Gary Doer

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His Excellency
Gary Doer
OM
Gary Doer.jpg
Canadian Ambassador to the United States
Incumbent
Assumed office
October 19, 2009
Prime Minister Stephen Harper
Preceded by Michael Wilson
20th Premier of Manitoba[1]
In office
October 5, 1999 – October 19, 2009
Monarch Elizabeth II
Lieutenant Governor Peter M. Liba
John Harvard
Philip S. Lee
Preceded by Gary Filmon
Succeeded by Greg Selinger
Member of the Legislative Assembly of Manitoba for Concordia
In office
March 18, 1986 – October 19, 2009
Preceded by Peter Fox
Succeeded by Matt Wiebe
Minister of Urban Affairs in the Government of Manitoba
In office
April 17, 1986 – May 9, 1988
Preceded by Laurent Desjardins
Succeeded by Gerald Ducharme
Minister of Crown Investments in the Government of Manitoba
In office
February 4, 1987 – May 9, 1988
Preceded by Vic Schroeder
Succeeded by position eliminated
Minister in the Government of Manitoba responsible for the Manitoba Telephone System
In office
February 4, 1987 – May 9, 1988
Preceded by Al Mackling
Succeeded by Glen Findlay
Minister in the Government of Manitoba responsible for the Accountability of Crown Corporations
In office
August 19, 1987 – May 9, 1988
Preceded by position created
Succeeded by Clayton Manness[2]
Minister in the Government of Manitoba responsible for the Liquor Control Act
In office
September 21, 1987 – May 9, 1988
Preceded by Roland Penner
Succeeded by James McCrae
President of the Manitoba Government Employees' Association
In office
1979–1986
Preceded by William Jackson
Succeeded by Peter Olfert
Personal details
Born Gary Albert Doer
(1948-03-31) March 31, 1948 (age 66)
Winnipeg, Manitoba
Political party New Democratic
Spouse(s) Ginny Devine
Religion Roman Catholic

Gary Albert Doer, OM (born March 31, 1948) is a Canadian diplomat and politician from Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. Since October 19, 2009, he has served as Canada's Ambassador to the United States. Doer previously served as the 20th Premier of Manitoba from 1999 to 2009, leading a New Democratic Party government.

Early life and career[edit]

Gary Doer was born to a middle class family in Winnipeg, Manitoba. His background is German and Welsh. He graduated from St. Paul's High School and went on to study political science and sociology at the University of Manitoba for one year, but left to become a corrections officer at the Vaughan Street Detention Centre. He later rose to become deputy superintendent of the Manitoba Youth Centre.[3] Doer's work environment was not always safe: he once had to deal with a hostage taking situation, and was attacked with a baseball bat on another occasion.[4]

Doer became president of the Manitoba Government Employees' Association in 1979, and served in this capacity until 1986.[5] He also held prominent positions with the Manitoba Federation of Labour and the National Union of Public and General Employees, served as a director of the Winnipeg Blue Bombers, and became a governor of the University of Manitoba.[6] In 1983, he negotiated an agreement with the provincial government of Howard Pawley in which civil servants agreed to delay a wage increase in return for a guarantee of no layoffs or wage rollbacks.[7] The following year, he openly criticized Dennis McDermott's leadership of the Canadian Labour Congress.[8]

Doer first joined the New Democratic Party in the 1970s, and worked for the party in the 1973 provincial election.[9] He discontinued his membership in 1975 to preserve the neutrality of his union, and was later courted by both the New Democrats and Progressive Conservatives to run for public office.[10] He rejoined the NDP in 1986, and was a candidate in that year's provincial election.[11][12]

Cabinet minister[edit]

Doer was elected to the Legislative Assembly of Manitoba in the 1986 provincial election for the northeast Winnipeg division of Concordia. He joined the government of Premier Howard Pawley on April 17, 1986 as Minister of Urban Affairs, and was given additional responsibilities as Minister responsible for the Manitoba Telephone System on December 2 of the same year. Doer ordered a Royal Canadian Mounted Police probe of the MTS soon after his appointment, and worked to reform its practices following a failed investment in Saudi Arabia.[13] He soon developed a reputation as a "fixer", working as a trouble-shooter in difficult fields.[14]

Doer was given further responsibilities as Minister of Crown Investments on February 5, 1987,[15] and was later named as Minister responsible for the Accountability of Crown Corporations (August 19, 1987) and Minister responsible for the Liquor Control Act (September 21, 1987). Seen as a rising star in the party, he was sometimes mentioned as a future leader.[16]

The Pawley government was sustained by a narrow legislative majority after the 1986 election, and was defeated on March 8, 1988 when disgruntled backbencher Jim Walding voted with the opposition on a budget non-confidence motion. Pawley resigned as NDP leader the next day, and called a new general election for April 26.[17]

NDP leader[edit]

Leadership election[edit]

Doer was the first declared candidate in the Manitoba New Democratic Party's 1988 leadership contest. He was supported by cabinet ministers Vic Schroeder, Myrna Phillips, Muriel Smith, Leonard Evans, Jerry Storie and Wilson Parasiuk, and by federal Members of Parliament Rod Murphy and David Orlikow.[18] He also received an endorsement from the Manitoba Federation of Labour.[19] Doer emphasized his experience in managing large organizations, and called for pay equity legislation to be introduced within a year of his election.[20] He narrowly defeated rival candidate Len Harapiak on the third ballot of the party's leadership convention in Winnipeg.[21] He was not sworn in as premier, as the legislature had already been dissolved.[22]

Doer became leader of the Manitoba NDP when the party was at a low ebb of popularity. An internal poll before the election showed that they had only 6% popular support, and some NDP workers privately worried that they could lose all of their legislative seats.[23] Many believed Doer was their best hope for a recovery.[24] Support for the NDP increased to 19% during the leadership campaign, and to 23% after Doer was chosen as Pawley's successor. The party nevertheless remained in third place, and faced an uphill struggle in the 1988 election.[25]

1988 election[edit]

Doer promised a $58 million tax cut, and opposed the federal government's free trade deal with the United States of America. He indicated that he was open to the possibility of amending the Meech Lake Accord, a federal proposal for constitutional reform.[26] He also promised to build more community health centres, and supported home renovations for senior citizens and the disabled.[27]

The NDP won 12 out of 57 seats, while the Progressive Conservatives under Gary Filmon won 25 seats and the Liberals under Sharon Carstairs jumped from one seat to twenty. Doer rejected the possibility of forming a coalition government with the Liberals, and the Progressive Conservatives were able to form a minority government with the NDP holding the balance of power.[28] He was not personally blamed for his party's loss, and continued as party leader. The NDP chose not to defeat Filmon's government during confidence votes in late 1988 and early 1989, as Doer argued the public would not support another election so soon.[29]

Meech Lake Accord[edit]

The dominant political issue in Manitoba between 1988 and 1990 was the Meech Lake Accord, which recognized Quebec as a "distinct society" in Canada and devolved some powers from the federal government to the provinces. The accord required approval from all ten provincial legislatures to become law. The provincial Liberals initially opposed the accord, which meant that Doer's support was necessary for its passage.[30] In November 1988, Doer indicated that his party would not support the accord unless certain amendments were introduced.[31] He was later appointed to a provincial panel that held a series of public meetings, and recommended significant changes to the deal.[32] The Filmon government also expressed skepticism about the accord, and announced that it too would seek amendments from the federal government.

All three Manitoba party leaders agreed to a federally brokered compromise in June 1990, shortly before the accord's official deadline.[33] The accord nonetheless failed to pass in the Manitoba legislature because of a procedural motion from Elijah Harper, a Cree member of the NDP caucus who argued that it did not give fair representation to indigenous Canadians. Doer described Harper's decision as "a fundamental issue of conscience", and blamed Prime Minister Brian Mulroney for delaying negotiations until the deadline had almost expired.[34] One year later, he indicated that he felt "betrayed" by federal negotiators, and described the entire Meech Lake process as "dishonest from start to finish".[35]

1990 election[edit]

In the aftermath of the accord's defeat, Filmon called a provincial election for September 11, 1990. Doer promised a ten-year freeze on personal income taxes, and argued that the Progressive Conservatives would pursue a hidden right-wing agenda if they won a majority government.[36] He also promised legislation that would make it more difficult for companies based in Manitoba to close down.[37]

An early poll showed the NDP in third place with 18% support, well behind the governing Progressive Conservatives and also behind the Liberals.[38] The Liberal campaign faltered, however, and the New Democrats were able to make strong gains in the election's final days, partly buoyed by the unexpected victory of Bob Rae's New Democrats in the neighbouring province of Ontario.[39] The Progressive Conservatives won a narrow majority with 30 seats, while the New Democrats won 20 and the Liberals seven. Doer succeeded Carstairs as Leader of the Opposition in the legislature.

Leader of the Opposition[edit]

First term, 1990–95[edit]

Doer criticized the Filmon government's cutbacks to health and education, and drew attention to the province's rising unemployment and child poverty rates in the early 1990s.[40] Opposing Filmon's austerity measures, he argued it was inappropriate for the government to cut jobs at a time of high unemployment.[41] In 1993, he opposed the government's decision to end funding for groups such as the Foster Family Association, the Assembly of Manitoba Chiefs, the Manitoba Anti-Poverty Organization and the Manitoba Environmental Council.[42]

Doer announced in late 1992 that his caucus would support the Charlottetown Accord, a comprehensive package on constitutional reform that was introduced by the federal government after the failure of Meech Lake.[43] The Accord was defeated in a national referendum.

Doer released an election platform in November 1994, highlighted by a ten-point preventive health-care program for children and a six-point Manitoba Works plan to reduce unemployment.[44]

1995 election[edit]

Doer focused on health issues in the 1995 provincial election. He promised that he would replace walk-in clinics with neighbourhood health organizations, to be staffed with salaried doctors, nurses, midwives and social workers.[45] He pledged to negotiate with pharmaceutical companies to reduce prescription drug costs, and to review some of the hundreds of drugs that had been delisted in recent years.[46] He also promised to create a new group of health providers called nurse practitioners, to carry out some doctors' responsibilities.[47] On economic issues, Doer promised a balanced budget with no personal or sales tax increases over four years and indicated that he would cut nearly $119 million from government programs to fund health, education, and job creation.[48]

An early poll from the Angus Reid firm showed the Progressive Conservatives with 37% support, the Liberals with 35%, and the NDP with 21%.[49] The Liberal campaign faltered once again, however, and a poll released only days before the election showed the NDP had again surpassed the Liberals for second place.[50] The Progressive Conservatives were re-elected with 31 seats, the NDP increased their total to 23, and the Liberals fell to only three.

