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Garuda Purana (Devanagari गरुड़ पुराण) is one of the eighteen Puranas which are part of the Hindu body of texts known as smriti. It is a Vaishnava Purana and the epic is in form of conversation between Lord Vishnu and Garuda (King of Birds), primarily emphasizing the reason and meaning of Human Life form. It contains details of life after death, funeral rites and the metaphysics of reincarnation, thus it is recited as a part Antyesti (Antim Sanskar) or funeral rites (funeral liturgy) in Hinduism. The Padma Purana categorizes Garuda Purana as a Sattva Purana (Purana which represents goodness and purity). The epic purana which is considered to be lastly edited by Veda Vyāsa, speaks of different incarnations of Lord Vishnu, geographical description, origin of the Universe, Creation, Procreation, Genealogy of Gods and the journey of a soul after death. Garuda Purana also talks about the origin and propagation of Garuda himself and also describes different kinds of austerities, methods of worship, atonement for sin and divine & sacred Manthras.
Attributed to a period of 4th century CE. The Garuda Purana is a Vaishnava Purana and has nineteen thousand shlokas that are divided into two parts, a purva khanda (first part) and an uttara khanda (subsequent part). The others in this group are Vishnu Purana, Narada Purana, Bhagavata Purana, Padma Purana and Varaha Purana.
The Purana which has nineteen thousand shlokas (lines)is classified as a medium-sized Purana. The Skanda Purana, for example, has eighty-one thousand shlokas. And the Markandeya Purana only nine thousand. Each khanda has several chapters (adhyaya).
The purva khanda has two hundred and thirty-four chapters. It is also called Achara Khanda. It deals with astronomy, medicine, grammar and other subjects, such as gems. In this khanda we can find the explanation of Ayurveda(medicine)in detail. The Uttara khanda has only forty-five. The latter half of Garuda Purana deals with life after death. Hindus generally read this Purana while cremating their dead.
List of Hellish Punishments
|Garuda||Wrong doings||Punishment given in Naraka|
|Thamisra||Stealing other's property including wife, children and belongings||Thrashing with the weapon, gada|
|Andhathamisra||Post marital cheating between husband and wife||Unconscious circulation in abyss|
|Rourava||Destroying, splitting other's family and their belongings||Spanking the Life organs with trident by Yama kinkaras|
|Maharourava||Brutally destroying other's property and family for the sake of acquisition||A wild animal, Ruru, tortures them in various forms|
|Kumbhipaka||Destroying innocent lives for food||Roasting in hot oil tank by yama kinkaras|
|Kalasuthra||Torturing and putting elders & parents in starvation||Same set of treatment in hell|
|asipathra||Abetting God and devolve from Dharma practices||Torture by evil spirits; results in fear|
|Sukaramukha||Punishing innocent people and accomplice unlawful activities||Grinding under the sharp teeth of an animal resembling pig|
|Anthakoopa||Torturing lives and inhumane activities||Biting by wild animals; Run over by wild animals|
|Agnikunda||Snatching other's property by force, gaining undue advantage and unlawfully making best out of everything in the world||Roasting in agni kunda in inverted position with hands and legs ties under a stick|
|Vajrakandaka||Unchaste people in physical contact with unmatching people||Physical hugging with fire spitting idols|
|Krimibhojana||Selfish survival; eating other's work||Insects are left intruding the body|
|Salmali||Unchaste relationships by kamukas||Thrashing with gada|
|Vaitharani||Using official stature to attain undue advantage, acting against dharma||Submerging in Vaitarna river where water is mixed with blood, urine and feces|
|Puyoda||Shameless behaviour, mixing with unchaste women & leading the life without any motive||Biting by poisonous insects and animals|
|Pranarodha||Torturing lives and killing them||Spanking the Life organs with arrows by Yama kinkaras|
|Pasusava||Torturing cows (in which are all devatas)||Slashing by canes|
|Sarameyadana||Gutting houses, torturing lives, poisoning lives, involving in massacre||Torture by unknown wild animals|
|Aveechi||Giving false evidence||Submerging and torturing in livebodies|
|Paribathana||Drinking and making others drink alcohol||Drinking lava|
|Ksharakarddama||Involving in bad activities and defaming elders and living with selfish motives||Torture the Life organs by unknown spirits|
|Rakshogana||Performing naramedha yaga, eating non vegetarian dishes and torturing soft animals||The same victims torture the hecklers|
|Shulaprota||Killing innocent people, masterminding people, committing suicide and betraying a person's trust.||Unknown birds peck and torture with shula|
|Suchimukha||Not doing any good, amassing wealth by wrong doings and stealing wealth||Stinging with nails and torturing with hunger and thirst|
|Kunthasootha||Not doing any good and always doing bad to others||Stinging by insects like scorpions|
|Vadaroga||Severely torturing living beings||Handcuffed and burnt in fire|
|Paryavarthana||Defaming guests and not treating them||Torturing with hunger and thirst|
|Lalabhakshaka||Torturing wife / husband and involving her / him in unchaste relationships||Same set of treatment in hell|
Suta and the other sages
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Vedavyasa taught the Puranas to one of his disciples named Romaharshana or Lomaharshana. He was thus named because the hair (roma) on his body was thrilled (harshana), leading to Goose bumps, when he heard the Puranas from his teacher. It was Romaharshana who related the stories of the Puranas to everyone else. The Bhagavata Purana says the Romaharshana had a son named Suta and it was this son who related the story of that particular Purana to the other sages . On the other hand, Romaharshana himself belonged to the suta class, so that he too could be addressed as Sūta. From reading the Garuda Purana, one does get the impression that it is Romaharshana himself who is relating the story, and not his son.
