caught in a rainstorm and took shelter under a bridge. Just then, there was lightning and thunder and the sky darkened. Liu Bang's father went to fetch his wife home and saw a dragon hovering above her. Liu Bang's mother became pregnant and gave birth to Liu Bang.
Liu Bang had a high nose, whiskers and a beard, which made him resemble a dragon. He had 72 dark spots on his left leg. The young Liu Bang was outspoken, charismatic and of great forbearance and tolerance. However, Liu Bang enjoyed loafing, disliked reading and showed no interest in farming, hence his father often chided him as a "little rascal". Liu Bang persisted in his idling ways and depended on his brother's family for food and lodging. When he grew older, he was appointed as a patrol officer and forged close relationships with the officials in the county office, earning himself a little reputation in his hometown. While having drinks with his friends in the local taverns, they would notice a silhouette of a dragon over him whenever he was drunk. The tavern owners felt that Liu Bang was an extraordinary person and provided him with drinks each time free of charge.
One day back in his hometown, a respectable man known as Lü Wen (also called Lü Gong), who had recently moved to Pei County, was visited by the most influential men in town. Xiao He, who was in charge of helping Lü Wen collect the gifts from the visitors, announced, "Those who do not offer more than 1,000 coins in gifts shall be seated outside the hall." Liu Bang went there without bringing a single cent and said, "I offer 10,000 coins." Lü Wen saw Liu Bang and was impressed with him on first sight, that he immediately stood up and welcomed Liu into the hall to sit beside him. Xiao He told Lü Wen that Liu Bang was not serious, but Liu ignored him and chatted with Lü. Lü Wen said, "I used to predict fortunes for many people but I've never seen someone so exceptional like you before." Lü Wen then offered his daughter Lü Zhi's hand in marriage to Liu Bang and they were wed. Lü Zhi bore Liu Bang a son (later Emperor Hui of Han) and a daughter (later Princess Yuan of Lu).
Insurrection against the Qin Dynasty
Once, Liu Bang was tasked with escorting some convicts to Mount Li to build the Mausoleum of Qin Shi Huang. During the journey, many prisoners fled and Liu Bang feared for his life, because allowing convicts to escape was a capital crime. Liu Bang then released the remaining prisoners and became a fugitive, with some of the men he released voluntarily agreeing to follow him. In legend, they encountered a gigantic white serpent which killed some people with its poisonous breath. Liu Bang slew the serpent that night and encountered an old woman weeping by the road the next morning. When Liu Bang's men asked her why she was crying, she replied, "My child, the White Emperor's son, has been slain by the son of the Red Emperor." She then disappeared mysteriously. After hearing the old woman's strange words, Liu Bang's men believed that he was destined to become a ruler in future and became more impressed with him. The event was called "Uprising of the Slaying of the White Serpent" (simplified Chinese: 斩白蛇起义; traditional Chinese: 斬白蛇起義; pinyin: zhǎn bái shé qǐyì).
Liu Bang and his followers sought refuge on Mount Mangdang (芒碭山) near Pei County and lived in an outlaw stronghold there. Liu Bang still maintained secret contact with his old friends in his hometown, such as Xiao He and Cao Shen. In 209 BC, Chen Sheng and Wu Guang rebelled against the Qin Dynasty, known as the Daze Village Uprising. The magistrate of Pei County considered rebelling as well, so at the advice of Xiao He and Cao Shen, he sent Fan Kuai (Liu Bang's relative) to invite Liu Bang and his followers back to Pei to support him. However, the magistrate changed his mind later and denied Liu Bang's party entry into the city. He was worried that Xiao He and Cao Shen might open the city gates for Liu Bang so he intended to have them executed, but Xiao and Cao escaped and joined Liu. Liu Bang followed Xiao He's suggestion and ordered his men to send letters on arrows fired into the city, urging his townsfolk to surrender and help him. They responded to Liu Bang's call and killed the magistrate, welcoming Liu back into the city. Liu Bang was then addressed as "Duke of Pei" (沛公) by his followers.
