|Languages||Ethiopian Semitic languages (e.g. Ge'ez, Amharic, Tigrinya, Tigre, Harari, etc.), Blin, Me'en, in low degree Oromo|
|5th–6th century BC to present (abjad until c. 330 AD)|
|Amharic alphabet, various other alphabets of Ethiopia and Eritrea|
|ISO 15924||Ethi, 430
Ge'ez (ግዕዝ Gəʿəz), is a script used as an abugida (syllable alphabet) for several languages of Ethiopia and Eritrea. It originated as an abjad (consonant-only alphabet) and was first used to write Ge'ez, now the liturgical language of the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church and the Eritrean Orthodox Tewahedo Church. In Amharic and Tigrinya, the script is often called fidäl (ፊደል), meaning "script" or "alphabet".
The Ge'ez script has been adapted to write other, mostly Semitic, languages, particularly Amharic in Ethiopia, and Tigrinya in both Eritrea and Ethiopia. It is also used for Sebatbeit, Me'en, and most other languages of Ethiopia. In Eritrea it is used for Tigre, and it has traditionally been used for Blin, a Cushitic language. Tigre, spoken in western and northern Eritrea, is considered to resemble Ge'ez more than do the other derivative languages. Some other languages in the Horn of Africa, such as Oromo, used to be written using Ge'ez, but have migrated to Latin-based orthographies.
For the representation of sounds, this article uses a system that is common (though not universal) among linguists who work on Ethiopian Semitic languages. This differs somewhat from the conventions of the International Phonetic Alphabet. See the articles on the individual languages for information on the pronunciation.
- 1 History and origins
- 2 Ge'ez alphabets
- 3 Other alphabets
- 4 List order
- 5 African diaspora usage
- 6 Numerals
- 7 Punctuation
- 8 Unicode
- 9 See also
- 10 Literature
- 11 References
- 12 External links
History and origins
The earliest inscriptions of Semitic languages in Eritrea and Ethiopia date to the 9th century BC in Epigraphic South Arabian (ESA), an Abjad shared with contemporary kingdoms in South Arabia. After the 7th and 6th centuries BC, however, variants of the script arose, evolving in the direction of the Ge'ez abugida (a writing system that is also called an alphasyllabary). This evolution can be seen most clearly in evidence from inscriptions (mainly graffiti on rocks and caves) in Tigray region in northern Ethiopia and the former province of Akkele Guzay in Eritrea. By the 1st centuries AD, what is called "Old Ethiopic" or the "Old Ge'ez alphabet" arose, an abjad written left-to-right (as opposed to boustrophedon like ESA) with letters basically identical to the first-order forms of the modern vocalized alphabet (e.g. "k" in the form of "kä"). There were also minor differences such as the letter "g" facing to the right, instead of to the left as in vocalized Ge'ez, and a shorter left leg of "l", as in ESA, instead of equally-long legs in vocalized Ge'ez (resembling the Greek letter lambda, somewhat). Vocalization of Ge'ez occurred in the 4th century, and though the first completely vocalized texts known are inscriptions by Ezana, vocalized letters predate him by some years, as an individual vocalized letter exists in a coin of his predecessor Wazeba. Linguist Roger Schneider has also pointed out (in an early 1990s unpublished paper) anomalies in the known inscriptions of Ezana that imply that he was consciously employing an archaic style during his reign, indicating that vocalization could have occurred much earlier.[better source needed] As a result, some[who?] believe that the vocalization may have been adopted to preserve the pronunciation of Ge'ez texts due to the already moribund or extinct status of Ge'ez, and that, by that time, the common language of the people were already later Ethio-Semitic languages. At least one of Wazeba's coins from the late 3rd or early 4th century contain a vocalized letter, some 30 or so years before Ezana. Kobishchanov, Daniels, and others have suggested possible influence from the Brahmic family of alphabets in vocalization, as they are also abugidas, and Aksum was an important part of major trade routes involving India and the Greco-Roman world throughout the common era of antiquity.
According to the beliefs of the Eritrean Orthodox Tewahedo Church and Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church, the original consonantal form of the Ge'ez fidel was divinely revealed to Henos "as an instrument for codifying the laws", and the present system of vocalisation is attributed to a team of Aksumite scholars led by Frumentius (Abba Selama), the same missionary said to have converted King Ezana to Christianity in the 4th century AD. It has been argued that the vowel marking pattern of the script reflects a South Asian system, such as would have been known by Frumentius. A separate tradition, recorded by Aleqa Taye, holds that the Ge'ez consonantal alphabet was first adapted by Zegdur, a legendary king of the Ag'azyan Sabaean dynasty held to have ruled in Ethiopia c. 1300 BC.
