Gas engine

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Model of an S type Hartop Gas Engine.

A gas engine is an internal combustion engine which runs on a gas fuel, such as coal gas, producer gas, biogas, landfill gas or natural gas. In the UK, the term is unambiguous. In the US, due to the widespread use of "gas" as an abbreviation for gasoline, such an engine might also be called a gaseous-fueled engine or natural gas engine.

Generally the term gas engine refers to a heavy-duty industrial engine capable of running continuously at full load for periods approaching a high fraction of 8,760 hours per year. Unlike a gasoline automobile engine, which is lightweight, high-revving and typically runs for no more than 4,000 hours in its entire life. Typical power ranges from 10 kW (13 hp) to 4,000 kW (5,364 hp).[1]

History[edit]

Lenoir gas engine 1860.
Otto-Langen gas engine 1867.
3bhp gas fired Crossley atmospheric engine in action at Anson Engine Museum.

There were many experiments with gas engines in the 19th century but the first practical gas fuelled internal combustion engine was built by the Belgian engineer Étienne Lenoir in 1860.[2] However, the Lenoir engine suffered from a low power output and high fuel consumption.

His work was further researched and improved by a German engineer Nikolaus August Otto, who was later to invent the first 4-stroke engine to efficiently burn fuel directly in a piston chamber. In August 1864 Otto met Eugen Langen who, being technically trained, glimpsed the potential of Otto's development, and one month after the meeting, founded the first engine factory in the world, NA Otto & Cie, in Cologne. In 1867 Otto patented his improved design and it was awarded the Grand Prize at the 1867 Paris World Exhibition. This atmospheric engine worked by drawing a mixture of gas and air into a vertical cylinder. When the piston has risen about eight inches, the gas and air mixture is ignited by a small pilot flame burning outside, which forces the piston (which is connected to a toothed rack) upwards, creating a partial vacuum beneath it. No work is done on the upward stroke. The work is done when the piston and toothed rack descend under the effects of atmospheric pressure and their own weight, turning the main shaft and flywheels as they fall. Its advantage over the existing steam engine was its ability to be started and stopped on demand, making it ideal for intermittent work such as barge loading or unloading.[3]

The atmospheric gas engine was in turn replaced by Otto's 4-stroke engine. The changeover to four stroke engines was remarkably rapid with the last atmospheric engines being made in 1877. Liquid fuelled engines soon followed using diesel (around 1898) or gasoline (petrol) (around 1900).

The best-known builder of gas engines in the UK was Crossley of Manchester, who in 1869 acquired the UK and world (except German) rights to the patents of Otto and Langden for the new gas fuelled atmospheric engine. In 1876 they acquired the rights to the more efficient Otto four stroke cycle engine. There were several other firms based in the Manchester area as well. Tangye Ltd. sold its first gas engine, a 1 nominal horsepower two-cycle type, in 1881, and in 1890 the firm commenced manufacture of the four-cycle gas engine.[4]

British engines mentioned above were of the slow-speed type—less than 1000 rpm—and used pilot diesel injection for ignition. Modern gas engines are of the high-speed type—1500 rpm—and use spark ignition. British manufacturers did not invest in developing the technology and were superseded by more forward-thinking suppliers.

The Anson Engine Museum in Poynton, near Stockport, England, has a collection of engines that includes several working gas engines, including the largest running Crossley atmospheric engine ever made.

Current manufacturers[edit]

Manufacturers of gas engines include Rolls-Royce with the Bergen-Engines AS, Kawasaki Heavy Industries, MTU Friedrichshafen, GE Jenbacher, Caterpillar Inc., Perkins Engines, MWM, Cummins, Wärtsilä, GE Energy Waukesha, Guascor Power, Deutz, MTU, MAN, Fairbanks Morse, Doosan, and Yanmar. Output ranges from about 10 kW (13 hp) micro CHP [combined heat and power] to 18 MW (24,000 hp).[5] Generally speaking, the modern high-speed gas engine is very competitive with gas turbines up to about 50 MW (67,000 hp) depending on actual circumstances, and the best ones are much more fuel efficient than the gas turbines. Rolls-Royce with the Bergen Engines, Caterpillar and many other manufacturers base their products on a diesel engine block and crankshaft. GE Jenbacher are the sole company whose engines are designed and dedicated to gas alone.

Typical applications[edit]

Typical applications are baseload or high-hour generation schemes, including combined heat and power, landfill gas, mines gas, well-head gas and biogas (where the waste heat from the engine may be used to warm the digesters). For typical biogas engine installation parameters see.[6] For parameters of a large gas engine CHP system, as fitted in a factory, see.[7] Gas engines are rarely used for standby applications, which remain largely the province of diesel engines. One exception to this is the small (<150 kW) emergency generator often installed by farms, museums, small businesses, and residences. Connected to either natural gas from the public utility or propane from on-site storage tanks, these generators can be arranged for automatic starting upon power failure. The natural gas engines (LNG) are getting more into the marine market, as the lean-burn gas engine can meet the new emission requirements without any extra fuel treatment or exhaust cleaning systems.