In 208 BC, during the reign of Qin Er Shi, the descendants of the royal families of the former Yan, Zhao, Qi and Wei states rose in rebellion against the Qin Dynasty in the name of restoring their states. In Wu (in present-day Jiangsu), Xiang Liang started an uprising as well and installed Mi Xin as King Huai II of Chu. Liu Bang went to join Xiang Liang and served under Chu for some time. After Xiang Liang was killed in action at the Battle of Dingtao, King Huai II sent Xiang Liang's nephew Xiang Yu and Song Yi to lead an army to attack the Qin forces and help Zhao. Liu Bang was granted the title of "Marquis of Wu'an" (武安侯) by the king and put in charge of an army to attack Qin. The king promised that whoever managed to enter Guanzhong (heartland of Qin) first will be granted the title of "King of Guanzhong". In 206 BC, Liu Bang beat Xiang Yu in the race to Guanzhong and arrived at Xianyang, the capital of Qin. The last Qin ruler Ziying surrendered to Liu Bang and the Qin Dynasty ended. Liu Bang issued strict orders for his troops, forbidding them from killing innocent civilians and pillaging the cities they conquered. The peace and stability in Xianyang was restored temporarily while Liu Bang's army was stationed there.
Xiang Yu was dissatisfied that Liu Bang had beat him in the race so he set a trap to kill Liu, after being instigated by his advisor Fan Zeng and a defector from Liu's side, Cao Wushang (曹無傷). Xiang Yu invited Liu Bang to attend a banquet, known as the Feast at Hong Gate, while secretly preparing to kill Liu during the feast. However, Xiang Yu's uncle Xiang Bo, who was a close friend of Liu Bang's strategist Zhang Liang, managed to persuade Xiang Yu to spare Liu's life. Fan Zeng then ordered Xiang Yu's cousin Xiang Zhuang to perform a sword dance during the feast and use the opportunity to kill Liu Bang, but Xiang Bo prevented him from doing so. Liu Bang lied that he needed to go to the latrine and escaped back to his camp. Liu Bang and his troops evacuated from Xianyang and retreated westwards later. Xiang Yu led his men into Xianyang and they plundered and pillaged the city, committing atrocities against civilians and destroying the Epang Palace by fire.
Xiang Yu proclaimed himself "Hegemon-King of Western Chu" and split the former Qin Empire into Eighteen Kingdoms. The land of Guanzhong, rightfully Liu Bang's according to King Huai II's earlier promise, was granted by Xiang to three surrendered Qin generals instead. Liu Bang was relocated to Hanzhong in the remote Bashu region (in present-day Sichuan) and granted the title of "King of Han" (simplified Chinese: 汉王; traditional Chinese: 漢王; pinyin: Hàn Wáng). While Xiang Yu was away suppressing the rebellion in Qi, Liu Bang led his troops to seize Guanzhong and several lands, including Xiang's capital of Pengcheng (彭城; present-day Xuzhou, Jiangsu) at one point. The forces of Chu and Han then engaged in a power struggle for supremacy over China for about five years, known as the Chu–Han Contention, with victories and defeats for both sides in various battles.
Initially, Chu had an advantage over Han, but the tide turned in favour of the latter in 203 BC, after Xiang Yu and Liu Bang came to an armistice, known as the Treaty of Honggou, that divided China into east and west under their domains respectively. Liu Bang renounced the treaty and attacked Xiang Yu shortly afterwards, taking the latter by surprise and scoring a series of victories in the following battles. Liu Bang's forces defeated Xiang Yu at the Battle of Gaixia in 202 BC and Xiang committed suicide. Chu surrendered and China was unified under Liu's rule.
Establishment of the Han Dynasty
In 202 BC, Liu Bang became Emperor of China with support from his subjects, even though he had expressed some reluctance in taking the throne. Liu Bang named his dynasty "Han", historically known as "Western Han Dynasty", and he became known as Emperor Gao (or Gaozu). He built his capital in Luoyang (later moved to Chang'an) and appointed Lü Zhi as his empress and his son Liu Ying as crown prince.
The following year, Gaozu rewarded his subjects who had contributed to the dynasty's founding, but the process prolonged for a year as the subjects started fighting among themselves for the rewards. Gaozu felt that Xiao He's contributions were the greatest, so he granted Xiao the title of "Marquis of Zan" and the greatest amount of food storages. Zhang Liang was granted the title of "Marquis of Liu". Some of Gaozu's subjects expressed their objections because they felt that Xiao He did not participate personally in battles so his contributions were not great. Gaozu replied that Xiao He was involved in strategic planning so credit should be given to Xiao because he was the one who set the direction for them to go. Cao Shen was named by Gaozu as the person who made the most contributions in battle. As for the others, Gaozu rewarded them in accordance to their contributions.
