Garden City, New York

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Garden City, New York
Village
Incorporated Village of Garden City
Welcome sign
Welcome sign
U.S. Census Map
U.S. Census Map
Garden City, New York is located in New York
Garden City, New York
Garden City, New York
Location within the state of New York
Coordinates: 40°43′37″N 73°38′59″W / 40.72694°N 73.64972°W / 40.72694; -73.64972Coordinates: 40°43′37″N 73°38′59″W / 40.72694°N 73.64972°W / 40.72694; -73.64972
Country United States
State New York
County Nassau
Area
 • Total 5.3 sq mi (13.8 km2)
 • Land 5.3 sq mi (13.8 km2)
 • Water 0.0 sq mi (0.0 km2)
Elevation 89 ft (27 m)
Population (2010)
 • Total 22,371
 • Density 4,200/sq mi (1,600/km2)
Time zone Eastern (EST) (UTC-5)
 • Summer (DST) EDT (UTC-4)
ZIP codes 11530
Area code(s) 516
FIPS code 36-28178
GNIS feature ID 0950875
Website www.gardencityny.net

Garden City is a village in the town of Hempstead in central Nassau County, New York, in the United States. It was founded by multi-millionaire Alexander Turney Stewart in 1869, and is located on Long Island, to the east of New York City, 18.5 miles (29.8 km) from midtown Manhattan, and just south of the town of North Hempstead. A very small section of the village is in North Hempstead.[1]

As of the 2010 census, the population of the incorporated village was 22,371.[2]

The Garden City name is applied to several other unincorporated, nearby jurisdictions. In the region, hamlets such as Garden City South, Garden City Park and East Garden City are adjacent to the incorporated village of Garden City, but are not themselves part of it. Roosevelt Field, the shopping center built on the former airfield from which Charles Lindbergh took off on his landmark 1927 transatlantic flight, is located in East Garden City.

History[edit]

In 1869, the Irish-born, Scottish millionaire Alexander Turney Stewart bought a portion of the lightly populated Hempstead Plains. In a letter, Stewart described his intentions for Garden City:

Having been informed that interested parties are circulating statements to the effect that my purpose in desiring to purchase the Hempstead Plains is to devote them to the erection of tenement houses, and public charities of a like character, etc. I consider it proper to state that my only object in seeking to acquire these lands is to devote them to the usual purposes for which such lands, so located, should be applied that is, open them by constructing extensive public roads, laying out the lands in parcels for sale to actual settlers, and erecting at various points attractive buildings and residences, so that a barren waste may speedily be covered by a population desirable in every respect as neighbour taxpayers and as citizens. In doing this I am prepared and would be willing to expend several millions of dollars.[3]

Parenthetically, the name "Garden City" pre-dates that of the Garden City Movement which was established some years later near the end of the nineteenth century.[4] The central attraction of the new community was the Garden City Hotel, designed by the acclaimed firm of McKim, Mead & White. Although the original structure, as well as that which replaced it at the end of the 19th century, were torn down many years ago, a hotel still stands on the original grounds, as do many nearby Victorian homes. Access to Garden City was provided by the Central Railroad of Long Island, another Turnley project which he undertook at the same time. The Hempstead Branch opened in 1873.

Stewart's wife, Cornelia, founded the St. Paul's School for boys, St. Mary's School for girls, a Bishop’s Residence and the Gothic Cathedral of the Incarnation, which is today the center of the Episcopal Diocese of Long Island, as well as the final resting place of Alexander Turney Stewart and Cornelia Stewart. This elaborate memorial was completed in 1885. Mrs. Stewart died the following year. In 2008, the Cathedral of the Incarnation underwent a multi-million-dollar renovation and rehabilitation project, which was completed in 2012.

Voters selected Mineola (in the town of North Hempstead) to be the county seat for the new county of Nassau in November 1898[5] (before Mineola incorporated as a village in 1906 and set its boundaries), winning out over Hicksville and Hempstead.[6] The Garden City Company (founded in 1893 by the heirs of Alexander Turney Stewart)[7] donated four acres of land for the county buildings just south of the Mineola train station and the present-day village of Mineola, in the town of Hempstead.[8][9] The land and the buildings have a Mineola postal address, but are within the present-day village of Garden City,[10] which did not incorporate, nor set its boundaries, until 1919. The early village did well due to its proximity to Hempstead, at that time the commercial center of Long Island. In time, thanks both to the railroad and automobiles, Garden City’s population increased.