In the closing days of the campaign, Doer asked the province's chief electoral officer to investigate reports that three independent candidates from an unregistered party known as Native Voice had received assistance from a Progressive Conservative campaign official. Some believed these candidates would split the progressive-left vote in their ridings, and give the Progressive Conservatives a greater chance of winning.[51] Little was done at the time, but the story emerged as a prominent provincial scandal following an exposé from the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation in June 1998. Doer called for an inquiry, which the Filmon government granted; the presiding officer determined that at least one of the candidates had been illegally induced to run to by a local agents of the Progressive Conservative Party.[52]

Second term, 1995–99[edit]

Despite an improving economy, the Filmon government's 1996 budget introduced further cuts to social assistance, health care, and post-secondary and public school education. Doer argued that the cuts were ideological in nature, and not based on financial necessity.[53] The government also introduced legislation permitting unionized workers to shield their dues from being donated to political parties. Doer suggested that corporate shareholders should also be allowed to opt out of party donations.[54]

Doer opposed the Filmon government's decision to privatize the Manitoba Telephone System in 1996, arguing that it would cause Manitobans to lose control over a vital part of their economy.[55] He called for a referendum, which Filmon rejected.[56] Doer nonetheless accepted the finality of the sale, telling party delegates in 1999 that buying back the service would be too expensive and carry too many risks.[57]

Doer also opposed the Filmon government's proposal to water-down the single-desk marketing powers of the Canadian Wheat Board.[58] He argued there could be no "middle-of-the-road" position on the Wheat Board, adding that continued single-desk marketing would be "in the economic interests of producers and the economic interests of Winnipeg".[59]

Some New Democrats expressed discontent with Doer's leadership in late 1997. Most notably, a group led by policy committee chairman Victor Olson issued a statement on party renewal that was generally interpreted as a challenge to his leadership.[60] This came to nothing, but there was general agreement among party members that Doer would need to win the next election to continue as party leader.[61]

1999 election[edit]

In the buildup to the 1999 provincial election, Doer unveiled a platform that called for balanced budgets, debt repayment and a freeze on taxes.[62] He again emphasized health care as a priority,[63] and said that his government would stop the practice of using public monies for politically motivated polls and advertisements.[64] He also expressed concern that the Progressive Conservatives could privatize Manitoba Hydro,[65] and criticized a provincial workfare initiative as giving too much discretionary power to government overseers.[66]

The NDP voted to support the Filmon government's 1999 budget, citing the premier's decision to increase health spending with money from a provincial "rainy day fund".[67] Doer added that, if elected, his party would replace Filmon's budgeted income tax cut with a property tax cut.[68]

The NDP entered the 1999 election in a much stronger position than in the three previous campaigns. A poll taken three years earlier had shown the NDP leading the Progressive Conservatives for the first time since the Pawley administration.[69] The Tories regained their lead by 1998, but fallout from the vote-splitting scandal gave the NDP an 8% lead in a Probe/Free Press poll issued in March 1999.[70] In this period, many began to regard the NDP as a possible government-in-waiting.[71] Later polls showed the gap between the parties narrowing to a virtual tie.[72]

Doer pledged $13 million to shorten health-care waiting times in the 1999 campaign, and said that he would work to end "hallway medicine" in overcrowded hospitals. He also pledged an additional $2 million to hire more nurses and provide incentives for rural doctors.[73] In education, he promised to cut college and university tuition fees by 10% and to invest $24 million to the province's three community colleges.[74] On election reform, he promised to ban campaign donations from corporations and unions.[75] Doer also criticized the Filmon government's handling of a contract with Urban Shared Services Corp., which attempted to save the province money by reheating food for hospitals and seniors' homes at a centralized location. The project went well over-budget, and the food was often criticized as inedible.[76]

A poll released a week before the election showed the NDP and Progressive Conservatives tied with 42% support, and the election was considered too close to call until the actual day of voting.[77] The NDP ultimately won 32 seats, against 24 for the Progressive Conservatives and only one for the Liberals. A collapse of the Liberal vote worked to the NDP's advantage.[78]

Premier[edit]

More than eleven years after declining the option, Doer was sworn in as Premier of Manitoba on October 5, 1999. He also took the position of Minister of Federal/Provincial Relations.[79]

Re-election campaigns[edit]

After governing for just under four years, Doer called a new provincial election for June 2003. He brought forward a five point re-election plan highlighted by promises to reduce property and income taxes, hire more nurses and doctors and make reductions in medical waiting lists, take a cautious approach to managing the economy, and improve the province's education and law enforcement systems. Many journalists noted similarities to the NDP's 1999 platform.[80] The NDP held a massive lead in the polls throughout the campaign, and most observers agreed that its re-election was a foregone conclusion.[81] Even the Winnipeg Free Press, not traditionally supportive of the NDP, urged voters to re-elect Doer's government.[82] The NDP won an increased majority with 49.47% support and 35 of 57 seats, and made inroads into traditionally Progressive Conservative areas of south Winnipeg.

Four years later, Doer called an election for May 2007.[83] The NDP campaign focused on Doer's personal popularity and his government's record in office.[84] The party released a seven-point re-election plan, focused on health care, the environment, education, tax cuts, public safety, money for highways, and keeping Manitoba Hydro as a public institution.[85] Doer promised to hire 700 nurses and nurse practitioners, 100 new police officers, 20 new crown prosecutors, and 20 new workplace safety inspectors. He also promised to improve Manitoba's record on vehicle emissions, provide tax credits for caregivers, and phase out the provincial small business tax over three years.[86] The NDP was again re-elected with an increased majority, this time taking 36 of 57 seats.

Prominent cabinet members[edit]

Prominent members of Doer's first cabinet included Greg Selinger in Finance, Gord Mackintosh in Justice, David Chomiak in Health and Rosann Wowchuk in Agriculture.[87] Tim Sale replaced Chomiak at Health in October 2004, and was in turn succeeded by Theresa Oswald in 2006.[88] Chomiak replaced Mackintosh at Justice in 2006.[89] Selinger remained as Finance Minister until 2009, when he succeeded Doer as Premier. Wowchuk remains in Agriculture.

Jean Friesen served as Doer's Deputy Premier in his first term. She retired in 2003, and Doer chose Rosann Wowchuk as her replacement.[90]

Financial policy[edit]

The Doer government has introduced an uninterrupted succession of balanced budgets since its first election in 1999. These budgets have generally been cautious, and have sought to balance tax concerns with spending increases. Doer's first budget, delivered in 2000, removed 15,000 low-income Manitobans from the tax rolls and introduced $150 million in tax breaks over three years while projecting a $10 million surplus.[91] His 2003 budget, the last of his first term, reduced provincial taxes by $82.7 million and increased spending by about 5%, mostly in health and education.[92]

Despite a series of economic setbacks, the government was able to post a balanced budget in 2004 through increased taxes and drug premiums as well as civil service reduction through attrition. Tobacco and liquor taxes were increased and the provincial sales tax expanded to cover more services,[93] although Doer rejected a panel recommendation to increase the sales tax by 1%.[94]

The government was able introduce a more expansive budget in 2005 after an infusion of federal revenues, reducing personal and property taxes, increasing spending by 3.5%, and putting $314 million into a "rainy day" fund.[95] Doer's 2006 and 2007 budgets introduced further tax cuts, and the 2007 budget offered increased education spending and a new child benefit to assist low-income families.[96]

At the Manitoba NDP's March 2009 convention, Doer announced that Manitoba would continue its commitment to education, training and research despite a global economic downturn and a slowing economy. He argued that the province was still recovering from the Filmon government's spending cuts during the economic downtown of the 1990s, and that his policies would allow Manitoba to emerge from the recession in a strong, competitive position.[97] His government introduced a balanced budget with economic stimulus programs a few weeks later, even as the global recession forced other provincial governments across Canada into deficit.[98]

Doer encouraged the Bank of Canada to lower its rates in late 2003, saying that the rising strength of the Canadian dollar in relation to the United States dollar was causing increased unemployment.[99] He later criticized Bank Governor David Dodge for doing nothing to save Canadian jobs and profits.[100] In early 2008, he called for a national strategy to offset the disruptions caused by Canada's soaring dollar.[101]

In 2004, provincial Auditor General Jon Singleton argued that Manitoba was actually running a deficit due to costs associated with crown corporations, utilities and arm's-length agencies that were not officially counted in the budget. He recommended that Manitoba adopt a system of Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP). Greg Selinger, Doer's Finance Minister, noted that the existing rules were set in place by the Filmon government, and indicated that the NDP had included a summary financial statement to its budget including many of the costs Singleton identified.[102] The Doer government nevertheless announced in 2005 that it would adopt GAAP.[103]

For the first seven years of his administration, Doer was assisted on financial matters by Eugene Kostyra, a cabinet minister from the Pawley government. Kostyra resigned from his position as secretary of Manitoba's Community and Economic Development Committee in late 2006,[104] and Angela Mathieson was appointed as his replacement.[105]

Health[edit]

Doer has frequently argued in favour of Canada's public health system.[106] He criticized Alberta's plan to introduce more private health provisions in 2002, and defended the public system as efficient and less expensive.[107] In the same year, he endorsed Roy Romanow's assessment that the federal government must play a stronger role in health care to prevent more encroachments by the private system.[108] At a presentation before the Romanow Commission in 2002, Doer called for the federal government to double its health care commitment.[109] Two years later, he played a significant role in negotiations that saw the federal government contribute $18 billion in new funding to the provinces over six years.[110]

The Doer government's first budget included a $135 million increase in health spending, taking total provincial spending to $2.43 billion.[111] In October 2002, the government announced a long-anticipated $100 million expansion to the Health Sciences Centre in Winnipeg, with new operating rooms and emergency departments.[112] The government was unable to end "hallway medicine" in the six-month period it had promised during the 1999 election, and faced the problem of nursing vacancies in the early 2000s.[113] Nevertheless, most observers agreed that the provincial situation improved significantly between 1999 and 2003.[114] Health spending continued to increase during Doer's second term; a report in December 2004 indicated that Manitoba's per capita health spending was the highest in Canada for the seventh continuous year.[115]

Doer emerged as a defender of Manitoba's burgeoning internet pharmaceutical industry in the mid-2000s. This industry was very popular among American clients, but nonetheless provoked opposition within both countries.[116] In 2004, Doer accused federal Health Minister Ujjal Dosanjh of capitulating to American interests by agreeing to increased restrictions on the industry.[117] He later argued that the Canadian government could protect its national drug supply and maintain Manitoba's pharmaceutical sector simply by banning bulk exports.[118]

Doer's government introduced a landmark anti-smoking bill in 2004, banning smoking in all indoor public places and workplaces across the province. Supported by all parties, the legislation was the first of its kind in Canada.[119] It did not cover Manitobans working in federal government buildings or living on First Nations territory, as these were not under provincial jurisdiction.[120]

Doer welcomed Prime Minister Paul Martin's decision to name Winnipeg as the site of Canada's new public health agency in 2004.[121]

Social policy[edit]

The Doer government passed a bill granting full adoption rights to gay and lesbian couples in 2002. The NDP and Liberals supported the bill, while the Progressive Conservatives voted against it.[122]

In 2004, the federal government announced that it would introduce legislation to permit the legalization of same-sex marriage in Canada. Federal Justice Minister Irwin Cotler initially indicated that civic officials would be allowed to opt out of performing same-sex marriages if the practice offended their beliefs. Doer criticized this, arguing that provincial employees should not be permitted to discriminate.[123] Doer initially declined to express his personal views on the subject, but announced in late 2004 that he supported same-sex marriage as a human right.[124]

In April 2005, Doer signed a $176 million deal with the federal government of Paul Martin to expand the provincial day-care sector.[125] The project was canceled in 2006 by the new Conservative government of Stephen Harper, over Doer's objections.[126]

Unlike some within the NDP, Doer is personally opposed to the decriminalization of marijuana, which he has said could result in economic difficulties with the United States.[127]

As premier, Doer encouraged several Manitoba crown corporations to donate money to the Canadian Museum for Human Rights in Winnipeg; Manitoba Public Insurance, Manitoba Hydro, Manitoba Lotteries Corporation and the Manitoba Liquor Control Commission subsequently made donations of one million dollars each. Opposition leader Hugh McFadyen and some journalists questioned Doer's involvement in the matter, arguing that he was effectively directing the corporations to make these donations.[128]

Education[edit]

Doer's government cut university tuition by 10% during its first term, and later provided universities with a property tax exemption.[129] It also amalgamated several school divisions prior to the 2002 municipal elections,[130] and began to phase out education property taxes in the same period.[131]

In 2006, the Doer government introduced a proposal for Manitoba university graduates to receive a tuition rebate of up to 60% if they chose to stay and work in the province after graduation.[132]

A 2008 Winnipeg Free Press article indicated that Manitoba and Alberta were investing more money in public education per student than all other provinces of Canada. Teachers' wages in Manitoba were also noted to be healthy in relation to the average national wage.[133]

Agriculture[edit]

Shortly after being sworn in as premier, Doer led an all-party delegation to Ottawa to seek a $1.3 billion financial bailout for western farmers to help mitigate an economic downturn in the sector. He was joined by Saskatchewan Premier Roy Romanow, Progressive Conservative MLA Larry Maguire, and Manitoba Liberal leader Jon Gerrard.[134] The federal government introduced $170 million in funding shortly thereafter, a figure that Doer and Romanow described as "heartless".[135] In February 2000, Romanow and Doer stood with Chrétien to announce their support for a compromise bailout of $400 million.[136]

