Garcinia gummi-gutta

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Gambooge redirects here; for the dye made from various tree species of the family Clusiaceae see Gamboge
Garcinia gummi-gutta
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Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Rosids
Order: Malpighiales
Family: Clusiaceae
Genus: Garcinia
Species: G. gummi-gutta
Binomial name
Garcinia gummi-gutta
(L.) Roxb.
Synonyms[1]
  • Cambogia binucao Blanco
  • Cambogia gemmi-gutta L.
  • Cambogia solitaria Stokes
  • Garcinia affinis Wight & Arn.
  • Garcinia cambogia (Gaertn.) Desr.
  • Garcinia sulcata Stokes

Garcinia gummi-gutta is a tropical[2] species of Garcinia native to Indonesia. Common names include garcinia cambogia (a former scientific name), as well as gambooge,[citation needed] brindleberry,[3] brindall berry,[citation needed] Malabar tamarind,[2] assam fruit,[citation needed] vadakkan puli (northern tamarind)[citation needed] and kudam puli (pot tamarind).[4] This fruit looks like a small pumpkin and is green to pale yellow in color. It has recently received considerable media attention because of its purported effects on weight loss, although there is no clinical evidence to support this claim.

Cultivation

Garcinia gummi-gutta tree in Kerala, India
Ripe fruit

Garcinia gummi-gutta is grown for its fruit in southeast Asia, coastal Karnataka/Kerala, India, and west and central Africa. It thrives in most moist forests.

Garcinia gummi-gutta is one of several closely related Garcinia species from the plant family Guttiferae.[5] With thin skin and deep vertical lobes, the fruit of G. gummi-gutta and related species range from about the size of an orange to that of a grapefruit; G. gummi-gutta looks more like a small yellowish, greenish or sometimes reddish pumpkin.[6] The color can vary considerably. When the rinds are dried and cured in preparation for storage and extraction, they are dark brown or black in color.

Along the west coast of South India, G. gummi-gutta is popularly termed "Malabar tamarind," and shares culinary uses with the tamarind (Tamarindus indica). The latter is a small and the former a quite large evergreen tree. G. gummi-gutta is also called "goraka" or, in some areas, simply "kattcha puli" (souring fruit). It is called uppage in Kannada language and fruits are collected and dried for selling to dealers in Sirsi, Karnataka.[7]

Uses

Cooking

Garcinia gummi-gutta is used in cooking, including in the preparation of curries. The fruit rind and extracts of Garcinia species are called for in many traditional recipes,[8] and various species of Garcinia are used similarly in food preparation in Assam (India), Thailand, Malaysia, Burma and other Southeast Asian countries. In the Indian Ayurvedic medicine, "sour" flavors are said to activate digestion. The extract and rind of Garcinia gummi-gutta is a curry condiment in India.[citation needed][dubious ] It is an essential souring ingredient in the Southern Thai variant of kaeng som, a sour curry.[citation needed]

Garcinia gummi-gutta is employed commercially in fish curing, especially in Sri Lanka and South India.

The trees can be found in forested areas and also are protected in plantations otherwise given over to pepper, spice, and coffee production.

Traditional medicine

Extracts of G. gummi-gutta are sometimes used in traditional medicine as purgatives.[citation needed] The fruit rind is also used to make medicine.

Weight loss

In late 2012, a United States television personality, Dr. Oz, promoted garcinia cambogia extract as "an exciting breakthrough in natural weight loss"[9] Dr. Oz's previous endorsements have often led to a substantial increase in consumer interest in the promoted products. There is a lack of scientific evidence and clinical trials do not support claims that Garcinia cambogia is an effective weight loss aid.[10][11][12][13] A meta-analysis of several clinical trials found no compelling evidence for short-term weight loss.[14] Further, side effects — namely hepatotoxicity (chemical-driven liver damage) — led to one preparation being withdrawn from the market.[15][16]

A 1998 randomized controlled trial looked at the effects of hydroxycitric acid, the purported active component in Garcinia gummi-gutta, as a potential antiobesity agent in 135 people. The conclusion from this trial was that "Garcinia cambogia failed to produce significant weight loss and fat mass loss beyond that observed with placebo".[17]

When the fruit is sun dried for several days, it becomes black with a shrivelled body.

