Gedimu

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The minaret of the Great Mosque of Xi'an in the Chinese province of Shaanxi, one of the largest mosques in China.

Gedimu (simplified Chinese: 格迪目; traditional Chinese: 格迪目; pinyin: Gédímù) or Qadim (Arabic: قديم‎) is the earliest school of Islam in China. It is a Hanafi,[1] non-Sufi school of the Sunni tradition. Its supporters are centered around local mosques, which function as relatively independent units.[2]

It is numerically the largest Islamic school of thought in China [3] and with the Hui, Dongxiang, Salar, Bonan, the most common school tradition of Islam.[4]

Since the introduction of Islam, first during the Tang Dynasty in China, it continued to the Ming Dynasty with no splits.[5] At the end of the Ming and early Qing Dynasty Sufism was introduced to China. Especially people in Xinjiang, Gansu and Qinghai began to convert to the Sufi sects and the new directions were referred to as old teaching / New Faith / New Religion (Chinese xinpai or Xinjiao). Those who clung to the old beliefs were called members of the Gedimu or Laojiao (the old doctrine / of the old faith, the Old Religion).

In the religious ideas of this school the basic Islamic principles of Tawheed[6] are maintained.[4] In religious practice, this requires of the faithful a strict observance of the principle of Rukun, the five basic duties of Islam.[7]

In the long period of development formed a conservative tradition.[8] It is against unorthodox innovations and sticks to the old rules, without interference in the affairs of other denominations.[4]

Another important feature of the school is that it puts a focus on culture and education. Organised by the mosques, they send the children from their neighborhood to receive religious instruction. Usually Arabic and Persian writings are studied.[4]

Qadim has spread the longest history in China. In its development, the school has been influenced by Chinese culture and has many Han Chinese customs and traditions included in its rites. [5][clarification needed] The mosque architecture is different from that of other Muslim areas. Qadim was the result of the Sunni faith in a particular environment in the Chinese hinterland.

Jingtang Jiaoyu is a form of Islamic education, heavily influenced by Chinese culture, which the Gedimu Muslims pride themselves in learning. Jingtang Jiaoyu has been severely criticized for pronouncing Arabic incorrectly. Due to the liminations of Chinese characters, it propagates wrong pronunciation in Arabic. Many Hui who used it said Salaam Aleikun instead of Salaam Alaikum.

The Hanafi Sunni Gedimu cling fiercely to Chinese customs and the Jingtang Jiaoyu method of education, refusing to pronounce Arabic in the Arab manner even when learning of the standard pronunciation. Hanfi Sunni Sunnaiti's (Yihewani adherents) criticize the Gedimu for practicing Islamic customs influenced by Chinese culture, including Jingtang Jiaoyu, Sunnaiti's pride themselves on speaking correct Arabic, accusing the Gedimu Muslims of practicing Han and Buddhist customs and "Chinese Arabic". One Sunnaiti Imam said of the Gedimu, "blindly followed the traditions of their ancestors".[9]

Qadim along with the Ikhwan[10] and Xidaotang[11] on the three major school traditions of China [12]

Literature[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Chinese Hanaifei xuepai Chinese: {{{1}}} - one of the four major schools of Islam
  2. ^ Mikko Suutarinen, according to Lipman (1997)
  3. ^ Cihai, S.525, Article: 格迪目 (gédímù).
  4. ^ a b c d chinaculture.org: Qadim -- the Earliest Islamic Sect in China
  5. ^ Cihai, S.525
  6. ^ chin ren zhu duyi 认主独一
  7. ^ In the links of chinaculture.org referred to as "五大圣命" (Wu da sheng ming)
  8. ^ They celebrate as the Celebration of the birthday of the Prophet Mohammed (Chinese:Shengji).</
  9. ^ Maris Boyd Gillette (2000). Between Mecca and Beijing: modernization and consumption among urban Chinese Muslims. Stanford University Press. p. 106. ISBN 0-8047-3694-4. Retrieved 2010-11-28. 
  10. ^ Of Ma Wanfu (1853-1934) From Hezhou founded in Gansu province, vgl. chinaculture.org: Ikhwān Sect.
  11. ^ The so-called Chinese school of Ma Qixi (1857-1914) founded in Lintan in the province of Gansu, see, vgl. chinaculture.org: West Khanqa.
  12. ^ Zhongguo de sanda jiaopai 中国的三大教派 bzw. short: Sanda jiaopai 三大教派: Gedimu 格底目 (Qadīm), Yihewani 伊赫瓦尼 (Ikhwānī), Xidaotang 西道堂 (Chinese School).

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