Use of methane or propane gases[edit]

Since natural gas (methane) has long been a clean, economical, and readily available fuel, many industrial engines are either designed or modified to use gas, as distinguished from gasoline. Although the carbon emission footprint does not differ significantly, their operation produces less complex-hydrocarbon pollution, and the engines have fewer internal problems. One example is the liquefied petroleum gas (propane) engine used in vast numbers of forklift trucks. Common usage of "gas" to mean "gasoline" requires the explicit identification of a natural gas engine. (There is also such a thing as "natural gasoline",[citation needed] but this term is very rarely observed outside the refining industry.)

Technical details[edit]

A gas engine differs from a petrol engine in the way the fuel and air are mixed. A petrol engine uses a carburetor or fuel injection but a gas engine often uses a venturi system to introduce gas into the air flow. Early gas engines used a three-valve system, with separate inlet valves for air and gas.

The weak point of a gas engine compared to a diesel engine is the exhaust valves, since the gas engine exhaust gases are much hotter for a given output, and this limits the power output. Thus a diesel engine from a given manufacturer will usually have a higher maximum output than the same engine block size in the gas engine version. The diesel engine will generally have three different ratings - Standby, Prime, and Continuous, (UK, 1 hour rating, 12 hour rating and continuous rating) whereas the gas engine will generally only have a Continuous rating, which will be less than the Diesel Continuous rating

Energy balance[edit]

Thermal efficiency[edit]

Gas engines that run on natural gas have typically a thermal efficiency between 35-45%.,[8] the best engines can achieve a thermal efficiency of slightly more than 48%. These gas engines are usually medium speed engines Bergen Engines Fuel energy arises at the output shaft, the remainder appears as waste heat.[7] Large engines are more efficient than small engines. Gas engines running on biogas typically have a slightly lower efficiency (~1-2%) and syngas reduces the efficiency further still. GE Jenbacher's recent J624 engine is the world's first 24 cylinder gas engine with a high efficiency running on methane.[9]

When considering engine efficiency one should consider whether this is at the lower heating value or higher heating value of the gas. Engine manufacturers will typically quote efficiencies at the lower heating value of the gas, i.e. the efficiency after energy has been taken to evaporate the intrinsic moisture within the gas itself. Gas distribution networks will typically charge based upon the higher heating value of the gas (i.e. total energy content).

Combined heat and power[edit]

Engine reject heat can be used for building heating or heating a process. In an engine, roughly half the waste heat arises (from the engine jacket, oil cooler and after-cooler circuits) as hot water which can be at up to 110 °C. The remainder arises as high-temperature heat which can generate pressurised hot water or steam by the use of an exhaust gas heat exchanger.

Engine cooling[edit]

Two most common engine types are an air-cooled engine or water cooled engine. Water cooled nowadays use antifreeze in the internal combustion engine

Some engines (air or water) have an added oil cooler.

Cooling is required to remove excessive heat, over heating can cause engine failure, usually from wear, cracking or warping.

Gas Consumption Calculation[edit]

The formula shows the gas flow requirement of a gas engine in norm conditions at full load.

 Q = \frac{P}{\eta}  \cdot \frac{1}{LHV_{gas}}

where:

  •  Q  is the gas flow in norm conditions
  •  {P} is the engine power
  •  {\eta}  is the mechanical efficiency
  • LHV is the Low Heating Value of the gas

Gallery of Historic Gas Engines[edit]


See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "GE Jenbacher | Gas engines". Clarke-energy.com. Retrieved 2013-09-28. 
  2. ^ "start your engines! - gas-engines". Library.thinkquest.org. Retrieved 2013-09-28. 
  3. ^ "Crossley Atmospheric Gas Engine". Museum of Science and Industry. Retrieved 23 September 2013. 
  4. ^ "The Basic Industries of Great Britain by Aberconway - Chapter XXI". Gracesguide.co.uk. Retrieved 2010-06-05. 
  5. ^ "Gas engines at Wärtsilä". Wartsila.com. Retrieved 2013-09-28. 
  6. ^ Andrews, Dave (2008-10-14). "38% HHV Caterpillar Bio-gas Engine Fitted to Sewage Works | Claverton Group". Claverton-energy.com. Retrieved 2013-09-28. 
  7. ^ a b Andrews, Dave (2010-06-24). "Complete 7 MWe Deutz ( 2 x 3.5MWe) gas engine CHP system for sale and re-installation in the country of your choice. Similar available on biogas / digester gas | Claverton Group". Claverton-energy.com. Retrieved 2013-09-28. 
  8. ^ "CHP | Cogeneration | GE Jenbacher | Gas Engines". Clarke Energy. Retrieved 2013-09-28. 
  9. ^ "Products & Services". Ge-energy.com. Retrieved 2013-09-28. 

External links[edit]