Shortly after his re-election in 2003, Doer criticized the federal government for failing to respond to an agriculture crisis caused by the discovery of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy in a Canadian cow and the subsequent closure of the American border to beef products produced in Canada.[137] The federal and provincial governments subsequently agreed on a $50 million bailout to the industry.[138] The border was reopened to live cattle in December 2004.[139]

Doer strongly supports the Canadian Wheat Board's policy of single-desk marketing, and has opposed efforts by some on the political right to weaken its status.[140] In late 2006, Doer accused federal Agriculture Minister Chuck Strahl of interfering in the Wheat Board's elections.[141]

The Doer government has rejected a return to single-desk hog marketing, which was eliminated during the years of the Filmon government.[142] During its second term, the government supported plans to establish an OlyWest hog processing plant in northeast Winnipeg. This measure was extremely controversial among party members, and area NDP MLAs Daryl Reid and Bidhu Jha indicated that they opposed the measure. In response to criticism, Doer withdrew his support for OlyWest in 2007.[143] The Doer government introduced a temporary ban on new hog farms throughout most of the province in March 2008, following the release of a provincial environmental report.[144] Around the same time, Doer announced new funding for waste-water treatment plants that would allow two existing hog-processing plants to expand their operations.[145]

Doer is a vocal opponent of the American Country of Origin Labelling initiative, which would require American producers to separate meat from hogs slaughtered in Canada and increase packing and labelling cost.[146]

Justice[edit]

Doer opposed the Chrétien government's decision to implement a federal gun registry, and his government joined with other provinces to raise a constitutional challenge against the law in 2000.[147]

Doer called for the federal government to strengthen its laws against child pornography in 2002, after the Supreme Court of British Columbia ruled that John Robin Sharpe's fictional writings involving children met the legal definition of "artistic merit".[148] Doer was quoted as saying, "We believe that the rights of children should be superior rights in our country to the rights of perverts".[149] The following year, the Manitoba government unveiled a website that included photographs and profiles of high-risk sex offenders.[150]

Also in 2002, Doer argued that persons who kill police officers should spend the rest of their natural lives in jail, without access to Canada's so-called "Faint Hope Clause" for early release.[151] Three years later, he argued that the provisions of the federal Youth Criminal Justice Act were too lenient.[152] In 2007, Doer led an all-party task force to Ottawa to seek greater federal penalties for gang-related crime, youth offenses and car theft.[153]

In 2004, the Doer government increased funding for the hiring of police officers and Crown prosecutors.[154] Following increased urban violence in 2005, the province announced funding for 54 more officers.[155] The government also launched an initiative to hire seven recreational directors for inner-city Winnipeg neighbourhoods in 2008, to provide sports opportunities for youth as an alternative to crime.[156]

Doer announced the creation of an all-party task force on security following the attacks of September 11, 2001.[157] The following month, he announced that he would work with the Governors of Minnesota and North Dakota for a co-ordinated security strategy.[158]

In 2009, Doer's government introduced legislation to provide civilian oversight of Manitoba police officers. This followed an inquiry into the 2005 death of Crystal Taman, who was struck and killed by an off-duty Winnipeg police officer while waiting at a traffic stop. (The inquiry's report strongly criticized the police investigation into Taman's death.)[159]

Environment[edit]

Doer has been a strong and consistent supporter of the Kyoto Accord on climate change.[160] In February 2004, his government signed an agreement with the Chicago Climate Exchange pledging Manitoba to create a trust fund to pay for projects that reduce greenhouse gas emissions.[161] In 2007, he announced that Manitoba would pursue a plan with other provinces and states to push greenhouse gas emissions to 15% below 2005 levels by 2020.[162] The next year, Doer legislated his province's commitment to meet its targets under the Kyoto Protocol by 2012.[163]

Doer announced that Manitoba would increase ethanol production in 2002, and held consultations on a plan requiring Manitoba drivers to use ethanol-blended gasoline.[164] In October 2002, the government instructed its provincial fleet drivers to switch to ethanol fuels.[165] These plans stalled due to limited production, but were revived when a new facility was constructed in late 2005.[166]

In March 2004, the government introduced enabling legislation on water protection, allowing for the introduction of specific regulations on water protection zones, water quality standards, and related matters.[167]

Doer signed the Midwestern Regional Greenhouse Gas Reduction Accord with seven American governors in November 2007.[168] The following month, he announced that Manitoba would introduce vehicle emission standards similar to those in California.[169] In late January 2008, he agreed to a blueprint proposal with the premiers of British Columbia, Ontario and Quebec for a market-based trading system to cut greenhouse gas emissions.[170] He later became an enthusiastic supporter of North American cap and trade programs to reduce energy emissions, while at the same time criticizing the idea of a carbon tax.[171]

Doer introduced plans to eliminate coal-burning factories in his 2008 budget. The budget also included a new program for water conservation, and a $7 million fund directed toward climate change issues.[172] He also called for an independent review of the Manitoba Clean Environment Commission in 2008, arguing that the renewal process for hydroelectric projects was too long.[173]

In November 2008, Doer announced that his government would ban new logging in provincial parks and phase out existing projects. He also announced a ban on plastic shopping bags, and on the use of cellphones while driving. Parents were also forbidden to smoke when children were in the car. The opposition Progressive Conservatives indicated that it would support all of these initiatives.[174]

In late 2005, the American magazine Business Week listed Doer as one of the top twenty international leaders fighting climate change.[175][176]

Aboriginal issues[edit]

In November 1999, Doer appointed a two-person panel to advise his government on implementing the findings of the Aboriginal Justice Inquiry, which had been published eight years earlier.[177] In April 2000, Manitoba took steps to provide indigenous Manitobans with their own child and family-service agencies.[178] Doer convened a provincial summit on aboriginal commerce in November 2004.[179] He indicated that the summit was intended to showcase successful businesses, and to forge greater links between the aboriginal and non-aboriginal communities.[180]

Doer is a strong supporter of the Kelowna Accord signed in late 2005 by the federal government of Paul Martin, provincial premiers and aboriginal leaders.[181] After the Martin government was defeated in the 2006 federal election and replaced by the government of Stephen Harper, Doer criticized Harper's failure to implement the accord.[182]

In late 2008, the Doer government introduced legislation to give sixteen bands on the east shore of Lake Winnipeg greater authority over the management of their traditional lands. The bill requires that plans for development be approved by both the province and the band's chief, and extends the range of influence well beyond the area's small reserves.[183] Some chiefs in the affected area later objected to the bill on procedural grounds, arguing that they were not properly consulted.[184]

Following consultations with the Assembly of Manitoba Chiefs in 1999, the Doer government established a selection committee to oversee proposals for setting up casinos in Manitoba first nations.[185] The process subsequently became stalled, and only one of the casinos was up and running by 2003. The government subsequently appointed a panel to review the situation and recommend a change in strategy;[186] the panel argued that the province should consider creating one large casino, instead of several small on-reserve casinos.[187] A second casino was opened in 2005, while the larger issue remained unresolved as of 2007.[188]

Energy[edit]

Doer has often referred to hydroelectric power as playing a major role in Manitoba's long-term economic strategy,[189] and has advocated a national east-west power grid to export Manitoba's plentiful hydroelectric power to Ontario and other provinces in Western Canada.[190]

Doer announced Manitoba's first wind farm project in November 2004, near the community of St. Leon. This was a private-public partnership arranged between Manitoba Hydro and AirSource Power Fund.[191] It was officially started in April 2005.[192]

In September 2007, Manitoba Hydro indicated that it would construct a new transmission line to connect north and south Manitoba on the west side of Lake Winnipeg. Hydro's initial plan had been to construct the line on the east side, but Doer's government rejected this approach, arguing that it would damage pristine boreal forest territories. The local aboriginal community is divided on the issue, with some leaders supporting the government's conservation approach and others arguing that east side construction would help combat poverty in the area.[193] The Progressive Conservative Party has strongly criticized Doer's decision.[194] In April 2008, Manitoba Hydro announced a $2 billion agreement to sell surplus energy to Wisconsin once the construction is complete.[195]

Doer asked Manitoba Hydro and the Manitoba Public Utilities Board to provide an analysis of natural gas prices in July 2008, with the intent of limiting price increases during the winter. He also indicated that his government would intervene to protect consumers from high prices.[196] Finance Minister Greg Selinger later indicated that the government would provide some relief for consumers, but would not use Manitoba Hydro's profits to offset rate increases.[197]

Labour issues[edit]

The Doer government introduced a number of labour reforms early in its first mandate, making it easier for unions to obtain certification and giving employees increased powers to move disputes to binding arbitration. Business leaders opposed the changes, though Doer argued that the bill was far less contentious than opponents made it out to be.[198] In 2004, Doer rejected a call by party members to introduce legislation that would ban replacement workers in labour disputes.[199]

Doer's government increased Manitoba's minimum wage from $6.00 to $6.25 in November 2000, and brought in subsequent increases of 25 cents on an annual basis.[200] By April 2005, the minimum wage had been increased to $7.25. Some argued that this was still short of a living wage.[201] The minimum wage was increased to $8.50 in 2008.[202] In 2005, the Doer government introduced a bill to expand provincial workers' compensation coverage.[203]

The Doer government announced in late 2007 that temporary foreign workers and modeling agencies would be included under the Employment Standards Act, to prevent worker exploitation.[204]

Science and infrastructure[edit]

Doer's government introduced a biotechnology training strategy in October 2002, to address a skilled-worker shortage in the industry.[205]

In early 2003, Doer signed a $160 million deal with the federal government for expansion work on the Red River Floodway. The floodway expansion was described as the largest infrastructure project in Manitoba history,[206] and was started in late 2005.[207]

Doer took part in discussions in 2007-08 with media mogul David Asper and officials from other levels of government, regarding the location of a new stadium for the Winnipeg Blue Bombers football team. He was skeptical about Asper's initial plan for a stadium in the Polo Park region of Winnipeg, and was more supportive of an abortive plan to construct the stadium in the economically depressed area of Point Douglas.[208] Asper eventually chose site in Fort Garry, next to the University of Manitoba.[209] The deal was finalized in early 2009, with the province providing $20 million in funding; provincial officials believe that all but $1 million will be recovered before the stadium opens in 2011.[210]

In September 2008, Doer and Winnipeg Mayor Sam Katz announced $138 million for a rapid transit plan that will eventually link downtown Winnipeg with the University of Manitoba.[211] In the same month, Doer designated a piece of land in northwest Winnipeg as the site of a future inland port.[212] The area was given the name CentrePort Canada, and its first directors were chosen in December 2008.[213]

Doer announced in February 2009 that his government would spend $1 million on special training for northern Manitoba workers, following a global economic downtown that adversely affected the province's forestry and mining sectors.[214] Two months later, he joined with the federal government to announce a $40 million investment in a cold weather aerospace engine testing and research facility in Thompson.[215] In early May 2009, the federal and provincial governments announced $116 million for infrastructure renewal in rural and northern communities.[216]

Crocus Investment Fund[edit]

In early 2005, the labour-managed Crocus Investment Fund stopped trading and entered into financial protection. The Doer government was subsequently accused of having ignored signs of trouble at the fund, and of failing to protect the interests of investors.[217] The opposition Progressive Conservatives argued that the government had neglected warnings of financial impropriety, in part because of ideological links between the New Democratic Party and the labour movement. Doer rejected this charge, observing that the fund had been established by the Filmon government in conjunction with labour leaders.[218] He also rejected calls from the opposition for a formal inquiry,[219] and insisted that the province did nothing wrong in the matter.[220]

Federal-provincial relations[edit]

Doer supported the Chrétien government's Clarity Act legislation, which required that any future negotiations on provincial secession be preceded by a referendum with a clearly defined question. The act was opposed by Quebec nationalists, who regarded it as an infringement on their national sovereignty. In 2004, Doer criticized new Prime Minister Paul Martin for seeming to undermine the principles of the bill.[221] He also criticized Martin's promise to remove the "Notwithstanding Clause" from the Constitution of Canada in the 2006 federal election.[222] Doer later criticized Martin's successor, Stephen Harper, for recognizing the Québécois as a nation within Canada in late 2006. He was quoted as saying, "[t]o me, Canada is one nation, one country. I understand Quebec is unique in terms of language, culture and law, but Canada is one country."[223]