To come back to the point, Romaharshana came to a forest known as Naimisharanya. He sat there and contemplated the mysteries of the Lord Vishnu.
Several other rishis (sages) led by Shounaka also came to the forest. They told Romaharshana, "Sage, you know everything. Who is the god of all gods? Who is to be worshipped? What does one meditate on? Who destroys evil? How did the world come to be created? What is dharma (righteousness)? Tell us all these things and more".
"I will", replied Romaharshana. "I will recite to you the Garuda Purana. Many years ago, this Purana was told to the sage Kashyapa by the great bird Garuda himself. I learnt it from my teacher Vyasadeva. But first let me list for you the twenty-two avataras of Vishnu.
The second incarnation was as a boar (Varaha). In this form, Vishnu rescued the earth from the underworld.
The third incarnation was as a great sage (devarishi). In this form, Vishnu spread the knowledge of several texts (tantras).
The fourth incarnation was as two sages named Nara-Narayana.
The seventh incarnation took place in the manvantra known as svayambhuva. Vishnu was born as the son of Ruchi and Akuti and performed many yajnas (sacrifices).
In the eighth incarnation, Vishnu was born as Urukrama, the son of Nabhi and Meru. He taught everyone the righteous way of life.
In the ninth incarnation, Vishnu became the king Prithu and restored foodgrains and herbs to the earth.
The twelfth incarnation was as Dhanvantari, physician of the gods and the originator of medicine.
In the sixteenth incarnation, Vishnu became Parashurama, killed all the wicked Kshatriyas in the world twenty-one times.
Vishnu’s eighteen incarnation was as the sage Narada.
The Nineteenth incarnation is Parasurama.
The Twentieth incarnation was Rama.
The twenty first incarnation was Krishna.
There have been several other incarnations of Vishnu. But the ones mentioned above are the major ones.
Puranic (ancient) Gemology
The Garuda Purana is considered the authoritative Vedic reference describing ancient Indian gemology. Chapters 68-80 give primitive gemological information describing 14 primary gems, viz., Ruby, Natural Pearl, Yellow Sapphire, Hessonite, Emerald, Diamond, Cats eye, Blue Sapphire, Coral, Red Garnet, Jade, colorless Quartz, and Bloodstone. In Chapter 69 on pearls, the speaker, Suta Goswami, describes seven other types of pearls besides Oyster Pearl (Chandra-moti), viz., pearl from Conch shell (Shankh-moti), Wild Boar’s head (Varaha-moti), Elephant’s head (Gaja-moti), Cobra’s head (Naga-moti or Nagamani), Bamboo stems (Venu-moti), Fish head (Matsya-moti), and from the sky and clouds (Akash-moti or Megh-moti).
- Introduction:The Garuda Purana, Translated by Ernest Wood and S.V. Subrahmanyam (1911).
- Wilson, H. H. (1840). The Vishnu Purana: A system of Hindu mythology and tradition. Oriental Translation Fund. p. 12.
- Diane Morgan (2008). Fire and Blood: Rubies in Myth, Magic, and History. Greenwood Publishing. p. 9.
- Pearl described here refers to natural pearl, because the culturing of pearls was not known until long after the creation of this work
- The mineral Fluorite, cut into balls, is occasionally mistaken as genuine Naga-moti, which should be organic in composition.
- Richard S. Brown (2008). Ancient Astrological Gemstones & Talismans - 2nd Edition. Hrisikesh Ltd. pp. 61, 64. ISBN 978-974-8102-29-0.
- The Garuda Puran in English, Hindi and Sanskrit
- The Garuda Purana (Wood and Subrahmanyam translation, 1911) at sacred-texts.com