Coleman in May 2005
|Born||Gary Wayne Coleman
February 8, 1968
Zion, Illinois, U.S.
|Died||May 28, 2010
Provo, Utah, U.S.
|Cause of death||Epidural hematoma|
(m. 2007–2008; divorced)
Gary Wayne Coleman (February 8, 1968 – May 28, 2010) was an American actor, known for his childhood role as Arnold Jackson in the American sitcom Diff'rent Strokes (1978–1986) and for his small stature as an adult. He was described in the 1980s as "one of television's most promising stars". After a successful childhood acting career, Coleman struggled financially later in life. In 1989, he successfully sued his parents and business advisor over misappropriation of his assets, only to declare bankruptcy a decade later.
- 1 Early life
- 2 Career
- 3 Candidacy for Governor of California
- 4 Avenue Q
- 5 Personal life
- 6 Trains and model railroading
- 7 Death and memorial
- 8 Filmography
- 9 References
- 10 External links
Coleman was born in Zion, Illinois, outside Chicago. He was adopted by Edmonia Sue and W.G. Coleman, a nurse practitioner and fork-lift operator, respectively. He suffered from focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, an autoimmune kidney disease. Because of his chronic illness, combined with the corticosteroids and other medications used to treat it, his growth was limited to 4 ft 7 in (1.40 m), and his face retained a childlike appearance well into adulthood. He underwent two unsuccessful kidney transplants in 1973 and 1984, and required daily dialysis.
Coleman's career began in 1974 when he appeared in a commercial for Harris Bank. His line, after the announcer says "You should have a Harris banker," was "You should have a Hubert doll". "Hubert" was a stuffed lion representing the Harris bank logo. The same year, he appeared in an episode of Medical Center.
While best known for his role on Diff'rent Strokes, Coleman had appeared earlier on television, on The Jeffersons as Raymond, George Jefferson's nephew, and on Good Times as Penny's friend Gary. He also appeared in a 1979 pilot for a revival of The Little Rascals as Stymie. VH1 rated Coleman first on a list of "100 Greatest Child Stars" on television.
Coleman was cast in the role of Arnold Jackson in the television sitcom Diff'rent Strokes, portraying one of two young African-American brothers adopted by a wealthy white widower in Manhattan. The successful show was broadcast from 1978 to 1986.
Coleman became the most popular fixture of the show, enhanced by his character's catchphrase "What'chu talkin' 'bout, Willis?" At the height of his fame on Diff'rent Strokes, he earned as much as US$100,000 per episode. A Biography Channel documentary estimated he was left with a quarter of the original amount after paying his parents, advisers, lawyers, and taxes. He later successfully sued his parents and his former advisers for misappropriation of his finances and was awarded $1.3 million. According to castmate Todd Bridges' autobiography Killing Willis, Coleman was made to work long hours on the set of Diff'rent Strokes despite his age and health problems, and this contributed to his being unhappy and separating himself from the cast.
Later character appearances
Coleman became a popular figure, starring in a number of feature films and made-for-TV movies including On the Right Track and The Kid with the Broken Halo. The latter eventually served as the basis for the Hanna-Barbera-produced animated series The Gary Coleman Show in 1982. Coleman also made video game appearances in The Curse of Monkey Island (1997) and Postal 2 (2003). In 2005 Coleman appeared in WWE Superstar John Cena's music video for his single "Bad, Bad Man" (from the album You Can't See Me), Coleman played himself as a bad guy taking the 1980s pop stars Madonna and Michael Jackson hostage. The video was a spoof of 80s culture, focusing on The A-Team television series.
Candidacy for Governor of California
Coleman was a candidate for governor in the 2003 California recall election. This campaign was sponsored by the free newsweekly East Bay Express as a satirical comment on the recall. After Arnold Schwarzenegger declared his candidacy, Coleman announced that he would vote for Schwarzenegger. Coleman placed 8th in a field of 135 candidates, receiving 14,242 votes.
Coleman is parodied in the hit Broadway musical Avenue Q, which won the 2004 Tony Award for best musical. A character presented as Coleman works as the superintendent of the apartment complex where the musical takes place. In the song "It Sucks to Be Me", he laments his fate. On Broadway, the role was originally played by Natalie Venetia Belcon.
