Gaspar de Zúñiga, 5th Count of Monterrey

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Don
Gaspar de Zúñiga
Count of Monterrey
Caballero de Santiago
GaspardeZugnigayAcevedo.jpg
Viceroy of New Spain
In office
November 5, 1595 – October 26, 1603
Monarch Philip II
Preceded by Luis de Velasco
Succeeded by Juan de Mendoza
Viceroy of Peru
In office
January 18, 1604 – March 16, 1606
Monarch Philip III
Preceded by Luis de Velasco
Succeeded by Diego Núñez de Avendaño
Personal details
Born 1560
Monterrei, Spain
Died March 16, 1606
Lima, Peru
Religion Catholic

Gaspar de Zúñiga Acevedo y Fonseca, 5th Count of Monterrey (Spanish: Gaspar de Zúñiga Acevedo y Fonseca, quinto conde de Monterrey) (1560—March 16, 1606, Peru), Spanish nobleman, the ninth viceroy of New Spain. He governed from November 5, 1595 to October 26, 1603. From January 18, 1604 until his death in 1606, he was viceroy of Peru.

Early service[edit]

De Zúñiga y Acevedo was born the eldest son of the fourth Count of Monterrei, Géronimo de Acevedo y Zúñiga. He studied in Monterrei under the direction of Jesuit priests. In 1578 he entered the service of King Philip II. He participated in the Portuguese campaign, where he led the Galician militia, paying them out of his own pocket. De Zúñiga y Acevedo also took part in the defense of the port of La Coruña when it was attacked by the English corsair Francis Drake in 1589.

As viceroy of New Spain[edit]

On May 28, 1595, de Zúñiga y Acevedo was nominated viceroy of New Spain. He arrived in the colony, at Veracruz, in mid-September, as the successor to Viceroy Luis de Velasco, marqués de Salinas. On November 5, 1595 he made his solemn entry into Mexico City, taking up the reins of government.

He increased taxes on the Indians, but he was said to pay personal attention to adjustments required of the Indians in order to prevent their being exploited. In 1596, the viceroy Count of Monterrey reported, in a letter sent to Philip II to justify the increase of the salary of the royal officials, that those had seized and burned some delinquents for the unspeakable sin of sodomy, although he does not give the number of victims or the circumstances of the event.

On September 20, 1596, Diego de Montemayor founded the city of Monterrey, Nuevo León. This city was named in the viceroy's wife's honor.

In 1597 pirates attacked the port of Campeche, taking over the center of the town and terrorizing the inhabitants. De Zúñiga y Acevedo ordered increased protection for the ports. He also moved the town of Veracruz from its old site to its present location, which was more secure.

In 1598 Philip II died, and Philip III succeeded to the Spanish crown. In 1601 the Indians of Topia rose against the Spanish, but through the influence of Idefonso de la Mota, bishop of Guadalajara, they were pacified. The Jesuits subsequently established missions there, in the Tarahumara region.

Explorations[edit]

Among his first acts as viceroy was organizing an overland expedition to explore and colonize the north of the New Kingdom of León y Castilla (present day New Mexico), continuing a policy of his predecessor. This expedition was under the command of Juan de Oñate, who founded the town of Santa Fe, but did not find the legendary Seven Cities of Gold of the provinces of Cibola and Quivira.

He also sent two expeditions to explore the Pacific coast of Mexico. Sebastián Vizcaíno sailed from Acapulco in 1596 with three ships. On this expedition Vizcaíno founded La Paz, Baja California Sur, so named because of his friendly reception there by the Indians. He also discovered Cape San Sebastián.

A later expedition by Vizcaíno with the same mission sailed on May 5, 1602 with four ships. This expedition was more fruitful. Ensenada, Baja California was founded. San Diego Bay was explored and Catalina Island was named. The explorers reached as far north as Monterey Bay, Alta California, which Vizcaíno named in honor of the viceroy. Subsequent plans to colonize Alta California foundered when Zúñiga's successor, Juan de Mendoza, 3rd Marquis of Montesclaros, turned out to be much less favorable.[1]

As viceroy of Peru[edit]

On May 19, 1603, Zúñiga y Acevedo was named viceroy of Peru. He remained in New Spain until September, awaiting the arrival of his successor, Juan de Mendoza y Luna, marqués de Montesclaros. After the arrival of the new viceroy, the two met in Orizaba, midway between Veracruz and Mexico City. Here de Zúñiga y Acevedo hosted a week-long welcoming festival said to have cost more than a year's viceregal salary.

The new viceroy took over the administration of New Spain in October, and in that month de Zúñiga y Acevedo sailed from Acapulco for Lima.

Private affairs delayed him again in Panama and Paita. He did not enter Lima until November 28, 1604. There he finished the preparations for the dispatch of Pedro Fernandes de Queirós on a naval expedition to the South Seas. This expedition sailed on December 21, 1605. Shortly after that he died, still in office but without having had the opportunity to initiate reforms.

References[edit]

  1. ^ http://www.sandiegohistory.org/journal/78winter/plans.htm PLANS FOR THE OCCUPATION OF UPPER CALIFORNIA A NEW LOOK AT THE "DARK AGE" FROM 1602 TO 1769, The Journal of San Diego History SAN DIEGO HISTORICAL SOCIETY QUARTERLY, Winter 1978, Volume 24, Number 1
  • (Spanish) "Zúñiga y Acevedo, Gaspar de," Enciclopedia de México, v. 14. Mexico City, 1988.
  • (Spanish) García Puron, Manuel, México y sus gobernantes, v. 1. Mexico City: Joaquín Porrua, 1984.
  • (Spanish) Orozco Linares, Fernando, Gobernantes de México. Mexico City: Panorama Editorial, 1985, ISBN 968-38-0260-5.

External links[edit]

Government offices
Preceded by
The Marquis of
Salinas
Viceroy of New Spain
1595–1603
Succeeded by
The Marquis of
Montesclaros
Preceded by
The Marquis of
Salinas
Viceroy of Peru
1604–1606
Succeeded by
Diego Núñez de Avendaño
Spanish nobility
Preceded by
Jerónimo de Acevedo
Count of Monterrey
1580–1606
Succeeded by
Manuel de Acevedo