References

  1. ^ "Garcinia gummi-gutta (L.) Roxb.". The Plant List. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew and Missouri Botanical Garden. Retrieved 1 June 2013. 
  2. ^ a b "USDA GRIN Taxonomy". 
  3. ^ "Potential treatments for insulin resistance in the horse: A comparative multi-species review". Science Direct. Retrieved 6 October 2013. 
  4. ^ "Meals that heal - Soul curry". The Hindu. Retrieved 3 October 2013. 
  5. ^ Publications & Information Directorate, Council of Scientific & Industrial Research (1986). G. cambogia Desr. The Useful Plants of India. (New Delhi: Publications & Information Directorate, 1986) 229.
  6. ^ "Fruit yellowish or reddish, size of an orange having six or eight deep longitudinal grooves in its fleshy pericarp. Pulp acid of a pleasant flavor. It is dried among the Singalese who use it in curries." Uphof, J.C. Th. (1968).
  7. ^ Rajeswari, N (29 July 2014). "Botanical Bonanza". Deccan Herald, Spectrum. Retrieved 29 July 2014. 
  8. ^ "The acid rinds of the ripe fruit are eaten, and in Ceylon are dried, and eaten as a condiment in curries." Drury, Heber (1873). "Garcinia gambogia (Desrous) N. 0. Clusiaceae". The Useful Plants of India, second edition. London: William H. Allen & Co. p. 220. 
  9. ^ The Dr. Oz Show (November 5, 2012). Garcinia Cambogia: The Newest, Fastest Fat-Buster.
  10. ^ Heymsfield, S. B.; Allison, D. B.; Vasselli, J. R.; Pietrobelli, A.; Greenfield, D.; Nunez, C. (1998). "Garcinia cambogia (Hydroxycitric Acid) as a Potential Antiobesity Agent: A Randomized Controlled Trial". JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association 280 (18): 1596–1600. doi:10.1001/jama.280.18.1596. PMID 9820262.  edit
  11. ^ Belluz, Julia; Hoffman, Steven J. (1 January 2013). "Dr. Oz’s Miraculous Medical Advice; Pay no attention to that man behind the curtain". Slate. The Slate Group. Retrieved 31 May 2013. 
  12. ^ Márquez F1, Babio N, Bulló M, Salas-Salvadó J (2012). "Evaluation of the safety and efficacy of hydroxycitric acid or Garcinia cambogia extracts in humans". Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 52 (7): 585–94. doi:10.1080/10408398.2010.500551. PMID 22530711. 
  13. ^ Vasques, C. A.; Schneider, R; Klein-Júnior, L. C.; Falavigna, A; Piazza, I; Rossetto, S (2013). "Hypolipemic Effect of Garcinia cambogia in Obese Women". Phytotherapy Research 28 (6): 887–91. doi:10.1002/ptr.5076. PMID 24133059.  edit
  14. ^ Pittler, M. H.; Ernst, E (2004). "Dietary supplements for body-weight reduction: A systematic review". The American journal of clinical nutrition 79 (4): 529–36. PMID 15051593.  edit
  15. ^ Lobb, A. (2009). "Hepatoxicity associated with weight-loss supplements: A case for better post-marketing surveillance". World Journal of Gastroenterology 15 (14): 1786–1787. doi:10.3748/wjg.15.1786. PMC 2668789. PMID 19360927.  edit
  16. ^ Kim YJ1, Choi MS, Park YB, Kim SR, Lee MK, Jung UJ (2013). "Garcinia Cambogia attenuates diet-induced adiposity but exacerbates hepatic collagen accumulation and inflammation". World J Gastroenterol 19 (29): 4689–701. doi:10.3748/wjg.v19.i29.4689. PMID 23922466. 
  17. ^ Heymsfield, S. B.; Allison, D. B.; Vasselli, J. R.; Pietrobelli, A.; Greenfield, D.; Nunez, C. (1998). "Garcinia cambogia (Hydroxycitric Acid) as a Potential Antiobesity Agent: A Randomized Controlled Trial". JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association 280 (18): 1596–1600. doi:10.1001/jama.280.18.1596. PMID 9820262.  edit

External resources