In 1910, Doubleday, Page, and Co., one of the most world's important publishers, moved its operations to Garden City, which include its own train station.[11] The Doubleday company purchased much of the land on the west site of Franklin Avenue, and estate homes were built for many of its executives on Fourth Street. In 1916, company co-founder and Garden City resident Walter Hines Page was named Ambassador to Great Britain.

In 1915, the village of Garden City merged with the village of Garden City Estates to its west.[citation needed] It became an incorporated village in 1919. Garden City’s growth promoted the development of many nearby towns, including Stewart Manor, Garden City Park, Garden City South and East Garden City.

In the 1920s, the community continued to grow, with houses built in Garden City Estates as well as the eastern section of Garden City. This development included the Mott Section, developed by the heirs to the Mott's apple juice fortune, which was spurred by easy access to the now-defunct Long Island Motor Parkway, as well as the establishment of the Doubleday publishing group’s corporate headquarters. Doubleday's headquarters, known as Country Life Press, remained in Garden City until Bertelsmann took over the firm in the mid-1980s. The plant closed in 1988 and has since been converted to offices for Bookspan, a media firm partly owned by Doubleday.

Housing construction slowed after the 1929 stock market crash. But in the 1930s, hundreds of houses were built to accommodate a population boom, though Garden City used a strict zoning code to preserve Stewart’s vision. Alone in central Nassau, the village retained a sense of orderly development, true to its rigorously planned roots. Mitchel Air Force Base, located on the far east side of Garden City, served as a United States Air Force base from 1918 through 1961. As of 2008, the U.S. military still retained a limited physical presence there, with the rest of the base occupied by housing, Hofstra University, Nassau Community College, the Long Island Children’s Museum, the Nassau County Firefighters Museum and Education Center, a Sony IMAX theater and the Cradle of Aviation Museum.

After World War II, following a trend of urban flight,[clarification needed] Garden City continued to grow. Post-war construction filled out the present borders of Garden City with many split-level and ranch-style homes, with construction occurring in the far eastern, northern and western sections of the town. The Waldorf School of Garden City was founded in 1947 (one of the first Waldorf schools in the United States), originally as a part of Adelphi University. The village's current public high school was also constructed during this time.

In the 1970s, the old Garden City Hotel declared bankruptcy, and subsequently closed. The hotel was later demolished, and Garden City lost one of its grandest and most historical landmarks. A new Garden City Hotel was constructed on the previous site of the old Garden City Hotel. In 1978, 50 of the original structures collectively known as the A. T. Stewart Era Buildings were designated a national historic district and listed on the National Register of Historic Places.[12]

In 1989, the St. Paul's School also closed and in 1993 was purchased by the Village of Garden City. Recently, the village voted to designate St. Paul's and its property as "park land". St. Mary's School, the sister school of St. Paul's, was demolished in 2002. Since then, six large single-family houses have been built on the property.

In the late 1990s and early 2000s, the village's downtown areas (New Hyde Park Road, Seventh Street and Franklin Avenue) benefited from a renewal campaign and new construction. Bloomingdale's has moved from Franklin Avenue to the Roosevelt Field Mall. Lord & Taylor has a large freestanding location that opened in 1956 on Franklin Avenue, which is still there today. Sears now occupies the building that was once home to Bloomingdale's. Several luxury restaurants have also opened in recent years along this avenue.

In aviation history[edit]

See also: Cradle of Aviation Museum, Mitchel Air Force Base, Charles Lindbergh

In 1927, Charles Lindbergh departed on his famous solo transatlantic flight from Roosevelt Field in East Garden City. Today, Roosevelt Field is one of the largest shopping malls in the world.[citation needed]

Geography[edit]

Garden City is located at 40°43′37″N 73°38′59″W / 40.72694°N 73.64972°W / 40.72694; -73.64972 (40.726885, -73.649720),[13] in central Nassau County, New York.

According to the United States Census Bureau, the village has a total area of 5.3 square miles (13.8 km²), all land. The village lost some territory between the 1990 census and the 2000 census.[14]

Greater Garden City area[edit]

In addition to the Village of Garden City, the Garden City 11530 zip code includes another incorporated village, Stewart Manor and two unincorporated areas of the Town of Hempstead, Garden City South and East Garden City.

