Gary Hart

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Gary Hart
Gary hart.jpg
United States Senator
from Colorado
In office
January 3, 1975 – January 3, 1987
Preceded by Peter H. Dominick
Succeeded by Tim Wirth
Personal details
Born Gary Warren Hartpence
(1936-11-28) November 28, 1936 (age 77)
Ottawa, Kansas
Nationality American
Political party Democratic
Spouse(s) Lee Ludwig (m. 1960-Present)
Children Andrea
Alma mater Bethany Nazarene College
Yale Divinity School
Yale Law School
University of Oxford
Religion Nazarene

Gary Hart (born Gary Warren Hartpence; November 28, 1936) is an American politician, lawyer, author, professor and commentator. He served as a U.S. Senator representing Colorado (1975–1987), and sought the Democratic nomination for President in 1984 and again in 1988.

Since retiring from the Senate, he has emerged as a consultant on national security, and continues to speak on a wide range of issues, including the environment and homeland security.

In 2001, he earned a doctorate of philosophy (D.Phil.) from Oxford. In 2006, Hart accepted an endowed professorship at the University of Colorado at Denver. He has been a visiting lecturer at Oxford University, Yale University, and the University of California.

He is Chair of the U.S. State Department's International Security Advisory Council, Chair of the U.S. Defense Department's Threat Advisory Council, and Chair of the American Security Project.

He was Vice-Chair of the Advisory Council for the U.S. Secretary of Homeland Security, Co-Chair of the U.S.-Russia Commission, Chairman of the Council for a Livable World, and President of Global Green, the U.S. affiliate of Mikhail Gorbachev's environmental foundation.

Most notably, he was Co-Chair of the U.S. Commission on National Security for the 21st Century, known as the Hart-Rudman Commission, which predicted terrorist attacks on America before 9/11.

He has written or co-authored numerous books and articles, including five novels. He and his wife, Lee, are residents of Kittredge, Colorado. They have two grown children, Andrea and John.

Early life and legal career[edit]

Hart was born in Ottawa, Kansas, the son of Nina (née Pritchard) and Carl Riley Hartpence, a farm equipment salesman.[1] As a young man, he worked as a laborer on the railroad. He and his father changed their last name to "Hart" in 1961 because "Hart is a lot easier to remember than Hartpence." [2] He won a scholarship to Bethany Nazarene College in Bethany, Oklahoma in 1954."[2] , and graduated in 1958. He met his wife Lee Ludwig there, and they married in 1960. He also graduated from Yale Divinity School in 1961 and Yale Law School in 1964.[3]

Hart became an attorney for the United States Department of Justice from 1964 to 1965, and was admitted to the Colorado and District of Columbia bars in 1965. He was special assistant to the solicitor of the United States Department of the Interior from 1965 to 1967. He then entered private law practice in Denver, Colorado.[3]

George McGovern's 1972 presidential campaign[edit]

Hart occasionally calls himself the inventor of the Iowa caucuses.[citation needed] Following the 1968 Democratic National Convention in Chicago, U.S. Senator George McGovern of South Dakota co-chaired a commission that revised the Democratic presidential nomination structure, weakening the influence of such old-style party bosses as Chicago Mayor Richard J. Daley, who were once able to hand pick national convention delegates and dictate the way they voted. The new rules made caucuses a process in which relative newcomers could participate without paying dues to established party organizations.

In the 1972 election, McGovern named Hart his campaign manager. Along with Rick Stearns, an expert on the new system, they decided on a strategy to focus on the newly important Iowa caucuses.[citation needed] They predicted that a strong showing in Iowa would give the campaign momentum that would propel them toward the nomination and weaken the Democratic Party establishment's favored candidate, Edmund Muskie. Indeed, the strategy worked—setting a trend of focusing on the Iowa caucuses that has continued to this day—and the McGovern campaign took advantage of the Iowa results to win the nomination.[citation needed] However, Hart could not steer McGovern to the presidency. In the general election, McGovern carried only Massachusetts and the District of Columbia.