The show's creators, Jeff Marx and Robert Lopez, have said that the Coleman character is a personification of one of Avenue Q's central themes: that as children we are told we are "special", but upon entering adulthood we discover that life is not nearly as easy as we have been led to believe. They added that they originally considered asking Coleman himself to play the Gary Coleman role, and he expressed interest in accepting it, but never showed up for a meeting scheduled to discuss it.
In 2005 Coleman announced his intention to sue the producers of Avenue Q for their depiction of him, although the lawsuit never materialized. At the 2007 New York Comic Con, Coleman said, "I wish there was a lawyer on Earth that would sue them for me."
The Coleman character lives on in the show, despite the death of its inspiration, after minor dialogue adjustments.
In a 1993 television interview, Coleman said he had twice attempted to commit suicide by overdosing on pills. Around the same time[clarification needed] he was living in Denver, Colorado, where he hosted a Sunday night show on local radio station KHIH called Gary Coleman's Colorado High, in which he played light jazz and New Age music. He gave his salary to the Colorado Kidney Foundation.
In 2005, Coleman moved from Los Angeles to Santaquin, a small town south of Salt Lake City, Utah, where he lived for the remainder of his life. In early 2007 he met Shannon Price, 22, on the set of the film Church Ball, where she was working as an extra, and married her several months later. On May 1 and 2, 2008, they made a well-publicized appearance on the show Divorce Court to air their differences in an attempt to save their marriage. Nevertheless, they divorced in August 2008, citing irreconcilable differences, but according to a court petition later filed by Price, continued to live together as husband and wife until his death.
In August 1999, Coleman filed for bankruptcy protection. Multiple people, he said, were responsible for his insolvency, "...from me, to accountants, to my adoptive parents, to agents, to lawyers, and back to me again."
Ongoing medical expenses contributed significantly to Coleman's chronic financial problems, and compelled him, at times, to resort to unusual fundraising activities. In 2008, for example, he auctioned an autographed pair of his trousers on eBay to help pay his medical bills. The auction attracted considerable attention, including fake bids up to $400,000. The trousers were eventually bought for $500 by comedian Jimmy Kimmel, who famously hung them from the rafters of his television studio.
Coleman was charged with assault in 1998, while he was working as a security guard. Tracy Fields, a Los Angeles bus driver and fan of Coleman's work on Diff'rent Strokes, approached him and requested his autograph while he was shopping for a bulletproof vest in a California mall. Coleman refused to give her an autograph, an argument ensued, and Fields reportedly mocked Coleman's lackluster career as an actor. Coleman punched Fields in the face several times in front of witnesses. He was arrested and later testified in court that she threatened him and he defended himself. "She wouldn't leave me alone. I was getting scared, and she was getting ugly," he said. Coleman pleaded no contest to one count of assault, received a suspended jail sentence, and was ordered to pay Fields' $1,665 hospital bill as well as take anger management classes.
In 2008, Coleman was involved in an automobile accident after an altercation at a Payson, Utah bowling alley which began when Colt Rushton, age 24, photographed Coleman without his permission; the two men argued, according to witnesses. In the parking lot, Coleman allegedly backed his truck into Rushton, striking his knee and pulling him under the vehicle, before hitting another car. Rushton was treated at a local hospital for minor injuries and released. Coleman later pleaded no contest to charges of disorderly conduct and reckless driving, and was fined $100. In 2010, he settled a civil suit related to the incident for an undisclosed amount.
Trains and model railroading
Coleman was an avid railfan, model railroader, and supporter of Amtrak. Coleman became interested in trains sometime before the age of five during his frequent train trips to Chicago in support of his burgeoning acting career. Fans often saw him at stores specializing in model trains in areas in which he lived, and he worked part-time at Denver-area, Tucson-area, and California hobby stores in order for him to be around his hobby. Coleman built and maintained miniature railroads in his homes in several states. One of Coleman's train layouts appears in the September 1990 issue of Railroad Model Craftsman. Coleman is photographed on the front cover, with his "Rio Grande" layout. Coleman preferred to model in HO scale, but modeled in other scales, as well. One such model railroad was over 800 square-feet in size. Currently, at least one of his model railroads is being preserved in Colorado Springs, Colorado.
