Gastrodia

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Gastrodia
Gastrodia elata 1.JPG
Gastrodia elata in bloom
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Monocots
Order: Asparagales
Family: Orchidaceae
Subfamily: Epidendroideae
Tribe: Gastrodieae
Subtribe: Gastrodiinae
Genus: Gastrodia
R. Br.
Synonyms[1]
  • Gamoplexis Falc.
  • Epiphanes Blume
  • Neoclemensia Carr
  • Demorchis D.L.Jones & M.A.Clem.

Gastrodia is a genus of achlorophyllous orchid with 61 currently accepted species (as of June 2014). They are native to Asia (China, the Russian Far East, Japan, Korea, Southeast Asia, the Indian Subcontinent), Australia, New Zealand, central Africa, and various islands of the Indian and Pacific Oceans.[1][2]

Gastrodia elata is a traditional Chinese herb, Tian Ma (Chinese: 天麻), and is commonly used in China to treat hypertension, improve circulation and resolve headaches.

Species[edit]

Species accepted as of June 2014:[1]

  1. Gastrodia abscondita - Java
  2. Gastrodia africana - Cameroon
  3. Gastrodia albida - Taiwan
  4. Gastrodia albidoides - Yunnan
  5. Gastrodia angusta - Yunnan
  6. Gastrodia arunachalensis - Arunachal Pradesh
  7. Gastrodia ballii P.J.Cribb & Browning - Malawi, Zimbabwe, Mozambique
  8. Gastrodia boninensis - Ogasawara-shoto (Bonin Islands of Japan)
  9. Gastrodia callosa - Java, Taiwan
  10. Gastrodia celebica - Sulawesi
  11. Gastrodia clausa - Taiwan, Okinawa
  12. Gastrodia confusa - Taiwan, Korea, Japan, Bonin Islands, Ruykyu Islands
  13. Gastrodia confusoides - Taiwan
  14. Gastrodia crassisepala - New Guinea
  15. Gastrodia crebriflora - Queensland
  16. Gastrodia crispa - Java
  17. Gastrodia cunninghamii - Vanuatu, New Zealand (including Chatham Island)
  18. Gastrodia dyeriana - Sikkim, Darjiling
  19. Gastrodia effusa -Sabah, Peninsular Malaysia
  20. Gastrodia elata - much of China (including Tibet and Taiwan), Japan, Korea, Russian Far East, Assam, Bhutan, Nepal
  21. Gastrodia entomogama - New South Wales, Victoria, Tasmania
  22. Gastrodia exilis - India, Assam, Thailand, Sumatra
  23. Gastrodia falconeri - Pakistan, northern India, Nepal
  24. Gastrodia fimbriata - Thailand
  25. Gastrodia flavilabella - Taiwan
  26. Gastrodia flexistyla - Taiwan
  27. Gastrodia fontinalis - Taiwan
  28. Gastrodia gracilis - Taiwan, Honshu
  29. Gastrodia grandilabris - Sabah
  30. Gastrodia javanica - Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Thailand, Taiwan, Fujian, Ryukyu Islands
  31. Gastrodia lacista - Western Australia
  32. Gastrodia longitubularis - Hainan
  33. Gastrodia madagascariensis - Madagascar
  34. Gastrodia major - Vietnam
  35. Gastrodia menghaiensis - Yunnan
  36. Gastrodia minor - New Zealand
  37. Gastrodia nipponica - Taiwan, Japan, Ruykyu Islands
  38. Gastrodia papuana - New Guinea
  39. Gastrodia peichatieniana - Guangdong, Taiwan
  40. Gastrodia procera - Victoria
  41. Gastrodia pubilabiata - Taiwan, Japan
  42. Gastrodia punctata - Vietnam
  43. Gastrodia queenslandica - Queensland
  44. Gastrodia rwandensis - Rwanda
  45. Gastrodia sesamoides - all 6 states of Australia; naturalised in South Africa
  46. Gastrodia shimizuana - Iriomote, Taiwan
  47. Gastrodia silentvalleyana - Kerala
  48. Gastrodia similis - Réunion
  49. Gastrodia spatulata - Sabah
  50. Gastrodia sui - Taiwan
  51. Gastrodia surcula - New South Wales
  52. Gastrodia taiensis - Vietnam
  53. Gastrodia tembatensis - Peninsular Malaysia
  54. Gastrodia theana - Vietnam
  55. Gastrodia tuberculata - Yunnan
  56. Gastrodia uraiensis - Taiwan
  57. Gastrodia urceolata - Queensland
  58. Gastrodia verrucosa - Thailand, Peninsular Malaysia, Java, Sumatra
  59. Gastrodia vescula - South Australia
  60. Gastrodia wuyishanensis - Fujian
  61. Gastrodia zeylanica - Sri Lanka

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Kew World Checklist of Selected Plant Families
  2. ^ Flora of China v 25 p 201, 天麻属 tian ma shu, Gastrodia
  • Brown, R. (1810) Prodromus Florae Novae Hollandiae 330.
  • Pridgeon, A.M., Cribb, P.J., Chase, M.C. & Rasmussen, F.N. (2006). Epidendroideae (Part One). Genera Orchidacearum 4: 444 ff. Oxford University Press.
  • Cribb, P., Fischer, E. & Killmann, D. (2010). A revision of Gastrodia (Orchidaceae: Epidendroideae, Gastrodieae) in Tropical Africa. Kew Bulletin 65: 315-321.

External links[edit]

  • Media related to Gastrodia at Wikimedia Commons
  • Data related to Gastrodia at Wikispecies