Demographics[edit]

As of the census[15] of 2010, 21,811 people lived in Garden City. The population density was 4,059.5 inhabitants per square mile (1,567.0/km²). The town included 7,555 housing units at an average density of 1,415.2 per square mile (546.3/km²). The racial makeup of the village was 88.1% White, 1.2% African American, 0.1% Native American, 5.0% Asian, 0.00% Pacific Islander, 0.4% from other races, and 0.8% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 6.0% of the population.

Garden City included 7,386 households out of which 36.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 69.8% were married couples living together, 7.5% had a female householder with no husband present, and 20.7% were non-families. 19.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.0% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.83 and the average family size was 3.27.

In the village, the population was spread out with 26.5% under the age of 18, 4.7% from 20 to 24, 7.2% from 25 to 34, 42.6% over 45, 21.6% over 60 and 1.9% who were over the age of 85. The median age was 41 years. For every 100 females there were 90.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 84.1 males.

According to a 2007 estimate,[16] the median income for a household in the village was $142,788, and the median income for a family was $164,486. The per capita income for the village was $53,196. The average earnings for a full-time year round male is $93,144 and for a full-time year around female the average earning is $49,954. About 104 families and 476 individuals were below the poverty line, including 2.3% of those under age 18 and 2.6% of those age 65 or over.

Transportation[edit]

There are five Long Island Rail Road (LIRR) train stations in the village. The stops on the LIRR Hempstead line are Stewart Manor, Nassau Boulevard, Garden City and Country Life Press. There are additional stops on the LIRR Huntington Branch at Merillon Avenue and just over the Garden City border at New Hyde Park and Mineola. Travel time to Manhattan ranges from 30 to 54 minutes, depending on the branch used.

Education[edit]

Garden City is served by its own school district. There are seven schools in the Garden City School District: three primary schools (Hemlock School, Homestead School and Locust School), two elementary schools (Stewart School and Stratford School), the Garden City Middle School (grades 6-8), and finally, the Garden City High School (grades 9-12). The primary schools function as a single unit, with three campuses spread across the village.

School Grades
Hemlock School K-1
Homestead School K-1
Locust School K-1
Stewart School 2-5
Stratford School 2-5
Garden City Middle School 6-8
Garden City High School 9-12

Private schools in Garden City[edit]

One independent school, the Waldorf School of Garden City (grades pre K-12), and two Roman Catholic elementary schools (K-8), St. Joseph School and St. Anne's School, are located in Garden City. The former St. Paul's School and St. Mary's School are now defunct.

Higher education[edit]

In 1929, Adelphi College, which later became a university, moved from Brooklyn to its present 76-acre (310,000 m2) campus in Garden City, becoming the first four-year college in Nassau or Suffolk counties.

Notable landmarks[edit]

Notable people[edit]

Legacy[edit]

  • The city is the namesake of Garden Village, Kentucky[30]
  • The entertainment film The Spirit of St. Louis (1957), starring Jimmy Stewart, features Charles Lindbergh's historical flight to Paris from Roosevelt Field in Garden City in 1927. Its first few scenes occur at the Garden City Hotel, where Lindbergh had a room reserved (but did not use), and the press corps stayed who were covering the event spent the night prior to his flight; Lindbergh was up all night working on his plane the night before the flight, although he did have dinner and take a nap at the Garden City home of his mechanic, Charles Brandewede, at 105 Thurd Street.[31] The opening shot of the film's first scene shows the hotel's front exterior and sign. Subsequent scenes take place in Roosevelt Field.[32]
  • Musician John Tesh's fourth album, released in 1989, is titled Garden City (Cyprus Records), an homage to his hometown, and includes a song with the same title.[33] The record company he created in 1995 and currently owns is Garden City Records.
  • In episode 7.8 of the television comedy series All in the Family (titled "Beverly Rides Again"), originally broadcast on 11/6/76, Archie Bunker tries to impress a fellow Queens resident by falsely introducing the "blind date" he chose for him as a Garden City resident. (Archie's gesture is actually a prank of revenge, as the classy "date" is a female impersonator.)[34]