Death and memorial
Very few details of Coleman's medical history have been made public. His short stature (4 feet, 7 inches or 1.40 meters) stemmed from congenital autoimmune kidney disease and its treatment. He underwent at least two kidney transplants early in his life, and required frequent dialysis, which he preferred not to discuss. In 2009, he underwent heart surgery, details of which were never made public, but he was known to have developed pneumonia postoperatively. In January 2010 he was hospitalized after a seizure in Los Angeles, and in February he suffered another seizure on the set of The Insider television program.
On May 26, 2010, Coleman was admitted to Utah Valley Regional Medical Center in Provo, Utah in critical condition after falling down the stairs at his home in Santaquin and hitting his head, possibly after another seizure, and suffering an epidural hematoma. According to a hospital spokesman, Coleman was "conscious and lucid" the next morning, but his condition subsequently worsened. By mid-afternoon on May 27, he was unconscious and on life support. He died at 12:05 pm MDT (18:05 UTC) on May 28 at the age of 42.
The casts of the Off Broadway production of Avenue Q in New York City and the Avenue Q National Tour in Dallas dedicated their May 28 performances to his memory, and the actors playing the Coleman role paid tribute to him from the stage at the performances' conclusions. (The Coleman character remained in the show after modifications were made to relevant dialog.)
The weekend after Coleman's death, a scheduled funeral was postponed and later canceled due to a dispute regarding the disposition of his estate and remains between Coleman's adoptive parents, Price, and former business associate Anna Gray. Coleman's former manager Dion Mial was involved initially, but withdrew after Coleman's 1999 will, which named Mial as executor and directed that his wake be "...conducted by those with no financial ties to me and can look each other in the eyes and say they really cared personally for Gary Colemen [sic]", turned out to be superseded by a later one replacing Mial with Gray, and directing "...that there be no funeral service, wake, or other ceremony memorializing my passing."
Questions were also raised as to whether Price, who authorized discontinuation of Coleman's life support, had the legal authority to do so. The controversy was exacerbated by a photograph published on the front page of the tabloid newspaper The Globe depicting Price posed next to a comatose, intubated Coleman, under the headline, "It Was Murder!"
The hospital later issued a statement confirming that Coleman had completed an advance health care directive granting Price permission to make medical decisions on his behalf. An investigation by Santaquin police was closed on October 5, 2010, after the medical examiner ruled Coleman's death "accidental", and no evidence of wrongdoing could be demonstrated.
Coleman's remains were cremated, per his wishes, in June, after a Utah judge agreed that there was no dispute regarding that issue. However, disposition of the ashes was delayed pending a judicial decision on permanent control of the estate. Coleman's final will, signed in 2005, names Gray as executor, and awards his entire estate to her. However, Price and Coleman married in 2007; and while they divorced in 2008, Price claimed in a court petition that she remained Coleman's common-law wife, sharing bank accounts and presenting themselves publicly as husband and wife, until his death; an assertion that, if validated by the court, would make her the lawful heir.
Price said that should she be granted disposition of Coleman's remains, she planned to scatter the ashes at the Golden Spike National Historic Site in Utah as a tribute to his lifelong love of trains. However, in May 2012 Judge James Taylor ruled that while Price had lived in Coleman's home after their marriage ended, their relationship at the time of his death failed to meet Utah’s standard for a common-law marriage.