United States Senator[edit]

In 1974, Hart ran for the United States Senate, challenging two-term incumbent Republican Peter Dominick. Hart was aided by the state's trend towards Democrats during the early 1970s, as well as Dominick's continued support for the unpopular President Richard Nixon and concerns about the Senator's age and health. In the general election, Hart won by a wide margin (57.2% to Dominick's 39.5%) and was immediately labeled as a rising star. He got a seat on the Armed Services Committee and was an early supporter of reforming the bidding for military contracts, and also was an advocate the military using smaller, more mobile weapons and equipment, as opposed to the traditional large scale items. He also served on the Environment and Public Work Committee and the Senate Intelligence Committee. From 1975 to '76, Hart was a member of a subcommittee under the "Church Committee" that looked into to the assassination of President John F. Kennedy. Hart served as the chairman of Senate Subcommittee on Nuclear Regulation. He flew over the Three Mile Island nuclear reactor near Harrisburg, Pennsylvania in an army helicopter several times with minority member Alan K. Simpson during a nuclear accident there,[4] and led the subsequent Senate investigation into the accident.[5]

In 1980, he sought a second term. In something of a surprise, his Republican opponent was Colorado Secretary of State Mary Estill Buchanan, a moderate candidate who had defeated the more conservative choice, Howard "Bo" Callaway in the party primary. Fourteen years earlier, Callaway had been the Republican gubernatorial nominee in his native Georgia. Hart distanced himself from U.S. President Jimmy Carter, a former Georgia political rival of Callaway's. Carter's weak showing in Colorado nearly cost Hart reelection, but he prevailed 51 to 49 percent over Buchanan.

Hart cosponsored the Semiconductor Chip Protection Act of 1984 with Senator Charles Mathias which was signed into law. The Chip Act created a new category of intellectual property rights for mask works for computer chips that protected silicon valley from cheap foreign imitations.[6] Similar legislation had been proposed in every Congress since 1979.[6] It led to Hart being called the leader of the "Atari Democrats".

Conservative Republican Senator Barry Goldwater remarked of Hart, "You can disagree with him politically, but I have never met a man who is more honest and more moral."[2]

Hart like Walter Mondale and Jesse Jackson was pro-choice on the issue of abortion.[7]

1984 presidential campaign[edit]

Hart (on the right) accepting his US Naval Reserve commission from Secretary of the Navy Edward Hidalgo, December 4, 1980

In February 1983, during his second term, Hart announced his candidacy for president in the 1984 presidential election. At the time of his announcement, Hart was a little-known senator and barely received above one percent in the polls against better-known candidates such as Walter Mondale, John Glenn, and Jesse Jackson. To counter this situation, Hart started campaigning early in New Hampshire, making a then-unprecedented canvassing tour in late September, months before the primary. This strategy attracted national media attention to his campaign, and by late 1983, he had risen moderately in the polls to the middle of the field, mostly at the expense of the sinking candidacies of Glenn and Alan Cranston. Mondale won the Iowa caucus in late January, but Hart polled a respectable 16 percent. Two weeks later, in the New Hampshire primary, he shocked much of the party establishment and the media by defeating Mondale by 10 percentage points. Hart instantly became the main challenger to Mondale for the nomination, and appeared to have the momentum on his side.

Hart's campaign was managed by Raymond Strother, a native Texan who had begun his career in Louisiana.[8] Hart could not overcome Mondale's financial and organizational advantages, especially among labor union leaders in the Midwest and industrial Northeast. Hart was chronically in debt, to a final count of $4.75 million.[9] In states like Illinois, where delegates were elected directly by primary voters, Hart often had incomplete delegate slates. Hart's ideas were criticized as too vague and centrist by many Democrats. Shortly after he became the new frontrunner, it was revealed that Hart had changed his last name, had often listed 1937 instead of 1936 as his birth date, and had changed his signature several times. This, along with two separations from his wife, Lee, caused some to question Hart's "flake factor". Nonetheless, he and his wife have remained married for over 50 years.

The two men swapped victories in the primaries, with Hart getting exposure as a candidate with "new ideas" and Mondale rallying the party establishment to his side.[10] The two men fought to a draw in the Super Tuesday, with Hart winning states in the West, Florida, and New England. Mondale fought back and began ridiculing Hart's campaign platform. The most famous television moment of the campaign was during a debate when he mocked Hart's "new ideas" by quoting a line from a popular Wendy's television commercial at the time: "Where's the beef?" Hart's campaign could not effectively counter this remark, and when he ran negative TV commercials against Mondale in the Illinois primary, his appeal as a new kind of Democrat never entirely recovered. Hart lost the New York and Pennsylvania primaries, but won those of Ohio and Indiana.

