Gauḍa (region)

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This article is about the territory in ancient and mediaeval Bengal. For the historical town with same name, see Gauḍa (city). For other uses, see Gauda.
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History of Bengal
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Ancient Bengal
 Vedic Period 
Ancient Bengali States
Gangaridai Kingdom, Varendra, Vanga Kingdom,
Pundravardhana, Suhma Kingdom,
Anga Kingdom, Harikela Kingdom, Samatata Kingdom

Mauryan Period
Classical Bengal
The Classical Age
Shashanka
Age of Empires
Pala Empire
Candra Dynasty
Sena Empire
Medieval Bengal
Arrival of Islam
Sultanate of Bengal
Deva Kingdom
Bakhtiyar Khilji, Raja Ganesha
Mughal Period
Pratap Aditya, Raja Sitaram Ray
Principality of Bengal
Baro-Bhuyans
Modern Bengal
Company Raj
Zamindari system, Bengal famine of 1770
British Indian Empire
Bengal Renaissance
Brahmo Samaj
Swami Vivekananda, Jagadish Chandra Bose,
Rabindranath Tagore, Subhas Chandra Bose

Post-Colonial
1947 Partition of Bengal, Bangladesh Liberation War
Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, Jyoti Basu

See Also
Bangladesh, West Bengal

Gauda (Bengali: গৌড়), was a territory located in Bengal in ancient and mediaeval times.[1][2]

Location and extent[edit]

The Arthashastra of Chanakya (around 350–-283 BC) refers to it along with Vanga, Pundra and Kamarupa. This geographical idea continues with some of the ancient texts.[2] Gauda and Vanga are sometimes used side by side.[1]

Shashanka, the first important king of ancient Bengal who is believed to have ruled between 590 AD to 625 AD, had his capital at Karnasubarna, 9.6 kilometres (6.0 mi) south-west of Baharampur, headquarters of Murshidabad district.[1] The Chinese monk, Xuanzang (Hiuen Tsang) travelled from the country of Karnasubarna to a region in Orissa ruled by Shashanka.[2] There is mention of Pundravardhana being part of Gauda in certain ancient records.[3]

Early 19th century lithograph of the Muslim ruins of Dakhil Darwaza at Gaur, West Bengal.

Evidence seems to be discrepant regarding links of Gauda with the Rarh region. While Krishna Mishra (eleventh or twelfth century AD), in his Prabodha-chandrodaya, mentions that Gauda rashtra includes Rarh (or Rarhpuri) and Bhurishreshthika, identified with Bhurshut, in Hooghly and Howrah districts, but the Managoli inscription of the Yadava king Jaitugi I distinguishes Lala (Rarh) from Gaula (Gauda).[1]

According to Jain writers of the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, Gauda included Lakshmanavati in present day Malda district.[1]

The Pala emperors were referred to as Vangapati (Lord of Vanga) and Gaudesvara (Lord of Gauda). Sena kings also called themselves Gaudesvara. From then Gauda and Vanga seem to be interchangeable names for whole of Bengal.[1]

In the early Muslim period the name Gauda came to be applied to Lakhanavati in Malda district.[1]

Gour, ruined city[edit]

Gaur/Gour (Bengali: গৌড়), as it is spelled mostly in modern times refers to Lakhnauti the ruined city, in Malda district of West Bengal, India, on the west bank of the Ganges river, 40 kilometers downstream from Rajmahal.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g Majumdar, Dr. R.C., History of Ancient Bengal, first published 1971, reprint 2005, pp. 5-6, Tulshi Prakashani, Kolkata, ISBN 81-89118-01-3.
  2. ^ a b c Ghosh, Suchandra. "Gauda". Banglapedia. Asiatic Society of Bangladesh. Retrieved 2009-08-22. 
  3. ^ Bandopadhyay, Rakhaldas, Bangalar Itihas, (Bengali), first published 1928, revised edition 1971, vol I, p 101, Nababharat Publishers, 72 Mahatma Gandhi Road, Kolkata.