|1979||Kid from Left Field, TheThe Kid from Left Field||Jackie Robinson "J.R." Cooper||Television film|
|1980||Scout's Honor||Joey Seymour||Television film|
|1981||On the Right Track||Lester||First feature film|
|1982||Kid with the Broken Halo, TheThe Kid with the Broken Halo||Andy LeBeau||Television film|
|1982||Jimmy the Kid||Jimmy|
|1983||Kid with the 200 I.Q., TheThe Kid with the 200 I.Q.||Nick Newell||Television film|
|1984||Fantastic World of D.C. Collins, TheThe Fantastic World of D.C. Collins||D.C. Collins||Television film|
|1985||Playing with Fire||David Phillips||Television film|
|1994||Party||The Liar||Short film
|1996||Fox Hunt||Murray Lipschitz, Jr.|
|1997||Off the Menu: The Last Days of Chasen's||Himself||Documentary|
|1998||Like Father, Like Santa||Ignatius||Television film|
|2000||Flunky, TheThe Flunky||Himself|
|2002||Frank McKlusky, C.I.||Himself||Cameo|
|2003||Dickie Roberts: Former Child Star||Himself||Cameo|
|2003||Carol Christmas, AA Carol Christmas||Christmas Past||Television film|
|2004||Chasing the Edge||Himself||Cameo
|2004||Save Virgil||Himself/The Devil|
|2005||Christmas Too Many, AA Christmas Too Many||Pizza Delivery Guy|
|2006||Church Ball||Charles Higgins|
|2008||American Carol, AnAn American Carol||Bacon Stains Malone|
|2009||Midgets vs. Mascots||Gary||Last film appearance|
|The Little Rascals||1977||TV film|
|Diff'rent Strokes||1978–1986||Arnold Jackson|
|The Facts of Life||1980|
|Buck Rogers in the 25th Century||Episode "The Cosmic Wiz Kid", also has a cameo in a later episode|
|The Gary Coleman Show||1982||Voice|
|Simon & Simon||1986||"Like Father, Like Son"|
|Amazing Stories||1986||Season 1: Episode 10 – "Remote Control Man"|
|The Ben Stiller Show||1993||Himself|
|The Wayans Bros.||1995||Pilot Episode: "Goop, Hair-It-Is" as himself|
|Married... with Children||1994-1996||Season 8, Episode 16: How Green Was My Apple
Season 10, Episode 27: The Joke's on Al
|Martin||1995||Season 3, Episode 20: High Noon as Mad Dog No Good|
|The Fresh Prince of Bel-Air||1996||Season 6, Episode 24: I, Done: Part 2|
|The Parent 'Hood||1996||Season 3, Episode 22: Rappin' It Up|
|The Simpsons||1999, 2000||Season 11, Episode 9: Grift of the Magi
Season 12, Episode 2: A Tale of Two Springfields"
|The Jamie Foxx Show||2000||Season 5, Episode 9: Cupid|
|Son of the Beach||2000-2002||Season 1, Episode 12: Attack of the Cocktopuss
Season 3, Episode 11: The Long Hot Johnson
|The Hughleys||2001||Season 4, Episode 8: Whatchoo Stalkin' About, Willis?|
|My Wife and Kids||2001||Season 2, Episode 2:Mom's Away: Part 2
Season 2, Episode 4: Perfect Dad
|Baby Bob||2002||Season 1, Episode 5: House of the Rising Son|
|Star Dates||2003||Season 1, Episode 6: Gary Coleman|
|The Drew Carey Show||2001||"What's Wrong with this Episode? IV"|
|The Parkers||2002||Season 4, Episode 8: It's Gary Coleman|
|A Carol Christmas||2003||Ghost of Christmas Past|
|BET Comedy Awards||2004||Himself|
|The 2nd Annual TV Land Awards||2004||Himself|
|The Surreal Life||2004||Season 2, Episode 2: Mel's Dinner|
|Drake & Josh||2004||Season 2, Episode 12: The Gary Grill|
|The 6th Annual TV Land Awards||2008||Himself|
|Penn & Teller: Bullshit!||2009||"The Apocalypse"|
|Nitro Circus||2009||Episodes: Hits and Misses
|The Horrible Terrible Misadventures of David Atkins||2010||Season 1, Episode 1: Welcome to Atkins Land|
|Robot Chicken||2011||Season 5, Episode 9: No Country For Old Dogs (Posthumous)|
- John Cena – Bad, Bad Man as himself
- 'N Sync – Merry Christmas, Happy Holidays as Santa's elf
- Kid Rock - Cowboy as himself
- Moby - We Are All Made of Stars as himself
- Raging Slab - Anywhere But Here as himself
- "Diff'rent Strokes Star Gary Coleman Dies at 42". People.
- "The Five Lowest Moments of Gary Coleman's Career". Los Angeles: Esquire.com. March 21, 2008. Retrieved October 2, 2011.
- Vince Horiuchi (June 2, 2010). "Gary Coleman wasn't married when he died". The Salt Lake Tribune.[dead link]
- "Scotsman obituary". Edinburgh: News.scotsman.com. May 31, 2010. Retrieved August 11, 2010.
- "Gary Coleman Biography (1968–)". Filmreference.com. Retrieved May 28, 2010.
- "Gary Coleman Explodes on The Insider". Retrieved 2012-03-05.