Mondale gradually pulled away from Hart in the delegate count, but the race was not decided until June, on "Super Tuesday III".[11] Decided that day were delegates from five states: South Dakota, New Mexico, West Virginia, California and New Jersey.[12] The proportional nature of delegate selection meant that Mondale was likely to obtain enough delegates on that day to secure the stated support of an overall majority of delegates, and hence the nomination, no matter who actually "won" the states contested. However, Hart maintained that unpledged superdelegates that had previously claimed support for Mondale would shift to his side if he swept the Super Tuesday III primary.[13] Once again, Hart committed a faux pas, insulting New Jersey shortly before the primary day. Campaigning in California, he remarked that while the "bad news" was that he and his wife Lee had to campaign separately, "[t]he good news for her is that she campaigns in California while I campaign in New Jersey." Compounding the problem, when his wife interjected that she "got to hold a koala bear", Hart replied that "I won't tell you what I got to hold: samples from a toxic waste dump."[13] While Hart won California, he lost New Jersey after leading in polls by as much as 15 points.

By the time the final primaries concluded, Mondale had a considerable lead in total delegates, though he was 40 delegates short of clinching victory. Superdelegates voted overwhelmingly for Mondale at the Democratic National Convention in San Francisco on July 16, making him the presidential nominee. Hart, already aware that the nomination was all but Mondale's after the final primaries, lobbied for the Vice Presidential slot on the ticket, claiming that he would do better than Mondale against President Ronald Reagan (an argument undercut by a June 1984 Gallup poll that showed both men nine points behind the president). While Hart was given serious consideration, Mondale chose Geraldine Ferraro instead.

Nonetheless, this race for the nomination was the most recent occasion that a major party presidential nomination has gone all the way to the convention. Mondale was later defeated in a landslide by the incumbent Reagan, winning only his home state of Minnesota and the District of Columbia. Many felt that Hart and other similar candidates, younger and more independent-minded, represented the future of the party.

Gary Hart at the 1984 Democratic National Convention in San Francisco.

1988 presidential campaign[edit]

Hart declined to run for re-election to the Senate, leaving office when his second term expired with the intent of running for president again. On December 20, 1986, Hart was allegedly followed by an anonymous private investigator from a radio station where Hart had given the Democratic Party's response to President Reagan's weekly radio address. That alleged PI file reported that Hart had been followed to a woman's house, photographed there, and left sometime the following morning.[14] In January 1987, he was the clear frontrunner for the Democratic nomination in the 1988 election.[15]

Photo of Donna Rice with Gary Hart

Hart officially declared his candidacy on April 13, 1987.[16] When Lois Romano, a reporter for the Washington Post asked Hart to respond to rumors spread by other campaigns that he was a "womanizer", Hart responded that such candidates were "not going to win that way, because you don't get to the top by tearing someone else down." [17] The New York Post reported that comment front page with the headline lead-in "Straight from the Hart", followed below with big, black block letters: "GARY: I’M NO WOMANIZER.'", and then a summary of the story: "Dem blasts rivals over sex life rumors."[17][18]

The Miami Herald then began investigating the Post's report of Hart's alleged "womanizing". The Herald had an anonymous informant with detailed knowledge of times, dates, and places of phone calls from Hart to Rice that week and who was attempting to sell a photograph. As a result, the Herald had followed Donna Rice, a former Phi Beta Kappa and Miss South Carolina who was "very interested in getting into fund raising",[19] on a flight from Miami to Washington, D.C. They claimed to have lost her in the airport upon landing, and then went to stake out Hart's townhouse. There they observed a young woman leaving Hart's Washington, D.C., townhouse on the evening of May 2. The Herald published a story on May 3 that Rice had spent that night at Hart's residence. On that same day, in an interview that appeared in the New York Times, Hart responded to the rumors by telling Times reporter E. J. Dionne: "Follow me around. I don't care. I'm serious. If anybody wants to put a tail on me, go ahead. They'll be very bored." [20] Dionne's story was the result of a series of interviews conducted before Hart's trip to Miami and subsequent friendship with Rice. Although the Herald had no knowledge of that quote when they had begun the stakeout, editor Tom Fiedler incorporated that quote into the story as if Hart had issued a dare to the press to catch him with a woman. Only recently, over 27 years later, has Fiedler retracted that comment and removed it from his website at Boston University in response to Matt Bai's book on Hart.[21]

