- For other uses, see Gayo.
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A Gayonese bridegroom in a traditional attire.
|Regions with significant populations|
|Bener Meriah Regency, Central Aceh Regency, Gayo Lues Regency|
|Related ethnic groups|
The Gayo people are an ethnic group living in highlands of Aceh Province, Indonesia, Sumatra. Gayo means nice. Gayo may also be a variant word of Goyim, originally means non Jewish or non Roma, a name given by outsiders in the coastal area for the interior people and later taken up as the tribe's own name. This is comparable with the case of Badui tribe in West Java, in which their name comes from Bedouine, originally a name given by urban Arabs for interior Arabs.
Most Gayo live in three regencies in Aceh: Central Aceh, Bener Meriah and Gayo Lues regencies. Some of them live in several subdistricts in other regencies, such as Serbejadi Subdistrict, Simpang Jernih Subdistrict in East Aceh Regency and Beutong Subdistrict in Nagan Raya Regency. Their homeland lies in the Barisan Mountains which has elevations of over 12,000 feet and extends more than one thousand miles. The Gayonese language has four dialects: Lut, Serbejadi-Lukup, Lut and Luwes. Their language does not have a writing system, but folk tales, stories and poetry are passed down in oral tradition. The traditional house of the Gayo is called Umah.
In the 11th century, the Linge Kingdom was established by the Gayo people during the reign of Sultan Makhdum Johan Berdaulat Mahmud Syah from the Perlak Sultanate, as it was told by two rulers who were ruling during the Dutch East Indies era; namely Raja Uyem and his son Raja Ranta, whom is Raja Cik Bebesen, and also Zainuddin from the rulers of Kejurun Bukit. Raja Linge I is said to have four children. The eldest was his daughter, Empu Beru or Datu Beru, and the remaining are Sebayak Lingga (Ali Syah), Meurah Johan (Johan Syah) and Meurah Lingga (Malamsyah). Sebayak Lingga wandered off to Karo land and founded a country there and he was known as Raja Lingga Sibayak. Meurah Johan ventured on to Aceh Besar and established his kingdom by the name of Lam Krak or Lam Oeii or also known as Lamuri or Lamuri Sultanate. This would mean that the Lamuri Sultanate was founded by Meurah Johan, while Meurah Lingga who was living in Linge, Gayo and the rest became kings of Linge for generations. Meurah Silu migrated to Pasai and became an officer to the Pasai Sultanate there. Meurah Mege himself was buried in Wih Ni Rayang at the slopes of Keramil Paluh in Linge, Central Aceh, which until today it can still be found and are considered sacred by the locals. The cause of migrating was unknown. However according to history, Raja Linge favoured his youngest son, Meurah Mege, causing the rest of his children to prefer to wander away.
- Adi Genali Raja Linge I in Gayo.
- Raja Linge II also known as Marah Lingga in Gayo.
- Raja Lingga III to XII in Gayo.
- Raja Lingga XIII became Amir al-Harb of Aceh Sultanate. In 1533, the new Johor Empire was founded in pre-independence Malaysia led by Sultan Alauddin Mansyur Syah. Raja Lingga XIII was appointed to be in the cabinet of the new government. His descendants established the Lingga Sultanate in Lingga Island of the Riau Islands, and his sovereignty extended to Riau Province (Indonesia), Temasek (Singapore) and parts of Malaya (Malaysia).
No documentation were recorded on the rulers of Sebayak Lingga Karo. During the era of Dutch East Indies, the monarchy was appointed again but for two eras only.
- Raja Sendi Sibayak Lingga, as chosen by the Dutch East Indies.
- Raja Kalilong Sibayak Lingga
After initial Dutch resistance, which many Gayonese and Dutch were killed, the Dutch occupied the area from 1904-1942. During this time, the Gayonese developed a thriving cash crop economy in vegetables and coffee. Since the Dutch colonization, the Gayonese have gained access to higher levels of education, and participated to some degree in the Islamization and modernization of their homeland.
The Gayonese practise a local form of Islam. It is worth mentioning that the first Sultan of Aceh Darussalam was a Gayonese: Sultan Johan Alam Syah bin Adi Genali. In ancient times, the Gayonese believed in good and bad spirits and in holy men, both dead and alive. They would regularly give ritual offerings and sacrifices to the spirits, to holy men, and to their ancestors.
Traditional dance and arts
- Didong Niet
- Tari Saman
- Tari Bines
- Tari Guel
- Tari Munalu
- Tari Sining
- Tari Turun ku Aih Aunen
- Tari Resam Berume
- Tuah Kukur
- Masam Jaeng
- Pulut Bekuah
- M. Junus Djamil (1959). Gadjah Putih. Lembaga Kebudayaan Atjeh.
- M.H. Gayo (1983). Perang Gayo-Alas Melawan Kolonial Belanda. Balai Pustaka.
- Bowen, J. R., Sumatran Politics and Poetics: Gayo History, 1900-1989, Yale University Press, 1991 ISBN 0300047088, ISBN 978-0300047080