- Horowitz, Lisa. "Gary Coleman Dead at 42", The Wrap, May 28, 2010
- Hayward, Anthony (June 1, 2010). "Gary Coleman: Child star of the television sitcom 'Diff'rent Strokes' who faced legal and personal problems in later life - Obituaries - News". The Independent. Retrieved 2012-01-04.
- "'Diff'rent Strokes' child star, Zion, Ill. native Gary Coleman dead at 42 - Chicago Tribune". Articles.chicagotribune.com. May 28, 2010. Retrieved 2012-01-04.
- "'Diff'rent Strokes actor Gary Coleman dies at 42." CNN May 28, 2010 article added May 28, 2010.
- Bob Tourtellotte (May 28, 2010). "Gary Coleman dies after brain hemorrhage". Reuters. Retrieved June 4, 2010.
- "Truth Behind the Sitcom Scandals". Biography Channel. April 15, 2008. http://www.biography.com/search/schedule.do?keywords=The+Truth+Behind+the+Sitcom+Scandals.
- "Judge tells parents to pay young actor". Associated Press. February 24, 1993.
- John Cena & Tha Trademarc. "You Can't See Me - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia". En.wikipedia.org. Retrieved 2012-01-15.
- "John Cena Bad Bad Man". YouTube. December 15, 2006. Retrieved 2012-01-15.
- "Gary Coleman on California ballot". CNN/inside politics. August 7, 2003. Retrieved May 28, 2010.
- "Natalie Venetia Belcon on the Internet Broadway Database". Retrieved May 28, 2010.
- Dobbs, Aaron (December 17, 2004). "Jeff Marx & Robert Lopez, Creators Avenue Q". Gothamist. Retrieved May 30, 2010.
- "Gary Coleman – New York Comic Con 2007 – TheActionRoom.com". YouTube. Retrieved May 28, 2010.
- Itzkoff, Dave (May 29, 2010): 'Avenue Q' Deals With Death of Gary Coleman NYTimes.com. Retrieved June 8, 2010.
- Dobner, Jennifer (May 28, 2010). "Former child star Gary Coleman dies at 42". Associated Press. Retrieved May 30, 2010.
- "Diff'rent Strokes star Gary Coleman critically ill in hospital". The Daily Telegraph (London). May 28, 2010. Retrieved August 11, 2010.
- Death & Celebrity: When Gary Met Shannon (June 15, 2010). Salt Lake Tribune. Retrieved July 13, 2010.
- "Afternoon Fix: Celebrity Birthdays, the 'Jumper' Movie Minute, the latest news, and more.". MTV News. February 14, 2008. Retrieved June 7, 2010.
- Sandy Cohen (April 25, 2008). "Newlywed Gary Coleman brings marital woes to `Divorce Court'". Daily News.
- Daniel Bates (March 6, 2010). "Gary Coleman's ex-wife denies 'cruel' rumours she pushed him down the stairs in first interview". The Daily Mail (London). Retrieved August 11, 2010.
- "Former Child Star Gary Coleman Files For Bankruptcy", Jet, September 6, 1999.
- Gary Coleman: Bankrupt (August 18, 1999). eonline.com. Retrieved July 13, 2010.
- Gary Coleman struggling to shed child star image (2/26/08). Today Show Archive. Retrieved July 11, 2010.
- Coleman Pants Suit Kimmel (January 29, 2008). eonline.com. Retrieved July 13, 2010.
- "Former Child Star Central". Members.tripod.com. June 29, 1999. Retrieved May 28, 2010.
- "Gary Coleman awarded $1.3M". The Daily Gazette. Associated Press. February 25, 1993. Retrieved May 28, 2010.
- "Actor Gary Coleman wins $1.3 million in suit against his parents and ex-adviser", Jet, March 15, 1993.
- "Coleman pleads no contest to disturbing the peace and receives 90-day suspended sentence"[dead link], Court TV Online, February 4, 1999.
- "Diff'rent Strokes' star Coleman cited for disorderly conduct in Utah County", Fox News, July 31, 2007.
- "Gary Coleman reveals Secret Marriage", Inside Edition, February 12, 2008.
- "Man run over by former child star in Payson", KSL-TV, September 6, 2008.
- "Payson police say no one's talking in Coleman incident ", Deseret News, September 8, 2008.
