Cizre

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Cizre
Noah's Mausoleum in Cizre
Noah's Mausoleum in Cizre
Cizre is located in Turkey
Cizre
Cizre
Coordinates: 37°19′30″N 42°11′45″E / 37.32500°N 42.19583°E / 37.32500; 42.19583Coordinates: 37°19′30″N 42°11′45″E / 37.32500°N 42.19583°E / 37.32500; 42.19583
Country Turkey
Province Şırnak
Government
 • Mayor Leyla İmret (BDP)
 • Kaymakam Mehmet Ali Sağlam
Area[1]
 • District 467.64 km2 (180.56 sq mi)
Population (2012)[2]
 • Urban 106,831
 • District 124,804
 • District density 270/km2 (690/sq mi)
Post code 73200
Website www.cizre.bel.tr
Districts of Şırnak

Cizre (pronounced [dʒizˈɾe]; Kurdish: Cizîr or Cizîra Botan, Arabic: جزيرة ابن عمرJazīrat Ibn ʿUmar, Classical Syriac: ܓܙܝܪܐ Gzirā or Gziro) is a town and district of Şırnak Province in the Southeastern Anatolia Region of Turkey, located at the border to Syria, just to the north-west of the Turkish-Syrian-Iraqi tripoint. It is populated by a majority of Kurds in addition to Assyrian/Syriac people and other minorities. Up until 1950 this town was populated as well by Jews. Most of the Jews had left following World War I, following the massacre of the Christians, both Syrian and Armenian, in south-eastern Turkey.[citation needed] It is surrounded by the Tigris from the North, East and South, which has given it its name, which means "island" in Arabic (جزيرة, jazīra).

History[edit]

Cizre is historical Gazarta and Jazīrat Ibn ʿUmar (Arabic: جزيرة ابن عمر‎), an important town during the Abbasid period and the Crusades as a gateway connecting Upper Mesopotamia to Armenia.

During the Early Iron Age, Cizre was in the kingdom of Kumme, north of Assyria. In classical antiquity, it was located in Corduene (Kardu). In 19th century scholarship, it was often named as the location of Alexander's crossing of the Tigris in 331 BC, further identified with the Roman stronghold of Bethzabde (Syriac: ܒܝܬ ܙܒܕܝ, Bēṯ Zaḇdai), although Stein (1942) is sceptical of this.

Bethzabde was part of the Roman province of Mesopotamia. The chronicler Msiha Zkha speaks of three bishops of Beth Zabdai in the 2nd and 3rd centuries: Merza, Soubha-liso e Sabtha.[3] In 360 Bishop Theodorus was deported by the Persians, along with the general population, and died as a result of the forced march. Another bishop, Maras, was one of the Fathers of the Council of Chalcedon in 451 and in 458 was one of the signatories of the letter of the bishops of Mesopotamia to Emperor Leo I the Thracian after the death of Proterius of Alexandria.[4][5]

In the late 4th or early 5th century Beth Zabdai or Jezira became a Nestorian bishopric, known as Beth Zabdai (later Gazarta d'Beth Zabdai). On entering into communion with Rome, it became the eparchy of Gazarta of the Chaldean Catholic Church. In 639 it became the seat also of the Syriac Orthodox Church and in 1863 the eparchy Gazarta of the Syriac Catholic Church. These Christians were severely reduced in the 1915 Seyfo massacres and the structures were allowed to lapse or were incorporated into other jurisdictions. Bethzabda is today listed by the Catholic Church as a titular see,[6] but has not been assigned to any bishop.

In medieval Islamic tradition, Cizre is the location of Thamanin, the town founded by Noah at the foot of Mount Judi where Noah's Ark came to rest, and a "tomb of Noah" as well as a "tomb of Mem and Zin" can be visited in Cizre. Al-Masudi (d. 956) reports that the spot where the ark landed could still be seen in his time. Benjamin of Tudela in the 12th century adds that ʿUmar ibn al-Khaṭṭāb had made the remnants of the ark into a mosque.

Cizre today[edit]

Cizre is located on the River Tigris, which forms the border line with Syria at this area. The state roads D.380 (via Midyat) and D.400 (European route E90) (via Nusaybin) that connect Mardin with Şırnak, as well as the route D.430 to Silopi run through the town.

The border checkpoint in Cizre, the gate to Malikiye in Syria, was in use between 1940-1972.[7]

Cizre, with +48.9 °C (119.5 °F) on July 30, 2000, holds the record for the highest temperature ever recorded in Turkey.

Government[edit]

The mayor of Cizre, Aydin Budak, was arrested in December 2009 as part of the KCK investigation. In October 2011 he was removed from office by the Ministry of the Interior before his trial had concluded. [8]

The current mayor of Cizre is Leyla Imret. As a 27 year-old woman, she is currently the youngest mayor in Turkey. [9]

Population[edit]

Template:Turkey districts' population / Sirnak / Cizre

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Area of regions (including lakes), km²". Regional Statistics Database. Turkish Statistical Institute. 2002. Retrieved 2013-03-05. 
  2. ^ "Population of province/district centers and towns/villages by districts - 2012". Address Based Population Registration System (ABPRS) Database. Turkish Statistical Institute. Retrieved 2013-02-27. 
  3. ^ G. Levenq, v. Béth Zabdai in Dictionnaire d'Histoire et de Géographie ecclésiastiques, vol. VIII, Paris 1935, coll. 1241-1244
  4. ^ Michel Lequien, Oriens christianus in quatuor Patriarchatus digestus, Paris 1740, Vol. II, coll. 1003-1004
  5. ^ Pius Bonifacius Gams, Series episcoporum Ecclesiae Catholicae, Leipzig 1931, p. 437
  6. ^ Annuario Pontificio 2013 (Libreria Editrice Vaticana 2013 ISBN 978-88-209-9070-1), p. 849
  7. ^ "Letter to the Minister of Foreign Affairs" (in Turkish). Cizre Ticaret ve Sanayi Odası. November 29, 2005. Retrieved March 15, 2009. 
  8. ^ "Ministry of Interior, the PKK's hidden structure of the city of KCK / TM to begin operations on September 21, was arrested in Sirnak". Haber Monitor. 2011-10-15. Retrieved 2011-10-23. 
  9. ^ "Leyla İmret, Cizre'de rekor oyla seçildi". Hurriyet. 2014-03-31. Retrieved 2014-03-31. 
  • J. Obermeyer, Die Landschaft Babylonien (1929)
  • A. Ben-Jacob, Kehillot Yehudei Kurdistan (1961), 22, 24–25, 30.
  • Encyclopaedia Judaica (2008)
  • Aurel Stein, Notes on Alexander's Crossing of the Tigris and the Battle of Arbela, 1942, The Royal Geographical Society.