Notwithstanding this and other criticisms, a May 2008 article in the Globe and Mail newspaper described Doer as one of the few premiers to have a good working relationship with Conservative Prime Minister Stephen Harper.[224] Manitoba signed on to the federal government's Building Canada Fund in late 2008, receiving about $500 million in new infrastructure monies.[225] Following a global economic downturn in late 2008, Doer called on the federal government to invest in job creation and infrastructure funding.[226] Prime Minister Harper later said that his government would spend more on roads, bridges and other public works.[227]

According to journalist Chantal Hébert, Doer played a vital role in convincing other provincial leaders to accept Quebec Premier Jean Charest's plan to create the Council of the Federation in 2003.[228] In 2008-09, Charest and Doer helped broker an agreement among the premiers to provide for greater labour mobility within Canada.[229]

In early 2007, Doer said that Manitoba would not enter a free trade deal signed between Alberta and British Columbia. He instead called for a national trade accord.[230] Doer met with other western Canadian premiers in June 2009 to introduce a plan for the collective purchase of prescription drugs. The premiers indicated that the plan could save taxpayers millions of dollars.[231]

In late 2008, the federal Liberal and New Democratic parties announced plans to defeat the Conservatives on a motion of no confidence and create a coalition government. The plan was ultimately unsuccessful, and the Conservatives remained in power. Doer did not take a position on the coalition, and instead called for all parties in the Canadian House of Commons to work in a cooperative manner.[232]

International relations[edit]

Since his first election in 1999, Doer has been a leading opponent of a water diversion in Devils Lake, North Dakota that many regard as posing a serious environmental threat to Manitoba.[233] In 2005, the Canadian and American governments reached a non-binding compromise deal on the project that committed both sides to design an advanced filter to prevent environmental disruption.[234] Doer initially described this agreement as a significant improvement over prior arrangements,[235] but later criticized the North Dakota government for starting the water diversion before the deal was finalized.[236] In May 2009, Doer said that Manitoba would invest more than $10 million in drainage improvements if North Dakota would agree to construct a permanent filter on its Devils Lake output.[237] North Dakota Governor John Hoeven rejected the deal in the same month, arguing that the issues were separate.[238]

Doer has led several international trade delegations from Manitoba, including visits to Russia, Germany, Israel, India, China and The Philippines.[239] He also made an historic visit to Iceland in August 2001; Manitoba has a large Icelandic population, and Doer was the first Manitoba Premier to make an official visit to the country.[240] Halldór Ásgrímsson, the Prime Minister of Iceland, made a follow-up visit to Manitoba in July 2005.[241] In May 2008, Ukrainian President Viktor Yushchenko made an official visit to Manitoba and addressed the provincial legislature.[242]

Doer signed an agreement with the American state of Georgia in 2004, for increased co-operation between the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in Atlanta and the National Virology Lab in Winnipeg.[243] In the same year, he signed a memorandum of understanding with Minnesota Governor Tim Pawlenty to create a "biomedical corridor" for the promotion of research, capital investment and technology development.[244] In early 2005, Doer and New Brunswick Premier Bernard Lord traveled on a trade mission to Texas in what was described as an effort to improve relations between Canada and the United States.[245] Later in the year, Doer and Jean Charest traveled on a trade mission to Mexico.[246] In 2006, he appeared at a prominent climate change event with California Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger.[247] In June 2009, Doer took part in discussions to create a "Western Energy Corridor" to allow an easier flow of both renewable energy and fossil fuels among western American states and Canadian provinces.[248]

Doer has supported Canada's military mission in Afghanistan, despite skepticism about the purpose of the mission from the federal NDP.[249] He called for Canada to ban donations to Hezbollah's charity wing in 2002,[250] and endorsed Jean Chrétien government's decision to remain out of the U.S.-led invasion of Iraq in 2003.[251]

In 2005, Doer spoke against the American government's plans to require passports at Canadian border crossings. He argued that the new expense of travel would create a "financial Berlin Wall" for some families, and instead proposed a security protocol centred around drivers' licenses.[252] In 2007, North Dakota Governor John Hoeven announced that he was working with Doer to find an alternative approach.[253]

In 2008, Doer argued that Canada should "aggressively" defend the North American Free Trade Agreement against criticism from American Democratic Party presidential candidates.[254] He later spoke against the United States Congress's planned "Buy American" legislation during a business trip to Illinois and Texas.[255]

Doer signed an agreement in Manila in February 2008, to permit an easier flow of immigration from The Philippines to Manitoba.[256]

Legislative reform[edit]

Doer's government changed the rules of the legislature in 1999, to allow the Speaker of the Assembly to be elected by a secret ballot vote of all members. Speakers had previously been appointed by the premier.[257]

The Doer government announced election spending reforms in June 2000, which were highlighted by a ban on political donations by private corporations and organized labour.[258] This measure was opposed by the opposition Progressive Conservatives, and by the right-wing Canadian Taxpayers Federation.[259] The reforms came into effect in 2001,[260] and were extended to party leadership contests in June 2002.[261] Further restrictions were added in 2006.[262] In June 2009, Winnipeg Mayor Sam Katz spoke against Doer's plan to ban union and corporate donations from municipal elections.[263]

The Doer government introduced legislation in April 2006 to prevent MLAs from crossing the floor from one party to another. Under the terms of this legislation, MLAs who choose to leave their political party are required to sit as independents until the next election, or to resign and seek re-election for another party.[264]

Doer announced plans in early 2008 to create a lobbyist registry for Manitoba,[265] as well as introducing fixed election dates, partial public campaign financing, and restrictions on partisan direct mail flyers sent out by MLAs at public expense.[266] The plan for public campaign financing was later abandoned after public opposition.[267]

In 2009, opposition politicians and some journalists pressured Doer to call a public inquiry into a controversy involving expense claims from the 1999 provincial election. Elections Manitoba had determined that some reimbursement claims filed by the Manitoba NDP were unwarranted; in late 2003, the party agreed to repay $76,000 in an out-of-court settlement. Critics have charged a lack of transparency in the process, and have questioned why Elections Manitoba did not lay charges. At least one Winnipeg journalist has compared the matter with an expenses scandal faced by the Conservative Party of Canada following the 2006 federal election. Doer has argued that the matter is settled, and that there is no need for an inquiry.[268]

Popularity[edit]

Doer's government enjoyed an extended honeymoon with voters after the 1999 election. The NDP consistently led all other parties in public opinion polls from 1999 until 2005, often by wide margins.[269] The party's popularity dipped in late 2005, damaged somewhat by questions resulting from the failure of the Crocus Investment Fund. Polls taken in December 2005 and March 2006 showed the NDP and Progressive Conservatives tied for support.[270] In July 2006, the PCs pulled ahead of the NDP for the first time in seven years.[271] The NDP nevertheless recovered to win a convincing majority in the 2007 election, and in July 2008 held a ten-point lead over the Progressive Conservatives in popular support.[272] The PCs posted a surprise lead over the NDP in a December 2008 poll, although some local journalists questioned its accuracy.[273] By April 2009, the NDP once again held a ten-point lead.[274]

Doer was rated as Canada's most popular premier in polls taken in 2003, 2004, 2005 and 2006, scoring a 77% rating in March 2006.[275] His approval rating was 81% in March 2008, making him the second most popular Canadian premier after Danny Williams of Newfoundland and Labrador.[276]

Retirement[edit]

Doer with US President Barack Obama in 2009

On August 27, 2009 Doer announced he would not seek re-election in the 2011 election, and on August 28, 2009 he was nominated by Prime Minister Stephen Harper to succeed Michael Wilson as Canadian ambassador to the United States. He was formally sworn into that position on October 19, 2009, and on the same day Greg Selinger was sworn in as his replacement as Premier of Manitoba. Doer's former constituency assistant Matt Wiebe subsequently won the by-election to succeed Doer as MLA for Concordia on March 2, 2010.[277]

Federal politics[edit]

Doer supported a bid to draft former Manitoba Premier Edward Schreyer as a candidate in the federal New Democratic Party's 1989 leadership contest.[278] When Schreyer declined to run, Doer tried to convince Stephen Lewis and then Bob Rae to enter the contest, without success.[279] He eventually supported Audrey McLaughlin, who was elected on the fourth ballot of the party's leadership convention.[280]

Doer with NDP leader Jack Layton during the 2008 federal election.

There was speculation that Doer would seek the federal NDP leadership in 1995, after McLaughlin announced her resignation.[281] He declined, and instead gave his support to longtime friend Alexa McDonough, whom he nominated at the leadership convention.[282] McDonough was chosen as party leader following the first ballot.

Doer opposed the New Politics Initiative in 2001.[283] In 2002, he supported the leadership campaign of Bill Blaikie, whose federal Winnipeg—Transcona riding overlapped with his own provincial division.[284] Blaikie finished second against Jack Layton.

Doer has disagreed with the federal NDP on some issues. He defended CanWest Global's takeover of a part of Conrad Black's newspaper empire in 2000, even though the arrangement had been criticized by the federal party.[285] He later called for Svend Robinson to be demoted as Foreign Affairs Critic in 2002, after Robinson announced his support for the Palestinians in their conflict with Israel (official NDP policy was that both sides should seek a peace agreement). Doer was quoted as saying, "Either he represents the party as a foreign affairs critic or he's removed as foreign affairs critic. And I believe he should be removed".[286] He later expressed disappointment that Robinson was allowed to keep his critic's role, albeit with a ban against speaking on Middle East issues.[287]

Doer published a ten-point proposal for the future of the federal NDP in June 2002, calling for a focus on health and education as well as fiscal balance, community safety and election finance reform.[288]

Ideology[edit]

Doer is on the centrist wing of the New Democratic Party.[289] He once described his political ideology as follows:

I don't believe in nationalizing everything in our society, as in socialist theory. Anybody who calls himself a socialist has to believe in nationalizing almost everything. I see myself as a social democrat - mixed economy, strong role of the public sector.[6]

Doer endorsed Tony Blair's approach to leading the British Labour Party in 1997,[290] and his own 1999 election platform was frequently compared with Blair's "Third Way" of social democracy.[291] Doer has also been compared with former Premier of Saskatchewan Roy Romanow, who also governed from the centrist wing of the party. Former NDP MLA Cy Gonick wrote a critical essay about Doer in 2007, describing him as a "small-l liberal" without "a socialist bone in his body".[292]

Electoral record[edit]

Manitoba general election, 2007: Concordia
Party Candidate Votes % ±pp Expenditures
     New Democratic Party Gary Doer 3,862 69.05 -7.62 $14,144.95
     Progressive Conservative Ken Waddell 1,209 21.62 +5.51 $15,745.09
Liberal Leslie Worthington 336 6.01 -1.21 $340.30
Green Andrew Basham 186 3.33 $199.88
Total valid votes 5,593 100.00
Rejected and declined votes 28
Turnout 5,621 47.42 +0.92
Electors on the lists 11,853


Manitoba general election, 2003: Concordia
Party Candidate Votes % ±pp Expenditures
     New Democratic Party Gary Doer 4,450 76.67 +6.58 $20,354.04
     Progressive Conservative Conor Lloyd 935 16.11 -7.26 $0.00
Liberal Tanya Parks 419 7.22 +1.75 $1,033.77
Total valid votes 5,804 100.00
Rejected and declined votes 38
Turnout 5,842 46.50 -17.76
Electors on the lists 12,564


Manitoba general election, 1999: Concordia
Party Candidate Votes % ±pp Expenditures
     New Democratic Party Gary Doer 5,691 70.09 $13,477.00
     Progressive Conservative Paul Murphy 1,898 23.37 $21,285.31
Liberal Chris Hlady 444 5.47 $193.61
Green C. David Nickarz 87 1.07 $25.00
Total valid votes 8,120 100.00
Rejected and declined votes 48
Turnout 8,168 64.26
Electors on the lists 12,711