Ge'ez has 26 consonantal letters. Compared to the inventory of 29 consonants in the South Arabian alphabet, continuants of ġ, ẓ and the interdental fricatives (ḏ, ṯ) are missing, as well as South Arabian s3 (Ge'ez Sawt ሠ being derived from South Arabian s2 ). On the other hand, emphatic P̣ait ጰ, a Ge'ez innovation, is a modification of Ṣädai ጸ, while Pesa ፐ is based on Tawe ተ.
Thus, there are 24 correspondences of Ge'ez and the South Arabian alphabet:
|translit.||h||l||ḥ||m||ś (SA s2)||r||s (SA s1)||ḳ||b||t||ḫ||n|
There were two alphabets used to write the Ge'ez language, an abjad and later an abugida.
The abjad, used until c. 330 AD, had 26 consonantal letters:
- h, l, ḥ, m, ś, r, s, ḳ, b, t, ḫ, n, ʾ, k, w, ʿ, z, y, d, g, ṭ, p̣, ṣ, ṣ́, f, p
Vowels were not indicated.
Modern Ge'ez is written from left to right.
The Ge'ez abugida developed under the influence of Christian scripture by adding obligatory vocalic diacritics to the consonantal letters. Although there is a clear Greek influence, it has been suggested that the abugida system comes from missionaries from India. The diacritics for the vowels, u, i, a, e, ə, o, were fused with the consonants in a recognizable but slightly irregular way, so that the system is laid out as a syllabary. The original form of the consonant was used when the vowel was ä (/ə/), the so-called inherent vowel. The resulting forms are shown below in their traditional order. For some consonants, there is an eighth form for the diphthong -wa or -oa, and a ninth for -yä.
[ə] or [a]
[ə] or [a]
The letters for the labialized velar consonants are variants of the non-labialized velar consonants:
Unlike the other consonants, these labiovelar ones can only be combined with 5 different vowels:
The Ge'ez abugida has been adapted to several modern languages of Ethiopia. Frequently these required additional letters.
Some letters were modified to create additional consonants for use in languages other than Ge'ez. This is typically done by adding a line at the top of a similar-sounding consonant.
|Affricated variant||v [v]||č [t͡ʃ]||ǧ [d͡ʒ]||č̣ [t͡ʃʼ]|
|Affricated variant||ḳʰ [q]||x [x]|
|Labialized variant||ḳhw [qʷ]||xʷ [xʷ]|
|Palatalized variant||š [ʃ]||ñ [ɲ]||ž [ʒ]|
The vocalized forms are shown below. Like the other labiovelars, these labiovelars can only be combined with 5 vowels.
Letters used in modern alphabets
The Amharic alphabet uses all the basic consonants, plus the ones indicated below. Some of the Ge'ez labiovelar variants are also used.
Tigrinya has all the basic consonants, the Ge'ez labiovelar letter variants except for ḫʷ (ኈ), plus the ones indicated below. A few of the basic consonants are falling into disuse in Eritrea. See Tigrinya language#Writing system for details.
Tigre uses the basic consonants except for ś (ሠ), ḫ (ኀ) and ḍ (ፀ). It also uses the ones indicated below. It does not use the Ge'ez labiovelar letter variants.
Blin uses the basic consonants except for ś (ሠ), ḫ (ኀ) and ḍ (ፀ). It also uses the ones indicated below and the Ge'ez labiovelar letter variants.
For Ge'ez, Amharic, Tigrinya and Tigre, the usual sort order is called halehame (h–l–ħ–m). Where the labiovelar variants are used, these come immediately after the basic consonant, and are followed by other variants. In Tigrinya, for example, the letters based on ከ come in this order: ከ, ኰ, ኸ, ዀ. In Blin, the sorting order is slightly different.
The alphabetical order is similar to that found in other South Semitic scripts, as well as in the ancient Ugaritic alphabet, which attests both the southern Semitic h-l-ħ-m order and the northern Semitic '–b–g–d (abugida) order over three thousand years ago.
African diaspora usage
The Ge'ez script is used by Ethiopians who have emigrated to other countries around the world. Also, Ge'ez is a sacred script in the Rastafarian religion. Roots reggae musicians have used it in album art.