Reducing taxes and corvée
Gaozu disbanded his armies and allowed his soldiers to return home after becoming the emperor. He issued an order for those under the jurisdiction of his vassal kings, stating that those who remained in Guanzhong will be exempted from taxes and corvée for 12 years, whereas those who returned to their respective kingdoms will be exempted for six years and the state will provide for them for a year. Gaozu also granted freedom to those who had sold themselves into slavery to avoid hunger during the war. In 195 BC, Gaozu issued two decrees, the first to officialise the lowering of taxes and corvée, and the second to fix the amount of tribute paid to the imperial court from the vassal kings in the 10th month of every year. The land tax on agricultural production was reduced to a rate of one-fifteenth of crop yield. He also privatised the coinage.
Emphasis on Confucianism
In his early days, Gaozu disliked reading and regarded Confucianism lowly. After he ascended to the throne, he retained the same perspective towards Confucianism as before, until he was enlightened by the scholar Lu Gu. Lu Gu wrote a 12 volume book titled Xinyu (新語), stressing the benefits of governing the nation by moral virtue rather than by using coercive laws. Lu Gu read each volume to the emperor after he had finished writing it, and Gaozu was deeply impressed. Under Gaozu's reign, the influence of Confucianism increased and gradually replaced Legalism, which dominated and prevailed in the previous dynasty. Confucian scholars, including Lu Gu, were recruited into Gaozu's government and Gaozu also introduced reforms to the legal system, lightening the harsh laws from the Qin Dynasty and reducing the severity of punishments. In 196 BC, after putting down Ying Bu's rebellion, Gaozu's army passed by Shandong (native land of Confucius), where Gaozu personally prepared for a ceremony to pay his respects to the late philosopher.
Dispute over the succession
In his later years, Gaozu began to show greater affection for Concubine Qi and paid less attention to Empress Lü Zhi. He felt that the crown prince Liu Ying who was born to the empress, his eldest son and heir apparent to the throne, was too weak to be a ruler. Gaozu had the intention of deposing Liu Ying and replacing him with another son named Liu Ruyi (born to Concubine Qi), Prince of Zhao. Empress Lü became worried and asked Zhang Liang to help her son keep his position. Zhang Liang recommended four reclusive wise men, collectively known as the "Four Haos of Mount Shang" (Chinese: 商山四皓; pinyin: Shāng Shān Sì Hào) to help Liu Ying.
In 195 BC, after Gaozu returned from suppressing Ying Bu's rebellion, his health worsened and he desired even more to change the crown prince. Zhang Liang tried to stop him but Gaozu ignored Zhang, so Zhang retired from state affairs on the excuse that he was ill. The crown prince's tutor Shusun Tong and Zhou Chang protested strongly against Gaozu's decision to replace the crown prince. Zhou Chang said, "I'm not good in arguing, but I know that this is not right. If Your Majesty gets rid of the crown prince, I won't follow your orders anymore." Zhou Chang was very outspoken but he stuttered, which made his speech amusing and Gaozu laughed. After that, the four wise men appeared and Gaozu was surprised to see them because they had refused to serve him before. They promised to help Liu Ying in the future if he became the emperor. Gaozu was pleased to see that Liu Ying now had the support of the four men, so he dismissed the idea of replacing the crown prince.
After establishing the Han Dynasty, Gaozu appointed several vassal kings to help him govern his empire and granted them fiefs spread throughout the land. There were seven of them: Zang Tu, King of Yan; Hán Xin, King of Hán; Han Xin, King of Chu; Peng Yue, King of Liang; Ying Bu, King of Huainan; Zhang Er, King of Zhao; Wu Rui, King of Changsha. However, Gaozu became worried later that the kings might rebel against him, because they were not from his own clan. He had some of them framed and executed on charges of treason, such as Peng Yue, while others such as Ying Bu and Zang Tu did rebel against him later and were eliminated by him. Only Wu Rui and Zhang Er were left eventually.