Manitoba general election, 1995: Concordia
Party Candidate Votes % ±pp Expenditures
     New Democratic Party Gary Doer 4,827 63.58 +5.41 $17,879.00
     Progressive Conservative Paul Murphy 1,845 24.30 -0.26 $13,105.33
Liberal Bret Dobbin 816 10.75 -2.68 $11,467.33
     Libertarian Guy Beaudry 104 1.37 -0.34 $477.96
Total valid votes 7,592 100.00
Rejected and declined votes 30
Turnout 7,622 66.82 -1.56
Electors on the lists 11,406


Manitoba general election, 1990: Concordia
Party Candidate Votes %
New Democratic Gary Doer 4,588 58.17
Progressive Conservative Vic Rubiletz 1,937 24.56
Liberal Gunter Grosskamper 1,059 13.43
Western Independence Fred Cameron 168 2.13
Libertarian Guy Beaudry 135 1.71
Total valid votes 7,887 100.00
Rejected votes 12
Turnout 7,899 68.38
Electors on the lists 11,551


Manitoba general election, 1988: Concordia
Party Candidate Votes % ±pp
New Democratic Gary Doer 3,702 37.71 -16.66
Liberal Barbara Blomeley 2,948 30.03 +19.11
Progressive Conservative Vic Rubiletz 2,634 26.83 -5.42
Independent Bill Seman 358 3.65
Western Independence Fred Cameron 114 1.16 -1.29
Progressive Charles Henry 61 0.62
Total valid votes 9,817 100.00
Rejected votes 10
Turnout 9,827 76.43 -10.21
Electors on the lists 12,857


Manitoba general election, 1986: Concordia
Party Candidate Votes % ±pp
     New Democratic Party Gary Doer 4,525 54.37 -6.54
     Progressive Conservative Brent Aubertin 2,684 32.25 +2.71
Liberal Gail Stapon 909 10.92 +7.39
     Western Canada Concept Fred Cameron 204 2.45
Total valid votes 8,322 100.00
Rejected votes 13
Turnout 8,335 66.22 -3.44
Electors on the lists 12,587

All electoral information is taken from Elections Manitoba. Expenditures refer to candidate election expenses.