The scandal spread rapidly through the national media. Hart and his allies attacked the Herald for rushing the story into print, claiming that it had unfairly judged the situation without finding out the facts. Hart said that the reporters had not watched both entrances to his home and could not have seen when the young woman entered and left the building. The Herald reporter had flown to Washington, D.C. on the same flight as the woman, identified as 29-year-old model Donna Rice. Rice denied that she had spent the night at Hart's townhouse. Hart was subsequently overwhelmed with questions regarding his views on marital infidelity. (Ronald Reagan was the sitting president, and as the first divorced president had never had to answer questions about the failure of his first marriage or similar issues of adultery. Ronald Reagan covered his divorce in his autobiography and as a famous Hollywood actor his divorce from Jane Wyman was well publicized and old news) Both Hart and Rice denied that the relationship was sexual.[19] Hart's wife, Lee, supported his position that the relationship with the young woman was innocent.[22] A poll of voters in New Hampshire for the New Hampshire primary showed that Hart's support had dropped in half, from 32% to 17%, placing him suddenly ten points behind Massachusetts governor Michael Dukakis.

On May 5, the Herald's anonymous informant gave further information that Hart had spent a night in Bimini on a yacht called the Monkey Business with a woman who was not his wife.[23] Both Hart and Rice later disputed that.[19] The Herald obtained a photograph of Hart sitting on a dock wearing a Monkey Business T-shirt, with Rice sitting on his lap. The photograph did not appear in print until it was published on the cover of the National Enquirer on June 2, 1987 along with the headline, "GARY HART ASKED ME TO MARRY HIM".[24] When asked about the photo, Hart responded, "The attractive lady whom I had only recently been introduced to dropped into my lap... I chose not to dump her off." On May 8, 1987, a week after the story broke, Hart suspended his campaign after the Washington Post threatened to run a story about a woman Hart had dated while separated from his wife, and his wife and daughter became similar subjects of interest for tabloid newspapers. At a press conference, he lashed out at the media, saying "I said that I bend, but I don't break, and believe me, I'm not broken." Hart warned, “I tremble for my country when I think we may, in fact, get the kind of leaders we deserve.” A Gallup Poll found that nearly two-thirds (64 percent) of the U.S. respondents it surveyed thought the media treatment of Hart was "unfair." A little over half (53 percent) responded that marital infidelity had little to do with a president's ability to govern.

Not everyone was impressed with Hart's diatribe against the press. Television writer Paul Slansky noted that Hart had tried to deflect blame for his downfall from himself to the media, and that he offered no apology to betrayed supporters who now suddenly had to find other candidates to back. To many observers, the press conference was redolent of Richard Nixon's "Last Press Conference" of November 7, 1962, in which Nixon blamed the media for his loss in the 1962 California gubernatorial election. Hart, in fact, received a letter from Nixon himself commending him for "handling a very difficult situation uncommonly well".[25]

Having withdrawn from the presidential race, Hart left for Ireland to spend time away from the media with his son. He rented a cottage in Oughterard, though remained in contact with key members of his team. What news did filter out was that he was not excluding a return to the race.[26] The New York Times also pointed to his odd ambivalence towards the presidency even before being caught by "the system": "Only half of me wants to be President [...] The other half wants to go write novels in Ireland. But the 50 percent that wants to be President is better than 100 percent of the others." [27]

Former National Security Council member Roger Morris suggests in his book Partners in Power, the Clintons and Their America that the alleged Hart–Rice sex scandal was really an intelligence operation to deny Hart the presidency. CIA agent Chip Tatum claims to have been tasked with "neutralizing" Hart. Hart's biggest offense, according to Morris, was his advocacy of "further investigation and exposure of the alliance between the mob and the U.S. intelligence community".[28]