Films[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "List of Incorporated Villages in the Town of North Hempstead". Town of North Hempstead. Retrieved 2010-06-07. 
  2. ^ "Race, Hispanic or Latino, Age, and Housing Occupancy: 2010 Census Redistricting Data (Public Law 94-171) Summary File (QT-PL), Garden City village, New York". U.S. Census Bureau, American FactFinder 2. Retrieved October 3, 2011. 
  3. ^ Alexander Turney Stewart, Letter to the Editor, Hempstead Sentinel, 6th July 1869, quoted in C. B. Purdom, ed., Town Theory and Practice, London: Benn Brothers, 1921, p. 16-17
  4. ^ C. B. Purdom, ed., Town Theory and Practice, London: Benn Brothers, 1921, p. 17
  5. ^ "Mineola Chosen Nassau County's Seat". New York Times. 1898-11-10. Retrieved 2010-06-06. 
  6. ^ "County of Nassau Elections". New York Times. 1898-09-01. Retrieved 2010-06-06. 
  7. ^ "Incorporated Village of Garden City: History". Incorporated Village of Garden City. Retrieved 2010-06-06. 
  8. ^ "Sites for Nassau County Buildings". New York Times. 1898-09-29. Retrieved 2010-06-06. 
  9. ^ "The History of Nassau's County Seat". rootsweb. Retrieved 2010-06-06. 
  10. ^ Fischler, Marcelle S (1998-11-15). "An Immigrant's Vision Created Garden City". The New York Times. Retrieved 2010-06-06. 
  11. ^ Newportvintagebooks.com
  12. ^ "National Register Information System". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service. 2009-03-13. 
  13. ^ "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990". United States Census Bureau. 2011-02-12. Retrieved 2011-04-23. 
  14. ^ "New York: 2000 Population and Housing Unit Counts". September 2003. p. III-9. Retrieved 2010-12-22. 
  15. ^ "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2008-01-31. 
  16. ^ U.S. Census Bureau - Garden City village, NY
  17. ^ Kathleen Kerr (2008-07-16). "They Began Here". Newsday. Retrieved 2008-09-17. 
  18. ^ Richard Goldstein, Dave DeBusschere, 62, Relentless Forward On Knicks' Championship Teams, Is Dead, New York Times, May 15, 2003. Accessed online 2009-10-28.
  19. ^ Strickland, Carol. "Novelist Uses The Island's Gold Coast As A Setting For A Clash of Cultures", The New York Times, April 8, 1990.
  20. ^ New York Times, "Harvey J. Levin, 67, Economics Professor", May 5, 1992
  21. ^ Newsday, "Harvey Joshua Levin, Professor at Hofstra", Estelle Lander, May 4, 1992
  22. ^ La Gorce. "Arts/Long Island: All About the Woman Behind Erica Kane." The New York Times, March 18, 2011. www.nytimes.com. Retrieved November 26, 2013.
  23. ^ Elliott Murphy, My Many Hometowns..., elliottmurphy.com. Accessed online 2009-10-28.
  24. ^ Mark Mulvoy, No Roses For Garden City Joe, Sports Illustrated, September 29, 1975. Accessed online 2009-10-28.
  25. ^ IMDb.com
  26. ^ Home page, tellysavalas.com. Accessed online 2009-10-28.
  27. ^ Thomas, Robert McG., Jr. "Johnny Sylvester, the Inspiration For Babe Ruth Heroics, Is Dead", The New York Times, January 11, 1990. Accessed June 28, 2009.
  28. ^ http://www.homeofheroes.com/gravesites/abmc/turner_william.html
  29. ^ Military Times http://militarytimes.com/citations-medals-awards/recipient.php?recipientid=3228
  30. ^ Rennick, Robert. Kentucky Place Names, p. 113. University Press of Kentucky (Lexington), 1987. Accessed 1 Aug 2013.
  31. ^ New York Times, May 20, 1962 http://www.nytimes.com/books/98/09/27/specials/lindbergh-plane.html
  32. ^ Film: The Spirit of St. Louis, directed by Billy Wilder, released April 20, 1957.
  33. ^ Chicago Tribune, "John Tesh: Garden City", November 2, 1989.
  34. ^ All in the Family, Season 7, Episode 8 on YouTube, November 6, 1976.

External links[edit]

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