The films 500 Years Later (፭፻-ዓመታት በኋላ) and Motherland (እናት ሀገር) are two mainstream Western documentaries to use Ge'ez characters in the titles. The script also appears in the trailer and promotional material of the films.
|Numeral systems by culture|
|Positional systems by base|
|Non-standard positional numeral systems|
|List of numeral systems|
Ge'ez uses a system of ones and tens comparable to the Hebrew, Arabic abjad and Greek numerals, but unlike these systems, rather than giving numeric values to letters, it has digits derived from the Coptic letter-numbers:
It has been claimed by Georges Ifrah that Ethiopian numerals were borrowed from the Greek numerals in the 4th century AD, but this has been disputed by Ayele Bekerie of Cornell University, who claims that the Ethiopian system was developed independently.
Punctuation, much of it modern, includes
- ፠ section mark
- ፡ word separator
- ። full stop (period)
- ፣ comma
- ፤ semicolon
- ፥ colon
- ፦ preface colon[clarification needed]
- ፧ question mark
- ፨ paragraph separator
Ethiopic has been assigned Unicode 3.0 codepoints between U+1200 and U+137F (decimal 4608–4991), containing the consonantal letters for Ge'ez, Amharic, and Tigrinya, punctuation and numerals. Additionally, in Unicode 4.1, there is the supplement range from U+1380 to U+139F (decimal 4992–5023) containing letters for Sebatbeit and tonal marks, and the extended range between U+2D80 and U+2DDF (decimal 11648–11743) containing letters needed for writing Sebatbeit, Me'en and Blin. Finally in Unicode 6.0, there is the extended-A range from U+AB00 to U+AB2F (decimal 43776–43823) containing letters for Gamo-Gofa-Dawro, Basketo and Gumuz.
Unicode.org chart (PDF)
Unicode.org chart (PDF)
Unicode.org chart (PDF)
Unicode.org chart (PDF)
- Marcel Cohen, "La prononciation traditionnelle du Guèze (éthiopien classique)", in: Journal asiatique (1921) Sér. 11 / T. 18.
- Gabe F. Scelta, The Comparative Origin and Usage of the Ge’ez writing system of Ethiopia (2001)
- Rodolfo Fattovich, "Akkälä Guzay" in von Uhlig, Siegbert, ed. Encyclopaedia Aethiopica: A-C. Weissbaden: Otto Harrassowitz KG, 2003, p.169.
- Etienne Bernand, A.J. Drewes, and Roger Schneider, "Recueil des inscriptions de l'Ethiopie des périodes pré-axoumite et axoumite, tome I". Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres. Paris: Boccard, 1991.
- Grover Hudson, Aspects of the history of Ethiopic writing in "Bulletin of the Institute of Ethiopian Studies 25", pp. 1-12.
- Stuart Munro-Hay. Aksum: A Civilization of Late Antiquity. Edinburgh: University Press. 1991. ISBN 0-7486-0106-6
- "Ge'ez translations". Ethiopic Translation and Localization Services. Retrieved August 17, 2013.
- Stuart Munro-Hay, Aksum: An African Civilisation of Late Antiquity, p. 207.
- Yuri M. Kobishchanov. Axum (Joseph W. Michels, editor; Lorraine T. Kapitanoff, translator). University Park, Pennsylvania: Penn State University Press, 1979. ISBN 0-271-00531-9
- Peter T. Daniels, William Bright, "The World's Writing Systems", Oxford University Press. Oxford: 1996.
- Official website of the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahido Church
- Peter Unseth. Missiology and Orthography: The Unique Contribution of Christian Missionaries in Devising New Scripts. Missiology 36.3: 357-371.
- Aleqa Taye, History of the Ethiopian People, 1914
- Ifrah, Georges (2000). The Universal History of Numbers: From Prehistory to the Invention of the Computer. Wiley. p. 246. ISBN 978-0-471-39340-5.
- Teresi, Dick (2003). Lost Discoveries: The Ancient Roots of Modern Science--from the Babylonians to the Maya. Simon and Schuster. p. 30. ISBN 978-0-7432-4379-7.
- website with lessons on how to write the Ge’ez script
- Chart correlating IPA values for the Amharic alphabet
- Senamirmir Projects: Ethiopic Fonts
- Unicode specification
- Unicode assignments for Ethiopic characters
- A Look at Ethiopic Numerals
- Ethiopic Character Entry by Dr. Aberra Molla ዶ/ር ኣበራ ሞላ