Gauge principle

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In physics, a gauge principle specifies a procedure for obtaining an interaction term from a free Lagrangian which is symmetric with respect to a continuous symmetry—the results of localizing (or gauging) the global symmetry group must be accompanied by the inclusion of additional fields (such as the electromagnetic field), with appropriate kinetic and interaction terms in the action, in such a way that the extended Lagrangian is covariant with respect to a new extended group of local transformations.

Taken almost verbatim from Doughty's Lagrangian Interaction, pg. 449[1]

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