- "Coleman Pleads No Contest to Disorderly Conduct", The New York Times, December 2, 2008.
- "Gary Coleman Pleads No Contest in Bowling Brawl ", E! Online, December 2, 2008.
- "Gary Coleman Reaches Settlement in Suit over Parking Lot Dispute", The Salt Lake Tribune, January 14, 2010.
- "Gary Coleman's wife arrested for domestic violence", Daily Herald, August 12, 2009.
- "Actor Gary Coleman arrested for 2nd time in Utah County". Ksl.com. January 24, 2010. Retrieved May 28, 2010.
- Stein, Jeannine. "Actor Gary Coleman released from Utah jail after arrest on outstanding warrant". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved May 28, 2010.[dead link]
- "Interview Transcript". Retrieved May 6, 2013.
- "Atlas Model Railroad Forum: Gary Coleman". Retrieved May 6, 2013.
- "Gary Coleman's model trains stored in Colorado". Retrieved May 6, 2013.
- New Details in Gary Coleman's Death (undated). Associated Press. Retrieved July 11, 2010.
- Gary Coleman Hospitalized Again (February 26, 2010). LATimes.com. Retrieved July 11, 2010.
- By Alan Duke, CNN (May 28, 2010). "Gary Coleman's condition is "critical"". CNN. Retrieved May 28, 2010.
- "Gary Coleman critically hurt after falling and hitting his head". The Sydney Morning Herald. May 27, 2010. Retrieved May 27, 2010.
- Vena, Jocelyn. "Gary Coleman Put On Life Support After being hospitalized on Wednesday following a fall, the actor is unconscious". Mtv. Retrieved May 28, 2010.
- Stanglin, Douglas (May 28, 2010). "Actor Gary Coleman reported dead of brain hemorrhage". USA Today. Retrieved May 28, 2010.
- Silverman, Stephen M. (May 28, 2010). "Diff'rent Strokes Star Gary Coleman Dies at 42". People Magazine. Retrieved May 28, 2010.
- Propst, Andy (May 28, 2010). "Gary Coleman, Star of Diff'rent Strokes and Character in Avenue Q, Dies at 42.". Theater Mania. Retrieved May 29, 2010.
- Silverman, Stephen M. (May 28, 2010). "Diff'rent Strokes Star Gary Coleman Dies at 42". People.com. Retrieved June 4, 2010.
- Gary Coleman's 1999 Last Will Retrieved March 16, 2011.
- Coleman's Former Friend to Bow Out of Estate Fight (June 15, 2010). Salt Lake City Tribune. Retrieved July 13, 2010.
- Coleman's Ashes Kept Locked Up During Battle of Wills (June 16, 2010). CNN.com. Retrieved July 11, 2010.
- Lee, Ken. "Gary Coleman Leaves Bittersweet Instructions for Funeral". People.com. Retrieved August 11, 2010.
- "'We would've loved to have been by his side': Gary Coleman's estranged parents reveal their heartache". The Daily Mail (London). May 30, 2010. Retrieved June 4, 2010.
- Thomas, Devon (June 9, 2010). "CBS: Globe Magazine Publishes Gary Coleman Deathbed Photo; June 9, 2010 3:17 Pm". Cbsnews.com. Retrieved August 11, 2010.
- Hospital: Gary Coleman's Ex-Wife Was Authorized to Pull the Plug (June 3, 2010). usmagazine.com. Retrieved July 13, 2010.
- radaronline.com. Retrieved July 11, 2010.
- Cops Close Coleman Death Case. Toronto Sun Retrieved 2010-10-06.
- "Gary Coleman cremated in private ceremony as all funeral plans are cancelled". The Daily Mail (London). June 18, 2010. Retrieved August 11, 2010.
- Gary Coleman's Ashes Remain at Attorney's Office, Ex-Wife Claims (March 10, 2011). Radaronline.com archive Retrieved December 19, 2011
- Judge: Shannon Price is not Gary Coleman’s common-law wife (May 14, 2012). The Salt Lake Tribune
- "Internet Movie Data Base". IMDB. Retrieved May 14, 2013.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Gary Coleman.|
- Gary Coleman at the Internet Movie Database
- Gary Coleman: 1968–2010 photo gallery by The Washington Post