Garfield County, Oklahoma

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Garfield County, Oklahoma
Garfield County Courthouse front.jpg
Garfield County Courthouse
Map of Oklahoma highlighting Garfield County
Location in the state of Oklahoma
Map of the United States highlighting Oklahoma
Oklahoma's location in the U.S.
Founded 1893
Named for James A. Garfield
Seat Enid
Largest city Enid
Area
 • Total 1,060 sq mi (2,745 km2)
 • Land 1,058 sq mi (2,741 km2)
 • Water 1.6 sq mi (4 km2), 0.15%
Population (Est.)
 • (2012) 61,189
 • Density 58/sq mi (22/km²)
Congressional district 3rd
Time zone Central: UTC-6/-5

Garfield County is a county located in the U.S. state of Oklahoma named after President James A. Garfield.[1] As of the 2010 census, the population was 60,580.[2] Enid is the county seat and largest city within Garfield County.[3]

Prior to the Land Run of 1893, Garfield County was named O County and was part of the Cherokee Outlet, occupied by the Cherokee people following the Treaty of New Echota and the Cherokee trail of tears.[4] Historically, the area was a hunting ground for the Wichita, Osage, and Kiowa tribes.

The Chisholm Trail, stage coach lines, mail routes, and railroads passed through stations at Buffalo Springs and Skeleton, today known as Bison and Enid.[5][6] Railroad development in the county began four years prior to the land opening. Enid became a central hub within the county.[7] Historical railroads included Enid and Tonkawa Railway, Enid and Anadarko Railway, Blackwell, Enid and Southwestern Railway, Enid Central Railway and the Denver, Enid and Gulf Railroad.

Geography[edit]

According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,060 square miles (2,745.4 km2), of which 1,058 square miles (2,740.2 km2) is land and 1.6 square miles (4.1 km2) (0.15%) is water.[8] Several creeks run through the county, including Black Bear, Boggy, Red Rock, Rock, Skeleton, and Turkey.[7]

Early map of Garfield County.

Adjacent counties[edit]

Major highways[edit]

Demographics[edit]

Historical population
Census Pop.
1890 22,076
1900 10,037 −54.5%
1910 33,050 229.3%
1920 37,500 13.5%
1930 45,588 21.6%
1940 45,484 −0.2%
1950 52,820 16.1%
1960 52,975 0.3%
1970 55,365 4.5%
1980 62,820 13.5%
1990 56,735 −9.7%
2000 57,813 1.9%
2010 60,580 4.8%
Est. 2012 61,189 1.0%
U.S. Decennial Census[9]
2012 Estimate[2]
Age pyramid for Garfield County, Oklahoma.

As of the census[10] of 2000, there were 57,813 people, 23,175 households, and 15,805 families residing in the county. The population density was 55 people per square mile (21/km²). There were 26,047 housing units at an average density of 25 per square mile (10/km²). The racial makeup of the county was 88.65% White, 3.26% Black or African American, 2.11% Native American, 0.85% Asian, 0.49% Pacific Islander, 2.02% from other races, and 2.62% from two or more races. 4.13% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.

There were 23,175 households out of which 31.40% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 54.20% were married couples living together, 10.50% had a female householder with no husband present, and 31.80% were non-families. 27.70% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.10% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.42 and the average family size was 2.95.

In the county, the population was spread out with 25.00% under the age of 18, 9.10% from 18 to 24, 27.30% from 25 to 44, 22.50% from 45 to 64, and 16.00% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females there were 93.70 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 90.40 males.

The median income for a household in the county was $33,006, and the median income for a family was $39,872. Males had a median income of $29,921 versus $20,791 for females. The per capita income for the county was $17,457. About 10.50% of families and 13.90% of the population were below the poverty line, including 19.70% of those under age 18 and 10.40% of those age 65 or over.

Wheat is a major part of the Garfield County economy. Its county seat, Enid, is named the Wheat Capital of Oklahoma.
The county courthouse in 1908.
Voter Registration and Party Enrollment as of January 15, 2012[11]
Party Number of Voters Percentage
  Democratic 9,185 31.62%
  Republican 17,128 58.96%
  Unaffiliated 2,735 9.42%
Total 29,048 100%

Economy[edit]

Primary industries in Garfield County are agriculture and livestock. Historically, crops have included wheat, corn, oats, sorghum, Kaffir corn, and alfalfa.[7] In addition, oil and gas and flour milling have proved fruitful for the county. The county seat of Enid, Oklahoma has the most grain storage capacity in the United States and one of the largest grain elevators in the world. Vance Air Force Base is also a major employer in the area of both soldiers and civilians.

Politics[edit]

Presidential election results[12]
Year Republican Democrat
2008 75.48% 17,067 24.52% 5,545
2004 76.00% 17,685 24.00% 5,586
2000 68.73% 14,902 30.18% 6,543

Communities[edit]

NRHP sites[edit]

The Garfield County Courthouse, one of many Garfield County sites on the National Register of Historic Places, is located in downtown Enid, Oklahoma.

The following sites in Garfield County are listed on the National Register of Historic Places:

Covington
Enid
Hunter

References[edit]

  1. ^ Gannett, Henry (1905). The Origin of Certain Place Names in the United States. Govt. Print. Off. p. 134. 
  2. ^ a b "State & County QuickFacts". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved November 9, 2013. 
  3. ^ "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Retrieved 2011-06-07. 
  4. ^ Cherokee Outlet Opening, Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture, Oklahoma Historical Society
  5. ^ Fulbright, Jim, Hell on Rails: Oklahoma Towns at War with the Rock Island Railroad, Wild West Magazine, December 2007
  6. ^ The Chisholm Trail, Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture, Oklahoma Historical Society
  7. ^ a b c Garfield County, Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture, Oklahoma Historical Society
  8. ^ "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990". United States Census Bureau. 2011-02-12. Retrieved 2011-04-23. 
  9. ^ "U.S. Decennial Census". Census.gov. Retrieved November 9, 2013. 
  10. ^ "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2008-01-31. 
  11. ^ http://www.ok.gov/elections/documents/reg_0112.pdf
  12. ^ "Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections". Retrieved 2011-06-11. 

External links and further reading[edit]

Coordinates: 36°23′N 97°47′W / 36.38°N 97.78°W / 36.38; -97.78