A gate operator is a mechanical device used to open and close a gate, such as one at the end of a driveway. There are two main types of electric gate openers – hydraulic or electromechanical; these can be further split into the following categories, worm (or screw) driven, arm openers and underground openers. Automatic and Electric Gate operators are designed for both swinging and sliding gates. They can be programmed to open and close with a wireless transmitter or a manual device. Low Voltage Automatic Gate openers can also be fitted with solar panels to ensure function during loss of electricity or blackouts.
- 1 Operator Types
- 2 Gate Types
- 3 Safety
- 4 Safety devices
- 5 Control devices
- 6 References
Drawing power from the mains to open a driveway gate. Generally there are four types of electromechanical gate operator: Worm driven (or screw type) swing gates, barrier arm operators and sliding operators Electric and automatic gate openers are designed for both sliding and swinging gates. They can be programmed to open with a manual device or a wireless transmitter. Automatic gate operators can also be fitted with solar panels to operate without high voltage power. Many manufacturers offer battery backup either integrated or as an add on to systems that ensure function during loss of electricity.
These are used to automatically open an electric driveway gate. As the name implies they use hydraulic fluids to operate their motion. Typically hydraulic operators have less moving parts than mechanical operators. The hydraulic motors have a number of advantages when operating gates; they are capable of producing more power than mechanical motors and do not have to work at full power when operating large gates, they can be made non locking to avoid damage when hit by vehicles relying on other forms of locking. Hydraulic operators are prone to damage to internal seals caused by high pressure from vehicular collision but this damage can be repaired.
Swing gates can use three types of operators. A swing arm operator, which is a box, that sits off to the side and has an arm extending to the gate. A ram arm is located on the gate and post and uses either a hydraulic piston or a jackscrew-operated piston. Underground operators are located by the hinge and operate the gate via a link arm.
Slide gate operators are commonly installed at the end of the gate in the closed position but can also be installed by the end of the gate in the open position. In America the most common form of automation is a chain attached across the gate near the bottom and passing through the operator, which shuttles it back and forth. In the end of the gate/open position you do not see the chain or any operating equipment near the gate. In Europe a metal or plastic rack is attached to the gate with a gear fitted to the operator. The American method is more flexible and allows for greater movement in the gates, the European method makes for a quieter and more secure system. Sliding gates are often large, heavy and therefore more hazardous than swing gates they can however be equipped with appropriate safety devices making them some of the safest gate systems available.
An automatic gate consisting of a breakaway gate arm, motor assembly and housing installed at the departure end of a toll island or a car park. A traffic barrier is used to reduce violations and speed through a toll lane. Barrier gates installed in both attended and unattended lanes commonly includes a remote control capability to raise the gate for patrons with insufficient funds.
It is vital to consider the safety of electric gates. An improperly installed automatic gate without proper safety devices may result in serious injury or death. Many manufacturers now produce 12V, 24V, 120V, and 230V operators, electric & hydraulic which are capable of detecting the difference between an obstacle and the effects of the wind on the gate leaf.
The 230V supply like all electrical additions have to be part P certified. If you already have power supplied to the gate then P certificate does not apply. Machinery directives EN 12453 and EN 12445 are the regulations concerning gates. Whoever installs the gate is the one responsible for the conformity. The major points are the maximum amount of force at certain test points. Example – a maximum of 400N of force can be applied in the last 50 cm of travel of a gate, during the mid travel of a gate the amount is 1400N. Most gate kits can be fitted so that these limits are not reached and so meet the requirements. Please also be aware that many gate installers have never heard of these regulations If in doubt contact the main equipment suppliers to discuss in more detail.
Risk assessments should always be undertaken to ensure that gates are fitted with appropriate safety devices protecting all crush and cutting areas that the moving gate creates
A standard on most gate systems, one or two infrared beams are recommended to prevent gates closing on to vehicles or pedestrians. It is better to prevent an impact than act after the impact has happened.
In ground loops
These are magnetic field generators that are able to detect metal when it passes into the field. The detector gives a signal to the gates either causing the gates to open or preventing the gates from closing.
The earliest safety edges used air pressure to activate a switch when crushed but the safety edge would fail if the air chamber was damaged. A different version has a tensioned wire inside a rubber strip which activates a switch when moved. Resistive safety edges contain a metal core when crushed the resistance of the metal core changes and this is detected by a monitored control panel.
Mobile phone based intercoms often known as GSM systems allow the operation of gates from anywhere in the world.
Digital key pads have replaced the need for keys in a lot of locations.
Timer is a system with automation for automatic closing and opening on the setting on time mode.
Push buttons are used mostly for opening and closing automation systems from inside or indoor its similarly works as key switches and remote controls but it is connected through wires with the device which is on control. For information or details for all entrance automation systems like gate, door, shutter contact for free inquiry.