People who reside in the Garo Hills are known as the Garos. Besides the Garo hills, there are Garo settlements in the plains of Assam and Bangladesh. The Garos call themselves Achik-mande. In the Garo language Achik means Hills and mande, Man. So, Achik-mande means the Hills people.
Garo Hills comprises 5 districts. Tura is the largest town with a population of about 70,000 located at the foothills of often cloud covered Tura peak. The town is centrally located to other popular game/wild life sanctuaries in the district such as Balpakram and Nokrek, natural caves (the Siju cave being one of the longest in Asia). These places are rich reserves of natural flora and fauna.
The traditional Garo female dress is a piece of cloth around the waist and a blouse or vest. The men usually wear, in addition to cloth, a turban. Males and females both wear bangles and earrings. The chief meals of the Garos consist of rice with onions, capsicum and salt thrice a day. Practically all types of animal foods are taken. The liquor is not distilled, but prepared by brewing food grains.
The society is matrilineal like the Khasis and the Jaintias. Till death, the new-born baby belongs to the mother's family, irrespective of sex, even after marriage. Marriage within the clan is completely prohibited and severely punishable for both the Khasis and the Garos. Till now, the institution of Bachelors Dormitories which is gradually disappearing amongst the tribes of North Eastern Region, are found in the Garo villages. In such dormitories young people stay and live together till they are married. They receive various training in the dormitories like protection of crops, construction of roads, organising festivals, sports and ceremonies. This institution is similar to ancient agoges of Sparta. The Khasis and Garos are now mostly Christians. But before that, they used to be nature-worshipers.
Garo Hills known for its abundance of wildlife attracts naturalists and photographers to capture the multifaceted sights of a unique range of flora and fauna. Two mountain ranges - the Arabella range and the Tura range, pass through the Garo Hills, forming the great Balpakram valley in between. The headquarters town of Tura is 323 km via Guwahati, at an altitude of 657 m. The highest point in the Garo Hills is Nokrek Peak with elevation of 1412 m.
Tura has an amazing landscape of hills against a backdrop of low-lying plains. A sunset view can be best seen from Tura Peak at 1,400 m and its summit can be reached by a 5 km trek, partly by hiking and also by rock-climbing.
These are locations in and around Garo Hills which are tourist spots. These include:
Nokrek Peak: The highest point of the Garo Hills region of the State, Nokrek Peak stands 1412 metres above sea level. The mother germo plasm of Citrus-indica have been discovered by science researchers withinNokrek Range. This discovery led to the establishment of the National CitrusGene Sanctuary-cum-Biosphere Reserve at Nokrek covering an area of forty sevensquare kilometres.
Tura Peak: A majestic hill stands on the eastern flankof Tura, the largest town in the Garo Hills region of the State. It peaks 872metres above sea level. A tourist-bungalow, an observatory and aCinchona-plantation are located at Tura Peak and its environs.
Imilchang Dare: This waterfall is located close to the Tura-Chokpot Road in West Garo Hills district. The deep, wide pool at the bottomof the fall with its wide and expansive surroundings make it an excitingswimming pool, full of fish of varied size and colour.
Balpakram: A National Wildlife Park, located in SouthGaro Hills and 167 km from Tura. It is home to the rare Lesser Panda, the Indian bison and the Stag like Serow. A variety of medicinal herbs locally called "dikges" grow abundantly in Balpakram.
Naphak Lake: Located at a distance of 112 km from Tura, ideal for fishing and bird watching with the river Simsang flowing nearby.
Siju Caves: The famous limestone caves of Siju are located near Naphak Lake.