His campaign chair, Colorado congresswoman Patricia Schroeder, jumped into the race following Hart's withdraw, but soon after withdrew herself at an emotional press conference on September 28, 1987. In December 1987, Hart returned to the race, declaring on the steps of New Hampshire Statehouse, "Let's let the people decide!"[29] Hart stated that the other candidates did not represent his new ideas of strategic investment economics, military reform, and “enlightened engagement in foreign policy”. "[29] Hart warned, “We could lose more young Americans unnecessarily in the Persian Gulf.”[29] He initially rose to the top of the polls nationally, and second behind Massachusetts governor Mike Dukakis in New Hampshire,[30] but was soon confronted with more negative stories about prior debts from his 1984 campaign and that his campaign had been secretly funded. He competed in the New Hampshire primary and received 4,888 votes, approximately four percent. After the Super Tuesday contests on March 8, he withdrew from the campaign a second time. Hart received the vote of just one loyal supporter at the 1988 Democratic National Convention in Atlanta.

Later career[edit]

After his Senate service and presidential races, Hart resumed his law practice. He remained moderately active in politics, serving on the bipartisan US Commission on National Security/21st Century, also known as the Hart–Rudman Commission, commissioned on behalf of Bill Clinton in 1998 to study U.S. homeland security. The commission issued several findings calling for broad changes to security policy, but none was implemented until after the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks.[31] He earned a doctorate in Philosophy (D.Phil.) from the University of Oxford in 2001, where he was a member of St Antony's College.

Hart gave a speech before the American international law firm Coudert Brothers on September 4, 2001, exactly one week before the September 11 attacks, warning that within the next 25 years a terrorist attack would lead to mass deaths in the U.S.[32] In an interview with, Hart accused President George W. Bush and other administration officials of ignoring his warnings.[31]

In late 2002, urged by former Oxford classmates, Hart began testing the waters for another run for the presidency, launching a website at and a related speaking tour to gauge reactions from the public. He started his own blog in the spring of 2003, the first prospective presidential candidate to do so. After a few months of speaking, Hart decided not to run for president and instead endorsed Democrat John Kerry. According to an October 23, 2004, National Journal article and later reports in the Washington Post, Hart was mentioned as a probable Cabinet appointment if Kerry won the presidency. He was considered a top candidate for either Director of National Intelligence, Secretary of Homeland Security, or Secretary of Defense.

Since May 2005 he has been a contributing blogger at The Huffington Post. He is a member of the Council on Foreign Relations (better known as the CFR). Hart also sits on the Advisory Board of Operation USA, a Los Angeles-based international relief and development agency. It was announced in January 2006 that Hart will hold an endowed professorship at the University of Colorado. He is the author of James Monroe, part of the Times Books series on American presidents, ISBN 0-8050-6960-7, published in October 2005. Hart is an Honorary Fellow of the Literary & Historical Society of University College Dublin. He is an Advisory Board member for the Partnership for a Secure America, a not-for-profit organization dedicated to recreating the bipartisan center in American national security and foreign policy.

In September 2007, The Huffington Post published Hart's letter, "Unsolicited Advice to the Government of Iran", in which he stated that "Provocation is no longer required to take America to war" and warns Iran that "for the next sixteen months or so, you should not only not take provocative actions, you should not seem to be doing so." He went on to suggest that the Bush-Cheney administration was waiting for an opportunity to attack Iran. ("Don't give a certain vice president we know the justification he is seeking to attack your country.")

Hart linked American energy policy with national security in an essay published in 5280, the Denver city magazine, in November 2007. Hart wrote, "In fact, we do have an energy policy: It’s to continue to import more than half our oil and sacrifice American lives so we can drive our Humvees. This is our current policy, and it is massively immoral." Hart currently sits on the board of directors for the Energy Literacy Advocates. He founded the American Security Project in 2007 and he started a new blog, "Matters of Principle", in 2009. He and his wife, Lee, are residents of Kittredge, Colorado. His ranch is known as Troublesome Gulch.