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ Doer's full title is Premier of Manitoba, President of the Executive Council of Manitoba, and Minister of Federal/Provincial Relations.
  2. ^ Clayton Manness was styled as Minister charged with the administration of The Crown Corporations Public Review and Accountability Act.
  3. ^ "Profile: Gary Doer", Winnipeg Free Press, 17 April 1995.
  4. ^ Geoffrey York, "New leader of Manitoba NDP rose through union movement", Globe and Mail, 31 March 1988, A4. For the date of Doer's departure from university, see David Roberts, "Doer practices for last kick at the political can", Globe and Mail, 3 April 1995, A4.
  5. ^ "National union of civil workers acclaims head", Globe and Mail, 4 April 1979, P2.
  6. ^ a b Geoffrey York, "New leader of Manitoba NDP rose through union movement", Globe and Mail, 31 March 1988, A4.
  7. ^ "The Manitoba Government and the union representing about 12,000 civil servants ...", Globe and Mail, 16 February 1983, P8; "Manitoba workers opt for job security", Globe and Mail, 24 February 1983, P13.
  8. ^ Brian Cole, "Antagonism to McDermott voiced by Doer", Winnipeg Free Press, 22 October 1983.
  9. ^ Alison Mayes, "The province is his office", Winnipeg Free Press, 20 May 2007, B3.
  10. ^ Richard Cleroux and Geoffrey York, "Doer favored to win Manitoba NDP leadership race", Globe and Mail, 15 March 1988, a4.
  11. ^ Geoffrey York, "Filmon describes rival as a 'slick individual'", Globe and Mail, 16 March 1988, A4.
  12. ^ Jordan Timm, "The Gary Doer phenomenon", Macleans, 24 May 2007, accessed 18 August 2007.
  13. ^ "RCMP probes latest scandal in Manitoba telephone firm", Toronto Star, 15 December 1986, A18; Janet McFarland, "Chance meetings spark merger", Globe and Mail, 19 March 2004, B4. Outgoing MTS minister Al Mackling had previously commented that Doer would make a good replacement. See Ritchie Page, "Five top officials ousted over Manitoba telephone fiasco", Globe and Mail, 22 November 1986, A4.
  14. ^ Derek Ferguson, "Ex-rebel seems likely to succeed Pawley", Toronto Star, 29 March 1988, A24.
  15. ^ He was also named to chair a new committee of cabinet called the Crown Reform Committee. See Geoffrey York, "Pawley hauls in reins on Crown companies after MTX write-off", Globe and Mail, 6 February 1987, A3.
  16. ^ Geoffrey York, "Life sweet again for Pawley as NDP widens lead in polls", Globe and Mail, 17 March 1987, A9.
  17. ^ Ross Howard, "'Courageous' move called best hope", Globe and Mail, 10 March 1988, A1.
  18. ^ Geoffrey York, "Senior ministers back Doer's leadership bid in New Democrat race", Globe and Mail, 26 March 1988, A8; Geoffrey York, "NDP delegates pick leader tomorrow", Globe and Mail, 29 March 1988, A4.
  19. ^ "Ex-rebel seems likely to succeed Pawley."
  20. ^ "Attack on Meech pact given warm welcome", Globe and Mail, 29 March 1988, A4; Richard Cleroux and Geoffrey York, "Doer favored to win Manitoba NDP leadership race", Globe and Mail, 15 March 1988, A4.
  21. ^ Geoffrey York, "Doer captures NDP helm in tight Manitoba race", Globe and Mail, 31 March 1988, A1.
  22. ^ Geoffrey York, "Pawley to stay until Manitoba election", Globe and Mail, 1 April 1988, A3. The rules of succession were unclear in this situation. It is possible that Doer could have been sworn in as premier, but he accepted Howard Pawley's decision to remain as a caretaker premier until the election.
  23. ^ Tim Harper, "Manitoba parties stagger to the starting line", Toronto Star, 13 March 1988, B1; Geoffrey York, "Manitoba NDP in uphill battle", Globe and Mail, 26 March 1988, D1; Richard Cleroux and Geoffrey York, "NDP's 12 seats might have been 0, official admits", Globe and Mail, 28 April 1988, A19; Richard Cleroux, "Party bounced from office to third place", Globe and Mail, 29 April 1988, A8. The party was also $1 million in debt. See Doug Nairne, "Doer Die", Winnipeg Free Press, 24 January 1999, A1.
  24. ^ Doer himself later acknowledged that he was not yet ready for the take a position of leadership. Daniel Lett, "Opposition leader knows he has to win this time", Winnipeg Free Press, 11 September 1999, A17.
  25. ^ Geoffrey York, "Party still running a poor third in popularity", Globe and Mail, 8 April 1988, A4.
  26. ^ Derek Ferguson, "Tough fighting starts now in Manitoba election race", Toronto Star, 4 April 1988, A16; Geoffrey York, "New Manitoba NDP leader promises tax cut if returned", Globe and Mail, 5 April 1988, A4.
  27. ^ Geoffrey York, "Tories pledge additional tax cuts", Globe and Mail, 8 April 1988, A4.
  28. ^ Geoffrey York, "Manitoba's NDP will permit Tories to assume power", Globe and Mail, 28 April 1988, A1.
  29. ^ Geoffrey York, "NDP critical, but won't kill Manitoba Tories' budget", Globe and Mail, 18 August 1988, A4; "Doer goes against non-confidence vote", Globe and Mail, 25 May 1989, A13; "Manitoba NDP foils Liberal bid to force election", Toronto Star, 25 May 1989, A15; Geoffrey York, "NDP cites tax breaks, backs Manitoba budget", Globe and Mail, 8 June 1989, A14.
  30. ^ Thomas Walkom, "The man in the driver's seat", Globe and Mail, 27 February 1989, A7.
  31. ^ Geoffrey York, "Amendments demanded Will kill Meech Lake, Manitoba NDP warns", Globe and Mail, 24 November 1988, A1.
  32. ^ Edison Stewart, "Meech Lake pact's future: Manitobans have their say", Toronto Star, 6 April 1989, A30; Edison Stewart, "Meech Lake pact suffers a major setback", Toronto Star, 23 October 1989, A1. Doer also participated in a federal New Democratic Party internal review of its position on the accord. See Ross Howard, "NDP support for Meech accord should stay, review concludes", Globe and Mail, 13 September 1989, A14; Ross Howard, "NDP still split on constitutional accord", Globe and Mail, 14 September 1989, A14.
  33. ^ Tim Harper, "Manitoba leaders back plan", Toronto Star, 9 June 1990, A8; Tim Harper, "Manitoba troika say they'll pass accord in time", Toronto Star, 10 June 1990, A14.
  34. ^ Geoffrey York, "Native MLA blocks debate on Meech", Globe and Mail, 13 June 1990, A1.
  35. ^ Geoffrey York, "Harper deals crushing blow to Meech deal", Globe and Mail, 23 June 1990, A6.
  36. ^ "Manitoba Liberals vow to back research", Globe and Mail, 21 August 1990, A7; David Roberts, "Filmon plan nasty, NDP says", Globe and Mail, 18 August 1990, A3.
  37. ^ "Mr. Filmon, and weaker options" [editorial], Globe and Mail, 10 September 1990, A12.
  38. ^ David Roberts, "Manitoba Premier calls general election", Globe and Mail, 8 August 1990, A2.
  39. ^ David Roberts and Miro Cernetig, "Filmon's Tories win narrow majority", Globe and Mail, 12 September 1990, A1. Doer took an aggressive approach in a televised party leaders' debate and sought to link Filmon with Mulroney's increasingly unpopular federal government, highlighting the premier's support for the federal Progressive Conservatives in the 1988 federal election. See David Roberts, "Gloves come off in Manitoba race", Globe and Mail, 31 August 1990, A4; David Roberts, "3 Manitoba party leaders to debate aboriginal issues", Globe and Mail, 4 September 1990, A3.
  40. ^ Paul Samyn, "NDP itching to hit hustings", Winnipeg Free Press, 14 November 1994.
  41. ^ David Roberts, "Manitoba slashes 1,000 jobs, Budget pleases business leaders", Globe and Mail, 17 April 1991, A6; "Tories slash spending on provincial highways", Winnipeg Free Press, 16 March 1993.
  42. ^ "Tories pull plug on agencies", Winnipeg Free Press, 16 March 1993. Doer also called for Ontario's $13 billion hydro purchase from Manitoba to be renegotiated in 1992, following reports that the Ontario Hydro Board was considering delaying the deal, and in light of the fact that environmental-assessment research was running behind schedule. See David Roberts, "Manitoba NDP leader wants hydro deal delayed", Globe and Mail, 22 September 1992, A4.
  43. ^ "'No' will doom Canada, PM warns", Financial Post, 29 September 1992, p. 6.
  44. ^ Frances Russell, "Hot times under the Dome", Winnipeg Free Press, 1 December 1994.
  45. ^ "Doer has prescription for community health", Winnipeg Free Press, 24 March 1995.
  46. ^ Alice Krueger, "Doer targets drug costs", Winnipeg Free Press, 4 April 1995.
  47. ^ Alice Krueger, "New role favored in care", Winnipeg Free Press, 11 April 1995.
  48. ^ Alice Krueger, "Doer sets spending priorities", Winnipeg Free Press, 24 March 1995.
  49. ^ "If election was held yesterday", Winnipeg Free Press, 23 March 1995. Some questioned this poll's accuracy. See David Roberts, "Doer practices for last kick at the political can", Globe and Mail, 3 April 1995, A4.
  50. ^ Frances Russell, "Health issues push NDP past Liberals", Winnipeg Free Press, 19 April 1995. The poll showed the Progressive Conservatives at 40%, the NDP at 33%, and the Liberals at 27%.
  51. ^ Alice Krueger, "'Dirty' politics alleged", Winnipeg Free Press, 23 April 1995.
  52. ^ David Kuxhaus, "Who bankrolled native candidate in '95 campaign?", Winnipeg Free Press, 24 June 1998, A1; David Kuxhaus, "PCs yield, call vote inquiry", Winnipeg Free Press, 26 June 1998, A1; David Kuxhaus, "Vote charge haunts Tories NDP demands probe", Winnipeg Free Press, 23 June 1998, A1.
  53. ^ Dan Lett, "Social program cuts unnecessary: critics", Winnipeg Free Press, 3 April 1996, A3.
  54. ^ Alice Krueger, "Union workers can say no", Winnipeg Free Press, 13 April 1996, A4.
  55. ^ Paul Samyn, "MTS sale rings alarm", Winnipeg Free Press, 1 November 1996, B4. A poll in November 2006 showed that 67% of Manitobans opposed the sale, including 78% of rural Manitobans. See David Roberts, "Opposition keeps bill to sell Manitoba Telephone on hold", Winnipeg Free Press, 13 November 1996, A5.
  56. ^ Frances Russell, "PCs caught in paradox", Winnipeg Free Press, 13 November 1996, A10.
  57. ^ David Kuxhaus, "Bid to buy back MTS dead: Doer", Winnipeg Free Press, 28 February 1999, A3.
  58. ^ Paul Samyn, "Tories hang up on MTS", Winnipeg Free Press, 3 May 1996, A1; Paul Samyn, "NDP demands Tories back wheat board", Winnipeg Free Press, 19 September 1996, B8.
  59. ^ Paul Samyn, "Filmon straddles fence in wheat board showdown", Winnipeg Free Press, 24 September 1996, A1.
  60. ^ Frances Russell, "NDP gets knives out for Doer", Winnipeg Free Press, 3 October 1997, A8; Frances Russell, <untitled editorial>, Winnipeg Free Press, 8 October 1997, A10; Alice Krueger, "Discontent rumbling in NDP", Winnipeg Free Press, 5 November 1997, A1; "Doer may have to fight off dissidents as party meets", Winnipeg Free Press, 15 November 1997, A4.
  61. ^ Dan Lett, "Doer closes in on the do-it stage", Winnipeg Free Press, 16 November 1997, A4: "Doer continues as NDP boss", Toronto Star, 17 November 1997, p. 1. There was an abortive challenge to Doer's leadership at the party's 1997 convention. Party activist Eduard Hiebert was unable to get the fifty signatures required for a leadership review. See Alice Krueger, "Doer quest goes on", Winnipeg Free Press, 17 November 1997, A3.
  62. ^ Frances Russell, "NDP tries out a new tune", Winnipeg Free Press, 18 December 1998, A14; Brian Cole, "Doer's Democrats", Winnipeg Free Press, 22 December 1998, A10.
  63. ^ David Kuxhaus, "Fears about health system spreading, survey finds", Winnipeg Free Press, 22 December 1998, A4.
  64. ^ "NDP doesn't want taxes used to fund political ads", Winnipeg Free Press, 27 March 1999, A9.
  65. ^ Frances Russell, "Hydro sparks to fly in election", Winnipeg Free Press, 8 March 1999, A10.
  66. ^ Douglas Nairne, "Workfare framework set as legislature passes bill", Winnipeg Free Press, 15 July 1999, 10.
  67. ^ David Kuxhaus, "NDP backs Tory budget", Winnipeg Free Press, 11 May 1999, A5.
  68. ^ Frances Russell, "Doer crosses his fingers", Winnipeg Free Press, 12 May 1999, A14.
  69. ^ Paul Samyn, "NDP tops Tories in poll", Winnipeg Free Press, 30 March 1996, A5.
  70. ^ There were several provincial polls released between 1996 and 1999. A poll issued in February 1997 indicated that the NDP had fallen to third place. Doer dismissed this as meaningless, citing the poll's small sample size of one hundred people and its large margin of error. See Frances Russell, "Feuding NDP trail Tories, Grits: poll", Winnipeg Free Press, 25 February 1997, A4. In a December 1997 Free Press/Probe Research Inc. poll, the Progressive Conservatives had 36%, the NDP 35%, the Liberals 20%. The Reform Party was at 7%; this party did not have an official provincial wing, but some party members had unofficially fielded a candidate in 1997 by-election. A January 1998 poll, from Angus Reid, showed the PCs and NDP tied at 36% with the Liberals at 28%. See Doug Nairne, "Manitobans flee Liberals, poll suggests", Winnipeg Free Press, 23 December 1997, A1; Alice Krueger, "Tories, NDP tied in provincial poll", Winnipeg Free Press, 22 January 1998, A7; Frances Russell, "PCs show wear and tear", Winnipeg Free Press, 23 January 1998, A10. Another Angus Reid poll in March 1998 showed the Progressive Conservatives with 38%, the NDP with 28%, and the Liberals with 23%. Doer suggested the latter poll was inconsistent with internal surveys. See Stevens Wild, "Provincial leaders scoff at poll showing large Tory lead", Winnipeg Free Press, 21 March 1998, A3. A Free Press/Probe Research Inc. poll in March 1998 showed the NDP and Progressive Conservatives at 35% and the Liberals at 26%. In December 1998, a Free Press/Probe Research poll showed the Progressive Conservatives with 38% and the NDP with 35%. See David Kuxhaus, "Filmon's Tories take a licking, but they keep on ticking", Winnipeg Free Press, 21 December 1998, A1. For the March 1999 poll, see Brian Cole, "Poll results rub Tories raw", Winnipeg Free Press, 20 March 1999, A14.