During Qin Shi Huang's reign, the threat of the Xiongnu in the north was already present. Qin Shi Huang sent Meng Tian to lead an army to attack the Xiongnu and defend the northern border, while ordering the construction of the Great Wall to safeguard the Qin Empire. Meng Tian achieved success in driving the invaders back north. Following the collapse of the Qin Dynasty, the Xiongnu seized the advantage to advance south and raid the border again. In 201 BC, Hán Xin (King of Hán) surrendered to the Xiongnu and in the following year, Gaozu led his army to attack the Xiongnu. However, the Han forces were no match for the Xiongnu (led by Modu) and Gaozu's army was besieged at Baideng by 300,000 enemy cavalry. Gaozu left safely after he followed Chen Ping's suggestion to bribe Modu's wife with gifts and ask her to request for her husband to lift the siege. As an act of appeasement, Gaozu initiated the policy of heqin, which was, to marry noble ladies from the imperial clan and offer yearly tributes to the Xiongnu chieftains in exchange for peace between both sides.
Gaozu was wounded by a stray arrow while suppressing Ying Bu's rebellion. He fell seriously ill and remained in his inner chambers for a long period of time, ordering his guards to deny anyone entry. After several days, Fan Kuai barged into the chambers to see Gaozu and the other subjects followed behind him. They saw Gaozu lying on his bed with only a eunuch to accompany him. Fan Kuai said, "How glorious it was when Your Majesty first led us to conquer the empire and how weary we are now. Your subjects are worried when they learn that Your Majesty is ill, but Your Majesty refuses to see us and prefers the company of a eunuch instead? Have Your Majesty forgotten the incident about Zhao Gao?" Gaozu laughed after hearing that and got out of bed to meet his subjects.
Gaozu's health deteriorated later and Empress Lü hired one of the best physicians to heal him. When Gaozu enquired about his condition, the physician told him that his illness can be cured. However, Gaozu was displeased and he scolded the physician, saying, "Isn't it Heaven's will that I managed to conquer this empire in simple clothing and with nothing but a sword? My life is determined by Heaven, and it will still be useless even if Bian Que was here!" Gaozu refused to continue with his treatment and sent the physician away with some gold. Before his death, Gaozu said Cao Shen can be chancellor after Xiao He dies, and Wang Ling may succeed Cao Shen. Gaozu also said that Wang Ling may be too young to take on his duties so Chen Ping may assist Wang Ling, but Chen Ping is also qualified to take on the responsibilities alone. Gaozu also named Zhou Bo as a possible candidate for the role of Grand Commandant. Gaozu died in Changle Palace (長樂宮) on 1 June 195 BC and was succeeded by the crown prince Liu Ying, who became Emperor Hui of Han.
Song of the Great Wind
The Song of the Great Wind was a song composed by Liu Bang in 195 BC when he visited his hometown of Pei County after suppressing Ying Bu's rebellion. He prepared a banquet and invited all his old friends and townsfolk to join him. After some drinks, Liu Bang started playing a guqin and sang the Song of the Great Wind.
Song of the Great Wind
A great wind came forth,
Now that my might rules all within the seas,
Where will I find brave men
|This section does not cite any references or sources. (January 2010)|
In contrast with Xiang Yu, who is usually depicted as a romantic man of noble origin, Liu Bang is often mentioned as a rogue or street ruffian. Xiang Yu treated his subordinates and peers well even though he was ruthless and cruel towards his enemies. On the other hand, Liu Bang appeared as a charismatic but shrewd leader, who manipulated his subjects for his own purposes while putting on an image of a benevolent and righteous lord. Liu Bang forbid his men from killing civilians and pillaging the cities he conquered, in order to win the support and trust of the people. In direct contrast, Xiang Yu was cruel and condoned the acts of brutality by his followers towards the common people, that accounted for his decline in popularity. Liu Bang's strengths include: his ability to make decisions based on advice from his subjects; making sound judgements when accepting others' views; performing acts that would win him the support of others; his personal charisma.
After the establishment of the Han Dynasty, Liu Bang handsomely rewarded his subjects who helped him gain the throne, but he grew suspicious of them later and doubted their loyalties. Two of his subjects who contributed heavily to the dynasty's founding, Han Xin and Peng Yue, were killed on Empress Lü Zhi's orders and their clans exterminated as well. Despite his various character flaws, Liu Bang treated the people better than the Qin rulers and was a popular monarch during his reign.