  • The Thunder and the Sunshine: Four Seasons in a Burnished Life (Fulcrum Publishing, 2010);
  • Under The Eagle's Wing: A National Security Strategy of the United States for 2009 (Speaker's Corner, 2008);
  • The Courage of Our Convictions: A Manifesto for Democrats by Gary Hart (Time Books/Henry Holt, 2006);
  • The Shield and The Cloak: The Security of the Commons (Oxford University Press, 2006);
  • God and Caesar in America: an essay on religion and politics (Fulcrum Books, 2005);
  • The Presidency of James Monroe, in the American Presidency series edited by Arthur Schlesinger, Jr. (Time Books/Henry Holt, 2005);
  • The Fourth Power: a new grand strategy for the United States in the 21st century (Oxford University Press, 2004);
  • Restoration of the Republic: the Jeffersonian Ideal in 21st Century America (2002), for which he received a D. Phil. degree from Oxford University;
  • The Minuteman: Restoring an Army of the People (1998);
  • The Patriot: An Exhortation to Liberate America from the Barbarians (1996);
  • The Good Fight: The Education of an American Reformer (a New York Times Notable Book) (1995);
  • Russia Shakes the World: The Second Russian Revolution (1991);
  • America Can Win: The Case for Military Reform (1985);
  • A New Democracy : new approaches to the challenges of the 1980s (1983);
  • Right from the Start: A Chronicle of the McGovern Campaign (1973);


  • Durango (Fulcrum Publishing, 2012)
  • I, Che Guevara (2000) (under the pseudonym John Blackthorn)
  • Sins of the Fathers (1999) (under the pseudonym John Blackthorn)
  • The Strategies of Zeus (1985)
  • The Double Man (with former Senator and Secretary of Defense William Cohen, 1984)

In January 2000, Hart revealed that he is the political thriller writer John Blackthorn, whose books include Sins of the Fathers and I, Che Guevara.[33]

Electoral history[edit]

Colorado United States Senate election, 1974 (Democratic primary):[34]

Colorado United States Senate election, 1974[35]

Colorado United States Senate election, 1980:[36]

1984 Democratic presidential primaries:[37]

1984 Democratic National Convention:[38]

1988 Democratic presidential primaries:[39]

1988 Democratic National Convention:[40]

In popular culture[edit]