  71. ^ Frances Russell, "Harsh new light on PCs", Winnipeg Free Press, 22 March 1989, A10; Brian Cole, "The same old dress", Winnipeg Free Press, 21 March 1989, B4; Paul Sullivan, "Gary Doer's star shines bright in Manitoba", Globe and Mail, 3 April 1999, D2; David Roberts, "It will be close, Filmon says of next election; Manitoba Premier admits the rival NDP has a chance to form the government", Globe and Mail, 11 May 1999, A4.
  72. ^ David Roberts, "Tories, NDP race neck and neck toward Manitoba's election day", Globe and Mail, 4 September 1999, A5; Doug Nairne, "Manitoba race gets serious as parties enter home stretch", Winnipeg Free Press, 7 September 1999, A7.
  73. ^ David Kuxhaus, "Doer touts $15-M plan to repair health care", Winnipeg Free Press, 20 August 1999, A1.
  74. ^ David Kuxhaus, "NDP to boost college funding", Winnipeg Free Press, 28 August 1999, A1.
  75. ^ Daniel Lett, "End big campaign donations, Doer says", Winnipeg Free Press, 11 September 1999, A10.
  76. ^ Scott Edmonds, "Front-runners in Manitoba vote focus on health care, tax cuts", Globe and Mail, 26 August 1999, A6.
  77. ^ Doug Nairne, "Manitoba poll shows NDP and Tories in dead heat", Globe and Mail, 17 September 1999, A1.
  78. ^ Douglas Nairne, "Doer to gain from Liberals' pain", Winnipeg Free Press, 17 September 1999, A1; Douglas Nairne, "It's Premier Doer! Collapse of Liberal vote swings province to NDP", Winnipeg Free Press, 22 September 1999, A1.
  79. ^ David Roberts, "Doer takes the stage as Manitoba's new Premier", Globe and Mail, 6 October 1999, A1.
  80. ^ Daniel Lett, "Doer touts 5-point plan", Winnipeg Free Press, 6 May 2003, A1; "NDP: Day 4", Winnipeg Free Press, 6 May 2003, A4; Daniel Lett, "NDP taking aim at nurse shortage", Winnipeg Free Press, 7 May 2003, A4; Daniel Lett, "Doer promises to unveil new property tax plan", Winnipeg Free Press, 12 May 2003, A5; Scott Edmonds, "NDP unwraps tax cut plans as Manitoba election campaign almost at mid point", Canadian Press, 16 May 2003, 16:35; Mia Rabson, "Doer promises additional police, Crown attorneys", Winnipeg Free Press, 21 May 2003, A6.
  81. ^ For instance Thomas Walkom, "In moody Manitoba, election is far from mind", Toronto Star, 17 May 2003, H1; Scott Edmonds, "NDP shows commanding lead in Manitoba election campaign, says poll", Canadian Press, 23 May 2003, 16:10; Peter Schroedter, "Political fans left without team to cheer", Winnipeg Free Press, 24 May 2003, A17; John Dafoe, "Bland diet for Manitoba voters", Winnipeg Free Press, 27 May 2003, A12; Daniel Lett, "NDP heads for landslide", Winnipeg Free Press, 29 May 2003, A1; Scott Edmonds, "Second poll shows Manitoba's N-D-P heading for huge election win", Canadian Press, 29 May 2003, 17:44.
  82. ^ "Re-elect Mr. Doer" [editorial], Winnipeg Free Press, 31 May 2003, A16.
  83. ^ Joe Friesen, "Manitoba heads to the polls", Globe and Mail, 21 April 2007, A6. The election call took place on the same day that Doer stood with Prime Minister Stephen Harper to announce new funding for the Canadian Museum for Human Rights. See Mary Agnes Welch, "Izzy Asper's dream lives", Winnipeg Free Press, 21 April 2007, B1; Mia Rabson, "Doer's timing as good as it gets", Winnipeg Free Press, 22 April 2007, A5.
  84. ^ Steve Lambert, "Manitoba's Doer seeks third straight majority", Calgary Herald, 21 April 2007, A15.
  85. ^ Mia Rabson, "700 new nurses pledged", Winnipeg Free Press, 24 April 2007, A5.
  86. ^ "Manitoba NDP promises to hire 700 new nurses and nurse practitioners if re-elected", Canadian Press, 23 April 2007, 11:05; Mia Rabson, "NDP pledges more police, prosecutors to tackle crime", Winnipeg Free Press, 26 April 2007, A4; Mia Rabson, "Doer pounds on job safety", Winnipeg Free Press, 28 April 2007, A7; Mia Rabson, "Doer's drive to clear the air", Winnipeg Free Press, 23 April 2007, A1; Mary Agnes Welch, "NDP offers caregiver $1,020 tax credit", Winnipeg Free Press, 7 May 2007, A5; Mary Agnes Welch, "Small business tax to go, Doer says", Winnipeg Free Press, 11 May 2007, A4. The Winnipeg Free Press again supported Doer. See Bob Cox, "Editorial - Tipping to Mr. Doer", Winnipeg Free Press, 19 May 2007, A16.
  87. ^ David Roberts, "Doer takes the stage as Manitoba's new Premier: Five women, two natives included in streamlined 15-member cabinet", Globe and Mail, 6 October 1999, A2; Scott Edmonds, "Doer cabinet parties in Manitoba --- Rookies, veterans hit theatre's stage for swearing-in", Toronto Star, 6 October 1999, 1.
  88. ^ "Doer shuffles cabinet, changes Health Minister", Globe and Mail, 13 October 2004, A12.
  89. ^ Joe Friesen, "Doer unveils his pre-election cabinet shuffle", Globe and Mail, 22 September 2006, A8.
  90. ^ David Kuxhaus, "Doer names Wowchuk deputy premier", Winnipeg Free Pres, 7 June 2003, A3.
  91. ^ David Roberts, "Manitoba raises health-care spending", Globe and Mail, 11 May 2000, A2. The actual surplus for 2000-01 was $26 million. See David Roberts, "Manitoba budget promises more spending, faster tax cuts", Globe and Mail, 11 April 2001, A7. His second budget, in 2001, pursued a consciously middle-of-the-road path by increasing government spending on education, health and infrastructure, while also bringing forward tax cuts for corporations and individuals. See David Roberts, "Manitoba budget promises more spending, faster tax cuts", Globe and Mail, 11 April 2001, A7; Helen Fallding, "NDP plays it safe", Winnipeg Free Press, 11 April 2001, A1. The 2002 budget made use of $288 million from Manitoba Hydro over a period of three years, and increased taxes on cigarettes on maintain a balanced budget. See "Smokers suffer big tax hit to keep Manitoba in black", Kitchener-Waterloo Record, 23 April 2002, A5; David Kuxhaus, "Tapping Hydro profits best approach, NDP says", Winnipeg Free Press, 24 April 2002, A13. Doer defended the Hydro decision as a bold move that allowed the province to balance its budget without dipping into the Fiscal Stabilization Fund. See "Manitoba legislature wraps up lengthy spring session", Canadian Press, 9 August 2002, 12:25.
  92. ^ Daniel Lett, "Spending up, taxes down", Winnipeg Free Press, 23 April 2003, A1; Frances Russell, "NDP does just enough to survive", Winnipeg Free Press, 25 April 2003, A14. Manitoba later announced that it would post a deficit for the fiscal year ending in 2003, using a clause in the province's balanced-budget legislation that permits deficit spending to cover emergency expenses. Greg Selinger, Doer's finance minister, cited the damage caused to Manitoba's economy by forest fires, drought and Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (mad cow disease). See Mia Rabson, "Provincial government faces deficit", Winnipeg Free Press, 27 March 2004, A3.
  93. ^ Michelle Macafee, "Manitoba increases taxes, drug premiums to balance 2004-05 budget", Canadian Press, 19 April 2004, 17:45.
  94. ^ Leah Janzen, "Doer rejects tax plan", Winnipeg Free Press, 5 May 2004, A1.
  95. ^ Mia Rabson, "Doer's bonanza budget", Winnipeg Free Press, 9 March 2005, A1.
  96. ^ Steve Lambert, "Manitoba government plans small tax cuts and new law on drug-addicted kids", Canadian Press, 5 March 2006, 11:11; Steve Lambert, "Tax cuts, new spending promised", Globe and Mail, 5 April 2007, A10.
  97. ^ Steve Lambert, "Recession requires more, not less, social spending: Doer, Layton", Canadian Press, 7 March 2009, 04:52pm.
  98. ^ Doer accessed the province's "rainy day fund", and committed less money than in past years to paying down the province's debt. See Bruce Owen, "Manitoba tables balanced budget in face of recession", Winnipeg Free Press, 25 March 2009, Canwest News Service; "Manitoba announces surplus budget", National Post, 26 March 2009, A4.
  99. ^ Marian Stinson and Heather Scoffield, "Bank faces pressure to trim rates; But most experts expect no cut", Globe and Mail, 15 October 2003, B1.
  100. ^ Daniel Lett, "Doer lashes Dodge on buck", Winnipeg Free Press, 4 November 2003, A1.
  101. ^ Mia Rabson, "Doer urges joint effort on loonie Ottawa, provinces must work together", Winnipeg Free Press, 8 January 2008, A4.
  102. ^ Daniel Lett, "Auditor general urges changes to budget legislation", Winnipeg Free Press, 9 January 2004, B4.
  103. ^ Mia Rabson, "Manitoba's rosy finances questioned", Winnipeg Free Press, 10 September 2005, A6.
  104. ^ Paul Samyn, "Key Doer aide Kostyra heads for retirement", Winnipeg Free Press, 26 July 2006, B4.
  105. ^ Martin Cash, "Premier names his replacement for Kostyra", Winnipeg Free Press, 23 August 2006, A5.
  106. ^ For instance, at the NDP's 2000 annual meeting, he said that Manitoba would lead a national charge to prevent the erosion of medicare. See Douglas Nairne, "NDP delegates vow to lead charge against any erosion of medicare", Winnipeg Free Press, 5 March 2000, A4.
  107. ^ "Manitoba's health facts", Winnipeg Free Press, 21 January 2002, A10; Helen Fallding, "Public care is cheaper: Doer", Winnipeg Free Press, 25 January 2002, A1.
  108. ^ "Medicare sickness not fatal: Romanow", Winnipeg Free Press, 7 February 2002, B1.
  109. ^ Thomas Walkom, "Romanow gets earful on medicare reform", Toronto Star, 7 March 2002, A6. Doer later argued for Canada's publicly funding medical system at a 2003 meeting of federal and provincial first ministers. The meeting resulted in a significant infusion of new money from the federal government, although not as much as the Romanow commission on health care had recommended. See Daniel Lett, "In the health-care debate, 'accountability' means cash", Winnipeg Free Press, 23 January 2003, A6; Dennis Bueckert, "Federal proposal could change agenda of premiers' health-care meeting", Canadian Press, 23 January 2003, 03:06; Tim Harper and Les Whittington, "Premiers complain cash doesn't match Romanow findings", Toronto Star, 6 February 2003, A1. He later indicated that he was disappointed with the level of health funding included in the Paul Martin government's first federal budget in 2004. See "'Unacceptable': Premiers disappointed by lack of new money for health care", National Post, 24 March 2004, A6.
  110. ^ Tonda MacCharles and Mary Gordon, "Tough talk did the trick", National Post, 16 September 2004, A1; Paul Samyn, "Health talks proved Doer an emerging political giant", Winnipeg Free Press, 19 September 2004, B3.
  111. ^ David Roberts, "Manitoba raises health-care spending", Globe and Mail, 11 May 2000, A2.
  112. ^ "Manitoba's largest hospital gets new operating rooms and emergency department", Canadian Press, 10 October 2002, 13:40.
  113. ^ Mia Rabson, "NDP still has health-care vows to keep", Winnipeg Free Press, 21 September 2002, A13.
  114. ^ Daniel Lett, "NDP has hallway medicine down but not out", Winnipeg Free Press, 4 May 2003, A4. A Winnipeg Free Press article in 2007 argued that "hallway medicine" may be properly applied in some circumstances, as a means of monitoring patients who don't necessarily need to be admitted to hospital. See Daniel Lett, "Successful politicians survive the Big Lie", Winnipeg Free Press, 11 September 2007, A4.
  115. ^ Mia Rabson, "Manitoba tops nation in health spending", Winnipeg Free Press, 9 December 2004, A12.
  116. ^ Steve Lambert, "Canada's Internet drug industry gets thumbs-up from Minnesota governor", Canadian Press, 12 November 2003, 17:13.
  117. ^ Paul Samyn, "Doer slams health czar", Winnipeg Free Press, 17 December 2004, A1; Graeme Smith, "Doer fights crackdown on Internet pharmacies", Globe and Mail, 11 January 2005, A10.
  118. ^ Mia Rabson, "Ban bulk drug exports to save jobs: premier", Winnipeg Free Press, 1 February 2005, A3.
  119. ^ Mia Rabson, "Smoking ban 'historic'", Winnipeg Free Press, 3 March 2004, A1; Mia Rabson, "Health issues trump business complaints", Winnipeg Free Press, 19 November 2004, A10.
  120. ^ Leah Janzen, "Smoke-ban loophole under fire", Winnipeg Free Press, 4 March 2004, A3; "One law for Manitobans" [editorial], Globe and Mail, 16 August 2006, A16.
  121. ^ Mary Gordon, "Winnipeg wins health agency HQ", Toronto Star, 18 May 2004, A12.
  122. ^ "Bill gives same-sex couples the right to adopt children", Guelph Mercury, 2 August 2002, A6.
  123. ^ Campbell Clark, "Prairie officials compelled to perform gay marriages", Globe and Mail, 18 December 2004, A5.
  124. ^ "Manitoba premier says same-sex marriage a right", Kitchener-Waterloo Record, 29 December 2004, A3.
  125. ^ "'Historic' accord to boost day care", Winnipeg Free Press, 30 April 2005, A1.
  126. ^ Philip Authier, "Premiers talk tough over cuts: Billions lost for child care", Montreal Gazette, 25 February 2006, A4; Nicholas Read, "Stay-at-home parents will be the biggest beneficiaries of the new federal plan", Vancouver Sun, 3 May 2006, A4.
  127. ^ "Premier no fan of pot motion", Winnipeg Free Press, 4 February 2007, A4.
  128. ^ Tamara King, "Doer government grilled on Crown donations to Canadian Museum for Human Rights", Canadian Press, 28 April 2008, 6:52pm; Daniel Lett, "Do you think donations pass the `smell test'?", Winnipeg Free Press, 29 April 2008, A3.
  129. ^ Helen Fallding, "NDP will try to minimize budget pain", Winnipeg Free Press, 21 January 2002, A9.
  130. ^ Nick Martin, "New divisions not drawn up, Doer gov't says", Winnipeg Free Press, 7 July 2000, A6.
  131. ^ Helen Fallding, "Education tax phase-out in spring likely", Winnipeg Free Press, 12 October 2001, A3.
  132. ^ Paul Samyn, "Major tuition rebate in works", Winnipeg Free Press, 14 November 2006, A7; Mia Rabson, "Tuition rebates will be as high as 60 per cent", Winnipeg Free Press, 16 November 2006, A7.
  133. ^ Nicholas Hurst, "Education spending works for Doer's NDP", Winnipeg Free Press, 31 July 2008, A11.
  134. ^ David Kuxhaus, "Prairie politicians band together to plead farmers' case", Winnipeg Free Press, 21 October 1999, A3; Paul Adams, "Romanow, Doer want $1.3-billion in farm aid", Globe and Mail, 28 October 1999, A8.
  135. ^ Valerie Lawton, "Farmers get $170 million more in aid", Toronto Star, 5 November 1999, 1; Mathew Ingram, "Farm bailouts are no real answer", Globe and Mail, 5 November 1999, B2.