- Liu Taigong (literally: "Old Sir Liu")
- Liu Ao (literally: "Old Madam Liu")
- Empress Lü Zhi, Liu Ying and Princess Yuan of Lu's mother.
- Major concubines:
- Liu Fei, Prince Daohui of Qi.
- Liu Ying, Crown Prince, later Emperor Hui.
- Liu Jian, Prince Ling of Yan.
- Liu Ruyi, Prince Yin of Zhao.
- Liu Heng, Prince of Dai, later Emperor Wen.
- Liu Hui, Prince of Liang, later Prince Gong of Zhao.
- Liu You, Prince of Huaiyang, later Prince You of Zhao.
- Liu Chang, Prince Li of Huainan.
- Princess Yuan of Lu
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Notes and references
- Was already King of Han (漢王) since March 206 BC, having been
enfeoffed by the rebelled leader Xiang Yu. Liu Bang was proclaimed
emperor on 28 February, 202 BC after defeating Xiang Yu.
- Name meaning "the youngest one". Liu Bang was the third son of his
father, his eldest brother was called Bo (伯) , i.e. the "First one", and his
second brother was called Zhong (仲) , i.e. the "Middle one".
- Had his name changed into Bang, meaning "country", either when he
became King of Han, or when he became Emperor of China.
- Ji was the courtesy name according to Sima Qian in his
Records of the Grand Historian. It may be that Liu Bang, after he
changed his name into Bang, kept his original name Ji as his courtesy
name. However, some authors do not think that "Ji" was ever used as
the courtesy name of Liu Bang.
- Meaning "supreme ancestor". Was apparently the original temple name
of Emperor Liu Bang. Taizu, in the most ancient Chinese tradition, going back
to the Shang Dynasty, was the temple name of the founder of a dynasty.
- Sima Qian in his Records of the Grand Historian referred to Emperor
Gao as "Gaozu", meaning "high ancestor", perhaps a combination of the
temple name and posthumous name of the emperor (doubts still remain
about why Sima Qian used "Gaozu" instead of "Taizu", and what the exact
nature of this name is). Following Sima Qian, later historians most often
used "Han Gaozu" (漢高祖), and this is the name under which he is still
known inside China. Furthermore, it seems that in the Eastern Han Dynasty
"Gaozu" had replaced "Taizu" as the temple name of Emperor Gao.
- This is the birth year reported by Huangfu Mi
- This is the birth year reported by Chen Zan (臣瓚) around AD 270
in his comments of the Book of Han (漢書) .
- 梁, 一鳴; 葉, 小兵; 王, 耘. "夏的興亡and商的興亡". 互動中國歷史 (in Traditional Chinese) 1 (3rd ed.). Hong Kong: Manhattan Press. p. 106. ISBN 978-988-208-391-2.
- Note that the Chinese character "媼" (ǎo) is not the personal name of Liu's mother. It was used as a formal way of addressing an old woman at that time.
- of ["Records of the Grand Historian"
- Patricia Buckley Ebrey (2003). Women and the family in Chinese history. Volume 2 of Critical Asian scholarship (illustrated ed.). Psychology Press. p. 171. ISBN 0-415-28823-1. Retrieved 4-1-2012.
- Fabrizio Pregadio (2008). Fabrizio Pregadio, ed. The encyclopedia of Taoism, Volume 1 (illustrated ed.). Psychology Press. p. 505. ISBN 0-7007-1200-3. Retrieved 4-1-2012.
- of Records of the Grand Historian
- (Chinese) 大风歌
- John Minford; Joseph S. M. Lau (2000). Minford, John, ed. An Anthology of Translations Classical Chinese Literature Volume I: From Antiquity To The Tang Dynasty. Columbia University Press. p. 415. ISBN 978-0-231-09676-8.
- Needham, Joseph (1986). Science and Civilization in China: Volume 4, Part 2. Taipei: Caves Books, Ltd.
- Sima Qian. Records of the Grand Historian, Volume 8.
- Ban Gu et al. Book of Han, Volume 1.
- Emperor Gaozu at Chinaculture.org
Emperor Gaozu of HanBorn: 256 BC Died: 1 June 195 BC
|New title||King of Han
206 BC – 202 BC
|Merged in the Crown|
Hegemon-King of Western Chu
|Emperor of China
202 BC – 195 BC
Emperor Hui of Han