  • In a third season episode of the television sitcom The Golden Girls, when Rose Nylund (Betty White), dressed in a robe and slippers, is asked what she does for a job, her roommate Dorothy (Beatrice Arthur) responds, "She's Gary Hart's campaign manager – it doesn't pay much, but you don't have to get out of bed to do it."
  • He appeared as himself on an episode of Cheers (episode 425; "Strange Bedfellows part 2").
  • Chilean folk rock band Sexual Democracia made the song "Don't Cry, Gary Hart", a cueca sung in English, that narrates the scandal during the 1988 Presidential Campaign. It appears on their album Buscando Chilenos 2 (1992).
  • Crosby, Still, Nash and Young released a video satirizing the events of the Miami Herald's stake-out of Hart's home, and other events of 1987, in American Dream (Neil Young 1988)[41]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Ancestry of Gary Hart
  2. ^ a b c Garry Clifford, Peter Carlson, "Gary Hart: George McGovern's Whiz Kid Has Grown Up, and Now He Wants a Chance to Be President Too", People Magazine, (Vol. 20, No. 8, August 22, 1983):,,20085747,00.html
  3. ^ a b U.S. Congress. "Hart, Gary Warren - Biographical Information". Retrieved November 8, 2012. 
  4. ^ Amy Goodman interview of Gary Hart "Fmr. Democratic Senator and Presidential Candidate Gary Hart: "Both Houses of Congress Belong to the President’s Party" (March 28, 2006):
  5. ^ Nuclear accident and recovery at Three Mile Island : a report / prepared by the Subcommittee on Nuclear Regulation for the Committee on Environment and Public Works, U.S. Senate, Washington: U.S. G.P.O.(1980)
  6. ^ a b Michael D. Scott, Scott on Information Technology Law (Third Edition 2014) section 5.01
  7. ^ [1]
  8. ^ "Raymond Strother: Political Strategist/Author (1940)". Museum of the Gulf Coast. Retrieved October 10, 2013. 
  9. ^ Lindsay, Robert "Convention Sideline: Raising Money", New York Times, July 21, 1984, pg. 11
  10. ^ Gary Hart 1984 Television Ads on YouTube
  11. ^ Ed Magnuson (June 18, 1984). "Over the Top, Barely". Time. 
  12. ^ George J. Church (June 4, 1984). "A Big Bicoastal Finale". Time. 
  13. ^ a b Evan Thomas (June 11, 1984). "Last Call, and Out Reeling". Time. 
  14. ^ The New York Times (June 7, 1987)
  15. ^ E. J. Dionne Jr. (January 25, 1987). "Poll Gives Hart and Bush Clear Leads for Nominations". The New York Times, pg. 18. Retrieved October 9, 2014. 
  16. ^ Robin Toner (April 14, 1987). "Hart, Stressing Ideals, Formally Enters the 1988 Race". The New York Times, pg. A16 Retrieved October 9, 2014. "It's an issue of recapturing our basic principles, beliefs and values." 
  17. ^ a b William Safire, "ON LANGUAGE; Vamping Till Ready", The New York Times (May 3, 1987)
  18. ^ Matt Bai, All The Truth Is Out: The Week That Politics Went Tabloid (2014) pg. 86
  19. ^ a b c Alan Richman, “Donna Rice: 'The Woman in Question'”, People Magazine (Vol. 27, No. 20, May 18, 1987)
  20. ^ E. J. Dionne Jr. (May 3, 1987). "Gary Hart The Elusive Front-Runner". The New York Times, pg. SM28. Retrieved October 9, 2014. 
  21. ^ Matt Bai, How Gary Hart's Downfall Forever Changed American Politics" New York Times Magazine (September 18, 2014)
  22. ^ Dionne, E.J. Jr. "Paper and Hart in Dispute Over Article", New York Times, May 4, 1987, pg. A16
  23. ^ Eyers, Jonathan (2011). Don't Shoot the Albatross!: Nautical Myths and Superstitions. A&C Black, London, UK. ISBN 978-1-4081-3131-2.
  24. ^ Dick Polman (April 2008). "Those Aren't Rumors". Smithsonian. Retrieved October 9, 2014. 
  25. ^ "Nixon, Dixon and Hart". The New York Times. 1987-07-16. Retrieved 2008-01-26. 
  26. ^ "Gary Hart Leaves Ireland After Three-Week Holiday". Associated Press. 1987-08-25. Retrieved 2013-09-14. 
  27. ^ Johnston, David; King, Wayne; Nordheimer, Jon (1987-05-09). "Courting Danger: The Fall Of Gary Hart". The New York Times. Retrieved 2013-09-14. 
  28. ^ Morris, Roger (1999). Partners in Power: The Clintons and Their America. Regnery. p. 433. ISBN 978-0895263025. 
  29. ^ a b c "Hart Announcement: Re-Entry Into Campaign". C-SPAN. 1987-12-15. Retrieved 2010-10-29. 
  30. ^
  31. ^ a b Talbot, David (April 2, 2004). "Condi Rice's other wake-up call". Retrieved May 5, 2012. 
  32. ^ Bauch, Hubert (September 5, 2001). "Terror risk real: Hart". Montreal Gazette. p. 8A. Archived from the original on December 18, 2001. 
  33. ^ "Gary Hart comes out: The former Senator and ex-presidential candidate reveals that he's thriller writer John Blackthorn" by Andrew Ferguson, January 17, 2000, CNN
  34. ^ Our Campaigns – CO US Senate – D Primary Race – Sep 10, 1974
  35. ^ Our Campaigns – CO US Senate Race – Nov 5, 1974
  36. ^ Our Campaigns – CO US Senate Race – Nov 4, 1980
  37. ^ Our Campaigns – US President – D Primaries Race – Feb 20, 1984
  38. ^ Our Campaigns – US President – D Convention Race – Jul 16, 1984
  39. ^ Our Campaigns – US President – D Primaries Race – Feb 1, 1988
  40. ^ Our Campaigns – US President – D Convention Race – Jul 18, 1988
  41. ^ Crosby, Still, Nash and Young, American Dream (Neil Young 1988):

External links[edit]

United States Senate
Preceded by
Peter H. Dominick
U.S. Senator (Class 3) from Colorado
Served alongside: Floyd K. Haskell, William L. Armstrong
Succeeded by
Tim Wirth