  136. ^ Brian Laghi and David Roberts, "One-time cash payout to help prairie farmers with spring crop", Globe and Mail, 25 February 2000, A4; Paul Samyn, "Help on way for cash-poor grain farmers", Winnipeg Free Press, 25 February 2000, A3. Doer called for an additional $500 million bailout for grain and oilseed farmers in 2001. See Helen Fallding, "Doer finds little support for farm aid", Winnipeg Free Press, 1 June 2001, A3. In 2002, Doer joined with Lorne Calvert, Romanow's successor as Premier of Saskatchewan, to call for the federal government to oppose an American farm subsidy bill that threatened the ability of Canadian farmers to access the American market. See Paul Samyn, "Provinces unite to fightfarm bill", Winnipeg Free Press, 8 May 2002, A13; Mia Rabson, "Leaders to discuss U.S. farm subsidies", Winnipeg Free Press, 9 May 2002, A3; David Kuxhaus, "Wowchuk warns farm bill designed to reap U.S. votes", Winnipeg Free Press, 10 May 2002, A5. He criticized another federal farm bailout plan later in the year, arguing that it put too much economic pressure on the provincial governments. See Paul Samyn, "`It's half a loaf'", Winnipeg Free Press, 21 June 2002, B1.
  137. ^ Daniel Lett, "Liberals fiddling while economy dives: Doer", Winnipeg Free Press, 10 June 2003, A5.
  138. ^ Daniel Lett, "Manitoba farmers to get $50M in aid", Winnipeg Free Press, 18 September 2003, A1.
  139. ^ Mia Rabson, "Border reopens to live cattle", Winnipeg Free Press, 30 December 2004, A1.
  140. ^ Mia Rabson, "Doer issues challenge over wheat board", Winnipeg Free Press, 7 January 2006, A12.
  141. ^ Paul Samyn and Mia Rabson, "Doer, directors cast Strahl as a bully", Winnipeg Free Press, 17 November 2006, A10. In the same period, Doer and Saskatchewan Premier Lorne Calvert challenged the federal Conservative government to hold a national referendum on the Wheat Board's future. See Martin Cash, "Saskatchewan joins call for referendum", Winnipeg Free Press, 11 November 2006, A5. See also Larry Kusch, "More barley lawsuits likely, Tories told", Winnipeg Free Press, 1 March 2008, A4.
  142. ^ Helen Fallding, "Tempers flare over hog fracas", Winnipeg Free Press, 11 February 2001, A3.
  143. ^ Mia Rabson and Bartley Kives, "Doer puts nail in OlyWest's coffin", Winnipeg Free Press, 9 May 2007, A6.
  144. ^ "Manitoba bans new hog farms", Calgary Herald, 4 March 2008, C1.
  145. ^ Matt Goerzen, "Waste-water treatment upgrades enable hog-plant expansions", Winnipeg Free Press, 8 March 2008, B9.
  146. ^ "Manitoba premier promises farm group he'll lobby for them on US food labelling law", Canadian Press, 23 January 2008, 23:19; Larry Kusch, "U.S. food labelling could hurt hog farmers", Winnipeg Free Press, 24 January 2008, B6; Mia Rabson, "Doer confident hogs will flow", Winnipeg Free Press, 26 January 2008, A9.
  147. ^ "High noon at high court for gun law", Winnipeg Free Press, 21 February 2000, A1.
  148. ^ Erin Anderssen, "Ottawa urged to tighten porn laws", Globe and Mail, 28 March 2002, A4.
  149. ^ Helen Fallding, "Manitoba justice officials to study", Winnipeg Free Press, 28 March 2002, A3.
  150. ^ "Man. unveils Web site with photos, profiles of high-risk sex offenders", Canadian Press, 11 April 2003, 20:54.
  151. ^ Mia Rabson, "Kill officer, go to jail for life, Doer urges", Winnipeg Free Press, 3 May 2002, A11.
  152. ^ "Doer says youth law puts public at risk", Winnipeg Free Press, 8 November 2005, A4. In the summer of 2001, Doer promised that his government would pass legislation to shut down outlaw gang clubhouses, if the federal government would not do the same. See David Kuxhaus, "Doer takes on gangs", Winnipeg Free Press, 29 June 2001, A1. The legislation was brought forward in November of the same year; Mia Rabson, "NDP cracks down on biker bunkers", Winnipeg Free Press, 20 November 2001, A1.
  153. ^ Bartley Kives, "Top cops, politicians to press Ottawa for crackdown on crime", Winnipeg Free Press, 19 September 2007, A8.
  154. ^ "Manitoba Legislature acts on some promises", Globe and Mail, 10 December 2004, A9.
  155. ^ Paul Egan, "Biggest-ever funding boost comes amid fears of gang war", Winnipeg Free Press, 15 March 2005, A1; Jason Markusoff, "Meth problem becomes hot topic: Drug should be classified 'as absolutely the worst' because of its damaging and addictive components", Edmonton Journal, 6 May 2005, A6.
  156. ^ Bartley Kives, "City, province hoping sports will keep kids out of trouble", Winnipeg Free Press, 11 April 2008, A3.
  157. ^ Helen Fallding, "All parties get involved in strengthening security", Winnipeg Free Press, 5 October 2001, A3.
  158. ^ Scott Edmonds, "Manitoba, North Dakota and Minnesota look at co-ordinated security", Canadian Press, 19 October 2001, 15:15.
  159. ^ Bruce Owen, "Province's new police act would boost civilians' role", Winnipeg Free Press, 5 February 2009, A7; Bruce Owen, "Decades in the making: New police law has its roots in years of tragic history", Winnipeg Free Press, 18 April 2009, A6.
  160. ^ Helen Fallding, "Province reaffirms Kyoto accord support", Winnipeg Free Press, 19 February 2002, A14; Charlie Gillis, "Six Premiers, six agendas: Western conference", National Post, 4 June 2002, A4; Charlie Gillis, "Premiers warm to hearing Klein's Kyoto alternative", National Post, 6 June 2002, A5 [Gillis identified Doer as Klein's primary opponent]; Helen Fallding, "We'll beat Kyoto target, Doer vows", Winnipeg Free Press, 20 June 2002, A7; Gary Doer, "Canadians should embrace Kyoto vision", Winnipeg Free Press, 29 June 2002, A15.
  161. ^ Mia Rabson, "Manitoba to create Canada's first 'climate trust'", Winnipeg Free Press, 4 February 2004.
  162. ^ "Doer pushes green deadline back to 2020", Edmonton Journal, 23 August 2007, A5; Mia Rabson, "Manitoba in emissions pact", Winnipeg Free Press, 23 August 2007, A4.
  163. ^ Joe Friesen, "Manitoba's Kyoto bill will be a first in Canada", Globe and Mail, 12 April 2008, A5.
  164. ^ Helen Fallding, "$35M to fund 'clean' gasoline", Winnipeg Free Press, 20 April 2002, A1; Helen Fallding, "Public gets say in mandating new gas blend", Winnipeg Free Press, 3 July 2002, A9; "Manitoba: Ethanol production to be increased, Premier says", National Post, 3 July 2002, A6; "Public gets a chance to share its thoughts on the use of ethanol", Winnipeg Free Press, 20 September 2002, A16; Daniel Lett, "Manitoba a prime location to produce ethanol: panel", Winnipeg Free Press, 12 December 2002, A5.
  165. ^ "Manitoba government angers fuel dealers with mandatory ethanol switch", Canadian Press, 11 October 2002, 20:52
  166. ^ Mia Rabson, "Ethanol fuel plan back on the road", Winnipeg Free Press, 27 October 2005, A1.
  167. ^ Mary Agnes Welch, "Water bill steams mayor, reeves", Winnipeg Free Press, 15 March 2004, B6.
  168. ^ John Ibbitson, "Regions take action as federal leaders dither", Globe and Mail, 16 November 2007, A24.
  169. ^ Steve Lambert, "Manitoba to adopt California-like vehicle emission limits: Doer", Canadian Press, 27 December 2007, 15:56.
  170. ^ Justine Hunter, Karen Howlett & Ian Bailey, "Campbell leads the charge on emissions pact", Globe and Mail, 30 January 2008, S1.
  171. ^ Mary Agnes Welch, "Being green far from black and white", Winnipeg Free Press, 6 July 2008, B1; Marianne White, "Doer pushing cap-and-trade", Winnipeg Free Press, 16 July 2008, A7; "Unpopularity of carbon tax responsible for Liberal demise: Premier Gary Doer", Canadian Press, 15 October 2008, 2:15pm.
  172. ^ Bartley Kives, "Doer stands up to King Coal", Winnipeg Free Press, 10 April 2008, A1.
  173. ^ Mary Agnes Welch, "Approval process frustrates premier", Winnipeg Free Press, 18 April 2008, A4. He added that any changes would protect the public's right to oppose and cross-examine energy projects.
  174. ^ Bruce Owen and Mary Agnes Welch, "NDP gets into the banning business - Measures will impact every Manitoban", Winnipeg Free Press, 21 November 2008, A5; "Manitoba introduces bill to limit cellphone use, smoking in cars", Canadian Press, 27 November 2008, 05:04pm.
  175. ^ Paul Samyn, "Magazine lauds Doer's green policies", Winnipeg Free Press, 3 December 2005, A3.
  176. ^ In 2001, Doer appointed former federal cabinet minister Lloyd Axworthy to chair a task force on climate change and reducing greenhouse gas emissions. See Helen Fallding, "Axworthy named to chair task force to develop blueprint for action", Winnipeg Free Press, 21 March 2001, A7; "A plan for the warm century" [editorial], Winnipeg Free Press, 25 March 2001, B4; In late 2005, Doer and Quebec Premier Jean Charest co-authored a piece outlining strategies for reversing climate change. See Gary Doer and Jean Charest, "Seize the climate-friendly day", Globe and Mail, 7 December 2005, A27.
  177. ^ David Roberts, "Commission launched on 1991 native report", Globe and Mail, 30 November 1999, A5. Doer indicated that he was disappointed with the Filmon government's inaction on the file. See "Manitoba government establishes Aboriginal Justice Implementation Commission" [government press release], M2 Presswire, 30 November 1999.
  178. ^ "Aboriginals to get own family services", Globe and Mail, 18 April 2000, A9.
  179. ^ Daniel Lett, "Aboriginal business summit set", Winnipeg Free Press, 28 September 2004, B8.
  180. ^ Martin Cash, "Summit to encourage more aboriginal-owned businesses", Winnipeg Free Press, 3 November 2004, C9; Martin Cash, "Aboriginal biz summit may deliver the goods", Winnipeg Free Press, 5 May 2005, A9.
  181. ^ Mia Rabson, "NDP ready to provide balance, says Layton", Winnipeg Free Press, 5 February 2006, A3.
  182. ^ Alexander Panetta, "Critics slam Tory budget over lack of support for natives, Kyoto", Canadian Press, 2 May 2006, 18:40; Paul Samyn, "Natives outraged Angered at apparent end to $5.1-B Kelowna accord", Winnipeg Free Press, 3 May 2006, A11; Ian Urquhart, "Premiers pressure Harper on native deal", Toronto Star, 30 May 2006, A4.
  183. ^ Mary Agnes Welch, "Bands get east-side planning authority - Bill paves way for world heritage site", Winnipeg Free Press, 2 December 2008, A6.
  184. ^ Bruce Owen, "First Nations threaten to snub bill", Winnipeg Free Press, 9 June 2009, A4.
  185. ^ Daniel Lett, "Play fair on native casinos, NDP told", Winnipeg Free Press, 7 June 2000, A1.
  186. ^ Daniel Lett, "NDP to overhaul native casino plan", Winnipeg Free Press, 13 November 2002, A5; Daniel Lett, "NDP, chiefs join forces to look at casinos", Winnipeg Free Press, 18 December 2002, A3; Daniel Lett, "Nominees for native casino panel confirmed", Winnipeg Free Press, 28 January 2003, A6; "NDP gives free rein to casino review", Winnipeg Free Press, 11 April 2003, B1.
  187. ^ Daniel Lett, "Report bets on one large native-run casino", Winnipeg Free Press, 4 September 2003, A1.
  188. ^ Daniel Lett, "Confusion in the NDP's native casino file", Winnipeg Free Press, 18 August 2007, A6.
  189. ^ Mia Rabson, "Manitoba's political parties are revving up for a close election", Winnipeg Free Press, 19 January 2007, A11; Mia Rabson, "Black gold on tap", Winnipeg Free Press, 18 February 2007, A6.
  190. ^ Helen Fallding, "Doer pushes power grid to link West", Winnipeg Free Press, 31 May 2001, A3; Paul Samyn, "Manitoba to study grid of electrical transmission", Winnipeg Free Press, 22 June 2001, B4; John Spears, "Hydro One considers Manitoba power line", Toronto Star, 19 November 2004, D3; Leah Janzen, "Doer excited by potential for lucrative power sales", Winnipeg Free Press, 24 February 2005, A1. Ontario announced its support for an east-west grid in 2007. See Mia Rabson, "Premier's power grid dream gets energized", Winnipeg Free Press, 31 January 2007, A6. In August 2002, Manitoba Hydro signed a $1.7 billion deal with its largest American consumer. See David Kuxhaus, "$1.7-B Hydro deal", Winnipeg Free Press, 9 August 2002, A1.
  191. ^ Helen Fallding, "Province launches first wind farm in private-public deal", Winnipeg Free Press, 24 November 2004, A5.
  192. ^ Mia Rabson, "Wind farm generating excitement", Winnipeg Free Press, 24 April 2005, A1.
  193. ^ Mary Agnes Welch, "East side, west side", Winnipeg Free Press, 9 March 2008, B1.
  194. ^ Mia Rabson, "West side story for Manitoba Hydro", Winnipeg Free Press, 26 September 2007, A1; Mia Rabson, "International pressure part of decision: Doer", Winnipeg Free Press, 27 September 2007, A6. See also Bryan Schwartz & Elijah Harper, "East side advantage", Winnipeg Free Press, 13 October 2007, A19; Mary Agnes Welch, "More chiefs oppose west-side decision", Winnipeg Free Press, 17 October 2007, A7; "Manitoba premier faces more criticism over planned hydro line", Canadian Press, 31 October 2007, 16:31. See also Madelaine Drohan, "The long arm of the U.S.", Globe and Mail (Breaking News), 22 February 2008.
  195. ^ Tamara King, "Manitoba inks $2-billion electricity deal with Wisconsin", Canadian Press, 17 April 2008, 2:54p; Daniel Lett, "Doer multiplies the stakes in Hydro battle with Tories", Winnipeg Free Press, 18 April 2008, A4.
  196. ^ Mia Rabson, "Doer dumps on huge gas hike", Winnipeg Free Press, 12 July 2008, A1.
  197. ^ Mary Agnes Welch, "Doer promises gas pain relief", Winnipeg Free Press, 30 July 2008, A1.
  198. ^ David Kuxhaus, "Premier tries to placate business riled by contentious labour law changes", Winnipeg Free Press, 2 August 2000, A1; David Kuxhaus, "Voters seem satisfied with Doer government", Winnipeg Free Press, 2 October 2000, A4.
  199. ^ "Premier won't ban replacement workers", Winnipeg Free Press, 8 March 2004, A5.
  200. ^ "Manitoba bumps up minimum wage in the province by 25 cents an hour", Canadian Press, 29 November 2000, 20:55; "Survival above all" [editorial], Winnipeg Free Press, 29 December 2001, A14.
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External links[edit]