Gay Liberation Front
Gay Liberation Front (GLF) was the name of a number of Gay liberation groups, the first of which was formed in New York City in 1969, immediately after the Stonewall riots, in which police clashed with gay demonstrators.
GLF in the United States
The Gay Liberation Front
The Activist GLF advocated for sexual liberation for all people; they believed heterosexuality was a remnant of cultural inhibition and felt that change would not come about unless the current social institutions were dismantled and rebuilt without defined sexual roles. To do this, the GLF was intent on transforming the idea of the biological family and clan and making it more akin to a loose affiliation of members without biological subtexts. Prominent members of the GLF also opposed and addressed other social inequalities between the years of 1969 to 1972 such as militarism, racism, and sexism, but because of internal rivalries the GLF officially ended its operations in 1972.
History of the GLF: the Stonewall riots
The Stonewall riots are considered by many to be the catalyst in the organization of the GLF and other gay and lesbian movements. These riots are also considered to be the origin of the gay rights pacifism movement.
On 28 June 1969 in Greenwich Village, New York, the New York City police raided a gay bar, a routine practice at the time. The establishment, the Stonewall Inn, was a well known LGBT establishment located on Christopher Street in two former horse stables which had been renovated into one building in 1930 and was subject to countless raids since LGBT activities and fraternization were generally illegal. When the police arrived, the customers began pelting them with coins, and later, bottles and rocks. The crowd also freed staff members who had been put into police vans, and the outnumbered officers retreated inside the bar. Soon, the Tactical Patrol Force (TPF), originally trained to deal with war protests, were called in to control the mob, which was now using a parking meter as a battering ram. As the patrol force advanced, the crowd did not disperse, but instead doubled back and re-formed behind the riot police, throwing rocks, shouting “Gay Power!”, dancing, and taunting their opposition. For the next several nights, the crowd would return in ever increasing numbers, handing out leaflets and rallying themselves. In early July, due in large part to the riots in June, discussions in the gay community lead to the formation of the Gay Liberation Front. Soon the word “Stonewall” came to represent fighting for equality in the gay community.
One of the GLF's first acts was to organize a march in response to Stonewall and to demand an end to the persecution of homosexuals. The GLF had a broad political platform, denouncing racism and declaring support for various Third World struggles and the Black Panther Party. They took an anti-capitalist stance and attacked the nuclear family and traditional gender roles. Several GLF women, such as Martha Shelley, Lois Hart, and Michela Griffo went on to form the Lavender Menace.
In 1970, "The U.S. Mission", had a permit to use a campground in the Sequoia National Forest. Once it was learned that the group was sponsored by the Gay Liberation Front, the Sequoia National Forest supervisor cancelled the permit, and the campground was closed for the period.
GLF in the United Kingdom
In the United Kingdom the GLF had its first meeting in the basement of the London School of Economics on 13 October 1970. Bob Mellors and Aubrey Walter had seen the effect of the GLF in the United States and created a parallel movement based on revolutionary politics and alternative lifestyle.
By 1971, the UK GLF was recognized as a political movement in the national press, holding weekly meetings of 200 to 300 people. The GLF Manifesto was published, and a series of high-profile direct actions, were carried out, such as the disruption of the launch of the Church-based morality campaign, Festival of Light.
We do not intend to ask for anything. We intend to stand firm and assert our basic rights. If this involves violence, it will not be we who initiate this, but those who attempt to stand in our way to freedom.
— GLF Manifesto, 1971
The disruption of the opening of the 1971 Festival of Light was the best organised GLF action. The Festival of Light was organised by Mary Whitehouse at Methodist Central Hall, and included Cliff Richard and Malcolm Muggeridge. Groups of GLF members in drag invaded and spontaneously kissed each other; others released mice, sounded horns, and unveiled banners, and a contingent dressed as workmen obtained access to the basement and shut off the lights.
By 1974, internal disagreements had led to the movement's splintering. Organizations that spun off from the movement included the London Lesbian and Gay Switchboard, Gay News, and Icebreakers. The GLF Information Service continued for a few further years providing gay related resources. GLF branches had been set up in some provincial British towns (e.g., Bradford, Bristol, Leeds, and Leicester) and some survived for a few years longer. The Leicester group founded by Jeff Martin was noted for its involvement in the setting up of the local "Gayline", which is still active today and has received funding from the National Lottery. They also carried out a high profile campaign against the local paper, the Leicester Mercury, which refused to advertise Gayline's services at the time.
Several members of the GLF, including Peter Tatchell, continued campaigning beyond the 1970s under the banner of OutRage!, which still exists today, using similar tactics such as "zaps" and performance protest to attract a significant level of media interest and controversy. It was at this point that a divide emerged within the gay activist movement, mainly due to a difference in ideologies, after which a number of groups including Organization for Lesbian and Gay Action (OLGA), Stonewall (which focused on lobbying tactics), the Lesbian Avengers, and OutRage! co-existed.
- Gay Activists Alliance
- Gay Left, UK magazine 1975-80
- Hall-Carpenter archives
- List of LGBT rights organizations
- Socialism and LGBT rights
- "Gay Liberation Front: Manifesto. London". 1971, revised 1978.
- Lodi News Sentinel, Jun 26, 1970 retrieved from http://news.google.com/newspapers?id=GOgzAAAAIBAJ&sjid=1jIHAAAAIBAJ&pg=3517%2C7844376
- "Celebrating the 40th anniversary of the Gay Liberation Front". Lib-1.lse.ac.uk. 2010-10-07. Retrieved 2010-10-14.
- Lucas 1998, p. 2
- Victora Brittain (28 August 1971). "An Alternative to Sexual Shame: Impact of the new militancy among homosexual groups". The Times. p. 12.
- "Gay Liberation Front (GLF)". Database of Archives of Non-Government Organisations. January 4, 2009. Retrieved 2009-11-20.
- Gingell, Basil (10 September 1971). "Uproar at Central Hall as demonstrators threaten to halt Festival of Light". The Times. p. 14.
- "Gay Birmingham Remembered - The Gay Birmingham History Project". Birmingham LGBT Community Trust. Retrieved 3 October 2012. "Birmingham hosted the Gay Liberation Front annual conference in 1972, at the chaplaincy at Birmingham University Guild of Students."
- Lucas 1998, p. 3
- Gay News (1978) No. 135; Peace News (13 January 1978)
- Canfield, William J. "We Raise our Voices". Gay & Lesbian Pride & Politics.
- Diaman, N. A. (1995). "Gay Liberation Front". Archived from the original on 2007-06-11.
- Kissack, Terence (1995). Freaking Fag Revolutionaries: New York’s Gay Liberation Front. Radical History Review 62.
- Lucas, Ian (1998), OutRage!: an oral history, Cassell, ISBN 978-0-304-33358-5
- Power, Lisa (1995). No Bath But Plenty Of Bubbles: An Oral History Of The Gay Liberation Front 1970-7. Cassell. p. 340 pages. ISBN 0-304-33205-4.
- Walter, Aubrey (1980). Come together : the years of gay liberation (1970-73). Gay Men's Press. p. 218 pages. ISBN 0-907040-04-7.
- Wright, Lionel (July 1999). "The Stonewall Riots – 1969". Socialism Today #40.
- Gay Liberation Front - first newspaper, photos
- Resources on the Politics of Homosexuality in the UK from a socialist perspective
- Then and now